The Ferrari 599 is an Italian sports car produced by Ferrari. It was the brands flagship, replacing the 575M Maranello in 2006 as a 2007 model. Styled by Pininfarina under the direction of Ferraris Frank Stephenson, the 599 GTB debuted at the Geneva Motor Show in February 2006 and it is named for its total engine displacement, Gran Turismo Berlinetta nature, and the Fiorano Circuit test track used by Ferrari. The Tipo F140 C6.0 L V12 engine produces a maximum 620 PS and its 608 N·m of torque was a record for Ferraris GT cars. Most of the modifications to the engine were done to allow it to fit in the Fioranos engine bay, a traditional 6-speed manual transmission as well as Ferraris 6-speed called F1 SuperFast is offered. The Fiorano sees the debut of Ferraris new traction control system, the vast majority of the 599 GTBs have been equipped with the semi-automatic gearbox as opposed to the manual 6-speed gearbox. Only 30 examples have been produced with a manual gearbox of which 20 were destined to the United States and 10 remained in Europe.
0-100 km/h in 3.7 seconds 0-200 km/h in 11.0 seconds Top speed, the ride height has been lowered, which lowers the cars center of gravity. The package includes optimised tyres featuring a compound that offers improved grip, the cars electronics have changed. The gearboxs shifts are faster in high-performance settings, while new engine software improved accelerator response, the exhaust silencer was modified to produce more marked and thrilling sound under hard usage while still delivering just the right comfort levels at cruising speed. The exterior and interior were upgraded with more carbon fiber components, on 8 April 2010, Ferrari announced official details of the 599 GTO. Its engine produces 670 PS at 8250 rpm, with 620 N·m of torque at 6500 rpm, Ferrari claims the 599 GTO can reach 100 km/h in under 3.3 seconds and has a top speed of over 335 km/h. At 1,605 kilograms, the 599 GTO weighs almost 100 kg less than the standard GTB, production is limited to 599 cars. Of these, approximately 125 were produced for the United States market, Ferrari has given only two other models that used the GTO designation, the 1962250 GTO and the 1984288 GTO.
Unlike the previous GTOs however, the 599 GTO was not designed for homologation in any racing series, the convertible version of the 599, the SA Aperta, was introduced 2010 Paris Motor Show as a unique limited edition in honor of designers Sergio Pininfarina and Andrea Pininfarina. The SA Aperta used the performance engine from the 599 GTO. The 599XX is a car designed for use only and is not street legal. The rev limiter is raised to 9000 rpm, with the engine rated for 730 PS at 9000 rpm, weight is reduced by reducing the weight of the engine unit components, the use of composite materials, and the use of carbon-fiber body parts and brake pads
A transmission is a machine in a power transmission system, which provides controlled application of the power. Often the term refers simply to the gearbox that uses gears and gear trains to provide speed. In British English, the term refers to the whole drivetrain, including clutch, prop shaft, differential. In American English, the term more specifically to the gearbox alone. The most common use is in vehicles, where the transmission adapts the output of the internal combustion engine to the drive wheels. Such engines need to operate at a high rotational speed, which is inappropriate for starting, stopping. The transmission reduces the engine speed to the slower wheel speed. Transmissions are used on bicycles, fixed machines. Often, a transmission has multiple gear ratios with the ability to switch between them as speed varies and this switching may be done manually or automatically. Directional control may be provided, single-ratio transmissions exist, which simply change the speed and torque of motor output.
The output of the transmission is transmitted via the driveshaft to one or more differentials, while a differential may provide gear reduction, its primary purpose is to permit the wheels at either end of an axle to rotate at different speeds as it changes the direction of rotation. Conventional gear/belt transmissions are not the mechanism for speed/torque adaptation. Alternative mechanisms include torque converters and power transformation, automatic transmissions use a valve body to shift gears using fluid pressures in conjunction with an ecm. Early transmissions included the right-angle drives and other gearing in windmills, horse-powered devices, and steam engines, in support of pumping, most modern gearboxes are used to increase torque while reducing the speed of a prime mover output shaft. This means that the shaft of a gearbox rotates at a slower rate than the input shaft. A gearbox can be set up to do the opposite and provide an increase in speed with a reduction of torque. Some of the simplest gearboxes merely change the rotational direction of power transmission.
