The Ferrari 330 was a series of V12 powered automobiles produced by Ferrari in 2+2 GT Coupé, two-seat Berlinetta and race car versions between 1963 and 1968. Production ended in 1968 with the introduction of the Ferrari 365 series, all 330 models used an evolution of the 400 Superamericas 4.0 L Colombo V12 engine. It was substantially changed, with wider spacing and an alternator replacing a generator. The 1963330 America shared the outgoing 250 GTEs chassis but not its engine, being powered by the new 4.0 L Tipo 209 V12, as for the 250-series,330 refers to the approximate displacement of each single cylinder. Socialite Sandra West is buried with her blue 330 America at the Alamo Masonic Cemetery at San Antonio, about 50330 Americas were built before being replaced by the larger 330 GT 2+2. The provisional 330 America was replaced in January 1964 by the new 330 GT 2+2 and it was first shown at the Brussels Show, early that year. It was much more than a re-engined 250, with a nose and tail, quad headlights.
The wheelbase was 50 mm longer, but Koni adjustable shock absorbers improved handling, a dual-circuit Dunlop braking system was used with discs all around, though it separated brakes front to back rather than diagonally as on modern systems. When leaving the factory the 330 GT originally fitted Pirelli Cinturato 205VR15 tyres, the 1965 Series II version featured a five-speed gearbox instead of the overdrive four-speed of the prior year. Other changes included the switch back to a dual-light instead of quad-light front clip, alloy wheels,625 Series I and 455 Series II330 GT 2+2 cars had been built when the car was replaced by the 365 GT 2+2 in 1967. Production of the smaller 330 GTC and GTS models overlapped with the GT 2+2 for more than a year, the 330 GTC and 330 GTS were more like their 275 counterparts than the 330 GT 2+2. They shared the wheelbase of the 275 as well as its independent rear suspension. These models were more refined than earlier Ferraris and easier to drive and it has been stated that this was probably the first Ferrari in which you could actually enjoy a radio.
The GTC berlinetta was introduced at the Geneva Motor Show in March,1966 and it was a two-seater coupé with a Pininfarina-designed body. A1967 GTC was given one-off bodywork by Zagato at the behest of American importer Luigi Chinetti in 1974 and this car was called the Zagato Convertibile, since it was of a targa-style. The GTS spider followed at the Paris Motor Show, about 600 coupés and 100 spiders were produced before the 1968 introduction of the 365 GTC and GTS. Four 330 Le Mans Berlinettas were built in 1963, first presented in March 1963 alongside the mid-engined 250 P, they were essentially a development of the 250 GTOs and fitted with the 4-litre 330 engine, here rated at 390 hp at 7,500 rpm. Although the front is similar to the 250 GTOs, the main structure came from the 250 Lusso
The Ferrari 275 is a series of two-seat front-engined V12-powered automobiles produced in GT, and spyder form by Ferrari between 1964 and 1968. The first Ferrari to be equipped with a transaxle, the 275 is powered by a 3.3 L Colombo 60° V12 engine that produces 280-300 hp, Pininfarina designed the GT and roadster bodies, Scaglietti the rare NART Spyder, among the most valuable of all Ferraris made. In a contemporary road test, Road & Track described it as the most satisfying car in the world. Motor Trend Classic named the 275 GTB gran turismo/GTS roadster as number three in their list of the ten Greatest Ferraris of all time, the 275 GTB/4 debuted in 1966. A much updated 275 GTB, the four overhead camshaft, six 2-barrel carbuerated 275 GTB/4 was named number seven on Sports Car Internationals 2004 list of Top Sports Cars of the 1960s. The 275 GTB was a gran turismo automobile produced between 1964 and 1968 with a 3.3 litre Colombo 60-degree V-12 engine displacing 275 cc per cylinder. The standard 275 GTB coupe was produced by Scaglietti and was available with 3 or 6 Weber twin-choke carburettors and it was more of a pure sports car than the GT name suggested.