Many typical automobile transmissions include the ability to select one of several gear ratios, in this case, most of the gear ratios are used to slow down the output speed of the engine and increase torque
The Ferrari F12berlinetta is a front mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive grand tourer produced by Italian sports car manufacturer Ferrari. The F12berlinetta, debuted at the 2012 Geneva Motor Show, replaces the 599 series grand tourers. The naturally aspirated 6.3 litre Ferrari V12 engine in the F12berlinetta has won the International Engine of the Year Awards 2013 in the Best Performance category, the F12berlinetta was named The Supercar of the Year 2012 by car magazine Top Gear. In 2014 it was awarded the XXIII Premio Compasso doro ADI, accepting the award was Ferrari’s Senior Vice President of Design, Flavio Manzoni. The F12berlinetta uses a 6,262 cc, naturally aspirated 65° V12 engine of the Ferrari F140 engine family. This allows the F12berlinetta to accelerate from 0 to 100 km/h in an officially reported 3.1 seconds,0 to 200 km/h in 8.5 seconds and a top speed of 211 mph. The engine of the F12berlinetta has been designed to be more efficient than that of the 599, the engine management system is fitted with Ferraris HELE start-stop system to reduce fuel consumption when idling.
Ferrari reports that the F12berlinetta can achieve 18 mpg‑imp – a 30% improvement over the 599 –, compared to similar models, the F12berlinetta uses shortened gear ratios to match the power of the engine. The F12berlinetta is built around a space frame chassis co-developed with Scaglietti. The chassis is made up of 12 different aluminium alloys and improves structural rigidity by 20% over the 599, the centre of gravity has been lowered by around 25 mm. The F12berlinettas weight distribution is 48% front, 52% rear, the cars stability and traction control and other settings are controlled by the Manettino dial mounted on the steering wheel. The F12berlinetta is fitted with Michelin Pilot Super Sport tyres, with the tyre codes 255/35 ZR20 at the front, the F12berlinetta makes use of aerodynamic techniques based on Ferraris 599XX and Formula One programmes, developed with wind tunnel and CFD testing. A notable feature is the Aero Bridge, an air channel running from the bonnet, through the flanks and along the sides of the vehicle, creating an effect that increases downforce.
Another feature is Active Brake Cooling ducts, which open to cooling air only when the brakes are hot. The F12berlinetta produces 123 kg of downforce at 200 km/h – an increase of 76% over the 599 GTB – and has a coefficient of 0.299. Ferrari F12berlinetta has a power to weight ratio of 2.06 kg per horsepower, the body of the F12berlinetta is designed by the Ferrari Styling Centre and Pininfarina, and shares some styling elements with other recent Ferrari models. This includes a front grille similar to the FF and headlights shared with the FF and 458 Italia, the interior, based on the FF, features new Frau leather upholstery with aluminium and carbon fibre trim, and has increased luggage space compared to the 599. The body computer system is developed by Magneti Marelli Automotive Lighting, Ferrari revealed a lightweight, track-focused version of the F12berlinetta in October 2015
A Ferrari Monza is one of a series of cars built by Ferrari. Inspired by the success of the light and reliable 2.5 L553 F1 car, one important stylistic difference between most four-cylinder Ferraris is that they lacked the hood scoops common on V12 models. The V12 cars used downdraft carburettors located centrally in the valley of the engine, while the inline-engined fours used side-draft units,1953 was a breakout year for Ferrari, beginning with the new World Sportscar Championship series. The company augmented their traditional V12-powered 250 MM with the new 340 MM and 375 MM, with this profusion of cars, Ferrari was able to sweep the first running of the sportscar championship. The first four-cylinder closed-wheel sports racer from Ferrari was the 625 TF of 1953, resembling the Vignale-designed 250 MM barchetta in most respects, the 625 TF used a 2.5 L straight-4 lifted from the 625 F1 car instead of the 250s 3.0 L V12. It was a car, with the same 2250 mm wheelbase as the 250. The engine produced 220 hp at 7000 rpm and could push the little roadster to over 240 km/h, the lightweight car debuted at the hands of Mike Hawthorn at Monza on June 29,1953.
Although it could not keep up on the long straights at that track, a single closed 625 TF coupe, one of the last Ferraris designed and built by Vignale, was created in the Spring of 1953. The same day that the 625 TF debuted, another car was fielded for Alberto Ascari, sporting an enlarged 2.9 L engine, Ascaris 735 S was more capable at Monza, leading the race until he collided with a 250 MM. The 735 S was a barchetta bodied by Carrozzeria Autodromo with recessed headlights, a drooping grille, the 1954 and 1955 seasons were the heyday of the four-cylinder Ferrari sports racer. The company hit its stride, earning the World Sportscar Championship in 1954, the Ferrari sports car lineup at the beginning of 1954 was made up of the 2.0 L500 Mondial and 3.0 L750 Monza. The team replaced the Mondial with the 500 TR that year, the planned V12 sports racer family, including the 250 Monza of 1954 and planned 410 S of 1955, were less notable. The early experiments with Lampredis four-cylinder engine led to the creation of the famed 500 Mondial.
Named to mark the world championships won by Alberto Ascari, the 500 Mondial featured a 2.0 L version of Lampredis four-cylinder engine in a small and light body with an advanced suspension. The car debuted on December 20,1953 at the 12 Hours of Casablanca driven by Ascari and Luigi Villoresi, the 500 Mondials 2.0 L engine was taken from the 500 F2 which won the world championship but was detuned to produce 170 hp. It was extremely light at 720 kg and handled well with a modern de Dion tube rear suspension, the first 500 Mondials were coupes bodied by Carrozzeria Scaglietti, but Pinin Farina created a series of barchettas. The Mondial remained competitive through the end of the decade, including an entry in the 1957 Mille Miglia, the car won the prestigious Gran Turismo Trophy at the 2012 Pebble Beach Concours dElegance, meaning it will eventually be re-created for use in Gran Turismo 6. 1954 saw the introduction of a new sports racer, the 750 Monza
The Ferrari California is a grand touring sports car produced by the Italian manufacturer Ferrari. It is a two-door 2+2 hard top convertible, the car revives the name used on the late-1950s Ferrari 250 GT Spyder California and the 1960s 365 California. It is noted in being the least expensive model in the Ferrari range, the California was launched at the 2008 Paris Motor Show. The California represents a new, fourth model range for the company, the engine displaces 4,297 cubic centimetres, and used gasoline direct injection. It delivers 338 kW at 7,750 rpm, its maximum torque produced is 485 N·m at 5,000 rpm, the body computer system was developed by Magneti Marelli Automotive Lighting. The original 2010 California had a top speed of 310 km/h, although that model was 180 kilograms heavier and 30 PS less powerful than the mid-engined F430, the California reached 97 km/h in the same time as the F430 due to the dual-clutch transmission. Ferrari spent over 1,000 hours in the tunnel with a one-third-scale model of the California perfecting its aerodynamics.
With the top up, the California has a coefficient of Cd=0.32. The California is built in a new production line adjacent to the factory at Maranello. The existing production line produces 27 cars per day, or 6,000 per year, throughout the Californias production, only 3 cars had been built with manual transmission, including one order from the UK. On 15 February 2012, Ferrari announced an upgrade of the 2009 model which is lighter, the car was released at the 2012 Geneva Motor Show as a 2012 model in Europe and as a 2013 model year for the US. To give the clients a more dynamic driving experience, an optional HS package was developed as part of the update in 2012 and it can be recognized by a silver coloured grille and ventilation blisters behind the front wheel wells. In May 2012, Ferrari recalled the California because the engine could freeze suddenly and possibly cause a crash, the F136 engines had crankshafts that were machined incorrectly. The auto maker learned of the problem when it happened during a review by car critics.
The Ferrari California T is an update of the earlier California featuring new sheetmetal, new interior, a revised chassis, first unveiled on the web on February 12,2014, subsequently the car debuted at the Geneva Motor Show. The T in the stands for Turbo, a technology Ferrari last used on a roadcar on the F40. The car utilizes a new 3, the car can accelerate from 0–100 km/h in 3.6 seconds and reach a top speed of 315 km/h. The car features a new front fascia that was influenced by the F12, a revised rear, another improvement to the car is the reduction of emission pollution by 15% compared to its naturally aspirated predecessor
Maranello is a town and comune in the region of Emilia-Romagna in Northern Italy,18 km from Modena, with a population of 17,165 as of 2013. It is best known as the home of Ferrari and the Scuderia Ferrari Formula One racing team, maranello was home to coachbuilding firm Carrozzeria Scaglietti, now owned by Ferrari. The public museum Museo Ferrari, which sports and racing cars. Its new library opened in November 2011, and was designed by Arata Isozaki, maranello is the starting point of the annual Italian Marathon, which finishes in nearby Carpi. Maranellos new town library was designed jointly by Andrea Maffei and Isozaki, the parish church of San Biagio was rebuilt in 1903
The Ferrari F355 is a sports car built by Ferrari from May 1994 to 1999. It is an evolution of the Ferrari 348 and was replaced by the Ferrari 360 and this new head design allowed for better intake permeability and resulted in an engine that was considerably more powerful, producing 380 PS. The longitudinal 90° V8 engine was bored 2mm over the 348s engine, engine internals are produced using lightweight materials, the connecting rods are forged in Ti6-Al-4V titanium alloy. The engines compression ratio is 11,1 and employs the Bosch Motronic M2.7 engine control unit in the 1995 model year, the Motronic system controls the electronic fuel injection and ignition systems, with a single spark plug per cylinder. Engine lubrication is via a dry-sump oiling system, the car allows selection between two damper settings and Sport. Ferrari fitted all road-going F355 models with Pirelli tires, size 225/40ZR18 in front, although the F355 was equipped with power-assisted steering, this could optionally be replaced with a manual steering rack setup by special order.
Aerodynamic designs for the car included over 1,300 hours of wind tunnel analysis, the car incorporates a Nolder profile on the upper portion of the tail, and a fairing on the underbody that generates downforce when the car is at speed. At launch, two models were available, the coupe Berlinetta priced at $130,000, and the targa topped GTS, the Spider version, priced at $137,000, was introduced in 1995. In 1997 the Formula One style paddle gear shift electrohydraulic manual transmission was introduced with the Ferrari 355 F1 adding £6,000 to the asking price. The F355 was the last in the series of mid-engined Ferraris with the Flying Buttress rear window, the nomenclature does not follow the formula from the previous decades, i. e. engine capacity followed by number of cylinders. For the F355, Ferrari used engine capacity followed by the number of valves per cylinder to bring the performance advances introduced by a 5 valve per cylinder configuration into the forefront, total production of 11,273 units made the F355 the most-produced Ferrari at the time.
This sales record would be surpassed by the next generation 360 and later, the Berlinetta was introduced in May,1994 as the first in a successful series of F355 models. Initially, the 6-speed manual was the only transmission available, however, in 1997, the Berlinetta was the first-ever road car to be equipped with the innovative F1-style gearbox management system. The new transmission guaranteed faster gear changes, with the advantage that both of the driver’s hands could stay on the wheel at all times. Ferrari produced 4,871 road-going Berlinetta models during the production run. The F355 Spider debuted in 1995, its Pininfarina-penned lines honed by 1,800 hours in the tunnel, resulting in a blend of elegant style. For the first time on a Ferrari, the semi-automatic soft-top was powered electronically, the Spider was offered with the 6-speed transmission. In 1997, the Spider was offered with the F1 transmission option, in 1995, Ferrari introduced the GTS model to the F355 family
The Ferrari F430 is a sports car that was produced by the Italian car manufacturer Ferrari from 2004 to 2009. A successor to the Ferrari 360, it debuted at the 2004 Paris Motor Show and its successor, the Ferrari 458, was unveiled on 28 July 2009. Designed by Pininfarina, under the guidance of Frank Stephenson, the styling of the F430 was revised from its predecessor. Although the drag coefficient remained the same, downforce was greatly enhanced, despite sharing the same basic Alcoa Aluminium chassis, roof line and glass, the car looked significantly different from the 360. A great deal of Ferrari heritage was included in the exterior design, at the rear, the Enzos tail lights and interior vents were added. The cars name was etched into the Testarossa-styled drivers side mirror, the large oval openings in the front bumper are reminiscent of Ferrari racing models from the 60s, specifically the 156 sharknose Formula One car and 250 TR61 Le Mans cars of Phil Hill. The F430 features a 4. 3L V8 petrol engine of the Ferrari-Maserati F136 family and this new power plant was a significant departure for Ferrari, as all previous Ferrari V8s were descendants of the Dino racing program of the 1950s.
This fifty-year development cycle came to an end with the entirely new 4. 3L, the engines output specifications are,490 PS, at 8500 rpm and 465 N·m of torque at 5250 rpm, 80% of which is available below 3500rpm. Despite a 20% increase in displacement, engine weight grew by only 4 kg and engine dimensions were decreased, the brakes on the F430 were designed in close cooperation with Brembo and Bosch, resulting in a new cast-iron alloy for the discs. The new alloy includes molybdenum which has better heat dissipation performance, the F430 was available with the optional Carbon fibre-reinforced Silicon Carbide ceramic composite brake package. Ferrari claims the carbon ceramic brakes will not fade even after 300-360 laps at their test track, the F430 featured the E-Diff, a computer-controlled limited slip active differential which can vary the distribution of torque based on inputs such as steering angle and lateral acceleration. Other notable features include the first application of Ferraris manettino steering wheel-mounted control knob, drivers can select from five different settings which modify the vehicles ESC system, Skyhook electronic suspension, transmission behavior, throttle response, and E-Diff.
The feature is similar to Land Rovers Terrain Response system, the Ferrari F430 was released with exclusive Goodyear Eagle F1 GSD3 EMT tires, which have a V-shaped tread design, run-flat capability, and OneTRED technology. In the US, the company requested an exemption from the design requirements. The F430 Spider is the convertible version based on the coupé, the F430 Spider is Ferraris 21st road going convertible. The Ferrari F430 Spider made its premiere at the Geneva motor show. The car was designed by Pininfarina with aerodynamic simulation programs used for Formula 1 cars. The roof panel automatically folds away inside a space above the engine bay, the conversion from a closed top to an open-air convertible is a two-stage folding-action
A convertible or cabriolet is an automobile body style that can convert between an open-air mode and an enclosed one, varying in degree and means by model. Convertibles evolved from the phaeton, an open vehicle without glass side windows that sometimes had removable panels of fabric or other material for protection from the elements. Historically, a retractable roof consisted of a frame covered with a folding. A lesser seen detachable hardtop provided a more weatherproof and secure alternative, as technology improved, a retractable hardtop which removes and stows its own rigid roof in its trunk appeared, increasingly becoming the most popular form. A semiconvertible known as a coach has a retractable or removable top which retains fully framed windows on its doors. A landaulet is a convertible with a fully enclosed front cabin. Other common terms include cabriolet, soft top, and drop top, and where the roof is more than emergency weather protection, open two-seater, rag top, spider. The erected top secures to the frame header with manual latches, semimanual latches.
The folded convertible top is called the stack, a tonneau cover provides a solution. A range of materials is available for soft tops, automakers had problems in securing raw materials to fulfill orders after World War II, including canvas in various shades for convertible tops and limiting their manufacture. Polyvinyl chloride material was used for many convertible tops, the material consists of two layers, a top layer made of PVC, which has a specific structure depending on the vehicle model, and a lower layer made of fabric. Side windows were not existent in open cars, which may have detachable side screens, rear windows have evolved similarly, with plastic rear windows appearing as late as the first-generation Porsche Boxster. Plastic windows can degrade, fade and crack over time, a windblocker or wind deflector minimizes noise and rushing air reaching the occupants. Mazda pioneered a version on the RX7 convertible which featured an integral rigid opaque panel that folded up from behind the front seats, current convertibles feature windblockers of various designs including detachable fold-up designs, vertically retractable glass, minimal flaps – or other integrated wind controlling systems.
According to the responsible for the 2008 Chrysler Sebring, its windblocker reduces wind noise by roughly 11 to 12 dB. Mercedes and Audi currently offer a heating duct to the area of the seat on SLK, SL. Windblockers are available on the aftermarket for use on convertibles that do not have them, the Volvo C70 retractable hardtop includes a door-mounted side-impact protection inflatable curtain which inflates upward from the interior belt-line – vs. downward like the typical curtain airbag. The curtain has an extra stiff construction with double rows of slats that are offset from each other
Front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout
In automotive design, an FR, or front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout is one where the engine is located at the front of the vehicle and driven wheels are located at the rear. This was the automobile layout for most of the 20th century. Modern designs commonly use the front-engine, front-wheel-drive layout, the first FR car was an 1895 Panhard model, so this layout was known as the Système Panhard in the early years. The layout has the advantage of minimizing mechanical complexity, as it allows the transmission to be placed in-line with the output shaft. In comparison, a vehicle with the engine over the driven wheels eliminates the need for the drive shaft, in order to reduce the relative weight of the drive shaft, the transmission was normally split into two parts, the gearbox and the final drive. The gearbox was produced with its highest gear being 1,1. The final drive, in the axle, would reduce this to the most appropriate speed for the wheels. As power is the product of torque and angular velocity, spinning the shaft faster for any given power reduces the torque, in an era when gasoline was cheap and cars were heavy, the mechanical advantages of the FR drivetrain layout made up for any disadvantage in weight terms.
It remained almost universal among car designs until the 1970s, after the Arab oil embargo of 1973 and the 1979 fuel crises, a majority of American FR vehicles were phased out for the FF layout – this trend would spawn the SUV-van conversion market. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, most American companies set as a priority the eventual removal of rear-wheel drive from their mainstream, chrysler went 100% FF by 1990 and GMs American production went entirely FF by 1997 except the Corvette and Camaro. This configuration is referred to as a transaxle since the transmission. In Europe, front-wheel drive was popularized by small cars like the Mini, Renault 5 and Volkswagen Golf, upscale marques like Mercedes-Benz, BMW, and Jaguar remained mostly independent of this trend, and retained a lineup mostly or entirely made up of FR cars. Japanese mainstream marques such as Toyota were almost exclusively FR until the late 1970s, toyotas first FF vehicle was the Toyota Tercel, with the Corolla and Celica becoming FF while the Camry was designed as an FF from the beginning.
The Supra, Cressida and Century remained FR, luxury division Lexus has a mostly FR lineup. Subarus BRZ is an FR car, currently most cars are FF, including all front-engined economy cars, though FR cars are making a return as an alternative to large sport-utility vehicles. In North America, GM returned to production of FR-based luxury vehicles with the 2003 Cadillac CTS, as of 2012, all but the SRX and XTS are FR-based vehicles. Chevrolet reintroduced the FR-based Camaro in 2009, and the Caprice PPV in 2011, Pontiac had a short run with the FR-based G8 and Pontiac Solstice. A Chevrolet replacement for the G8 called the Chevrolet SS was released in 2013, chrysler and Dodge reintroduced the 300 and Charger on a FR platform
The Ferrari 458 Italia is a mid-engined sports car produced by the Italian sports car manufacturer Ferrari. The 458 replaced the Ferrari F430, and was first officially unveiled at the 2009 Frankfurt Motor Show and it is replaced by the Ferrari 488, which was unveiled at the Geneva Motor Show 2015. The body computer system was developed by Magneti Marelli Automotive Lighting. The 458 is powered by a 4,499 cc V8 engine of the Ferrari/Maserati F136 engine family, the engine features direct fuel injection, which is a first for Ferrari mid-engine setups in its road cars. The only transmission available on the 458 is a dual-clutch 7-speed Getrag gearbox, there is no traditional manual option, making this the fourth road-car after the Enzo, Challenge Stradale and 430 Scuderia not to be offered with Ferraris classic gated manual. It is the first mainstream model to not be offered with a manual transmission, the brakes include a prefill function whereby the pistons in the calipers move the pads into contact with the discs on lift off to minimize delay in the brakes being applied.
This combined with the ABS and standard Carbon Ceramic brakes have caused a reduction in stopping distance from 100–0 km/h to 32.5 metres. Tests have shown the car will stop from 100 km/h in 90 feet or in 85 feet with run flat tires,85 feet from 60 mph and 80 feet from 60 mph with run flat tires, the adaptive magnetorheological dampers are co-developed with BWI Group. Ferraris official 0–100 km/h acceleration is 2. 9–3.0 seconds, the top speed is 340 km/h. It has fuel consumption in combined cycle of 13.3 L/100 km while producing 307 g/km of CO2, in keeping with Ferrari tradition the body was designed by Pininfarina under the leadership of Donato Coco, the Ferrari design director. The interior design of the Ferrari 458 Italia was designed by Bertrand Rapatel, the cars exterior styling and features were designed for aerodynamic efficiency, producing a downforce of 140 kg at 200 kilometres per hour. In particular, the front grille features deformable winglets that lower at high speeds, according to British car magazine Autocar, the 458 Italias design has drawn inspiration from the Enzo Ferrari and its Millechili concept car.
It has been designed to be Ferraris sportiest V8-engined car, to itself from the recently launched Ferrari California. The 458 was reviewed on the 15th season of Top Gear, in a drag race against James Mays Ferrari F430, it won by a considerable margin. The car lapped the Top Gear test track in 1,19.1, the 458 Italia is the two-seat berlinetta 458. It was the first variant to be unveiled to the public. It is a version of the 458 Italia for the Chinese market, commemorating the 20th anniversary of Ferrari in China since the first Ferrari. The vehicle was unveiled at the Italia Center of Shanghai World Expo Park, the 458 Spider was premiered at the 2011 Frankfurt Motor Show