Some cars were built with a body instead of the standard steel body. A Series Two version with a longer nose appeared in 1965, for the 1965 racing season,4 lightweight 275 GTB Competizione Speciales, a prototype and three production models, were built and equipped with 250 LM engines. The design was by Pininfarina and the coachwork by Scaglietti, mauro Forghieri designed a special super-lightweight steel and aluminium version of the 275 GTB chassis. A regular suspension was fitted, but it was slightly stiffer by the addition of extra springs. In all, this focus on saving weight made a difference of over 150 kg compared to the alloy bodied road cars, like the four Competizione Speciales, the 275 GTB/C was powered by the 250 LM engine. Somehow Ferrari forgot to mention to the body that the 275 GTB had a six carburetor option. Specifically for the 275 GTB/C, Weber constructed the 40 DF13 carburetor of which three would replace the six 38 DCNs found on the 250 LM, the rest of the drivetrain was similar to the 275 GTB, but strengthened slightly.
Two of the twelve built were sold for street use, unlike the race cars, these street cars were fitted with alloy wheels shod with Pirelli tires. Competition cars were fitted with special Borrani wire wheels, shod with Dunlops latest racing tires and it was this combination that would prove to be the weak spot of the 275 GTB/C, the tires had so much grip that they could overstress and break the spokes on the wheels. After the 275 GTB/C, no competition Ferrari would be fitted with wire wheels again, a British-entered 275 GTB/C finished 8th overall, gaining class victory in the 196624 Hours of Le Mans. Pininfarina built 200275 GTS roadsters for the American market between 1964-1966 with entirely different bodywork, the 275 GTS was replaced by the 330 GTS, leaving no 3.3 L convertible in the range until the creation of the 275 GTB/4 NART Spider
An engine or motor is a machine designed to convert one form of energy into mechanical energy. Heat engines burn a fuel to heat, which is used to create a force. Electric motors convert electrical energy into motion, pneumatic motors use compressed air. In biological systems, molecular motors, like myosins in muscles, use energy to create forces. The word engine derives from Old French engin, from the Latin ingenium–the root of the word ingenious. Pre-industrial weapons of war, such as catapults and battering rams, were called siege engines, the word gin, as in cotton gin, is short for engine. Most mechanical devices invented during the revolution were described as engines—the steam engine being a notable example. However, the steam engines, such as those by Thomas Savery, were not mechanical engines. In this manner, an engine in its original form was merely a water pump. Devices converting heat energy into motion are commonly referred to simply as engines, examples of engines which exert a torque include the familiar automobile gasoline and diesel engines, as well as turboshafts.
Examples of engines which produce thrust include turbofans and rockets, the term motor derives from the Latin verb moto which means to set in motion, or maintain motion. Thus a motor is a device that imparts motion and engine came to be used largely interchangeably in casual discourse. However, the two words have different meanings, rocketry uses the term rocket motor, even though they consume fuel. A heat engine may serve as a prime mover—a component that transforms the flow or changes in pressure of a fluid into mechanical energy. An automobile powered by a combustion engine may make use of various motors and pumps. Another way of looking at it is that a motor receives power from an external source, simple machines, such as the club and oar, are prehistoric. More complex engines using human power, animal power, water power, wind power and these were used in cranes and aboard ships in Ancient Greece, as well as in mines, water pumps and siege engines in Ancient Rome. The writers of those times, including Vitruvius and Pliny the Elder, treat these engines as commonplace, by the 1st century AD, cattle and horses were used in mills, driving machines similar to those powered by humans in earlier times
Hassanal Bolkiah, GCB GCMG is the 29th and current Sultan and Yang Di-Pertuan of Brunei. He is the first and incumbent Prime Minister of Brunei, the eldest son of Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddien III and Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Damit, he succeeded to the throne as the Sultan of Brunei, following the abdication of his father on 4 October 1967. The Sultan has been ranked among the wealthiest individuals in the world, the Sultan was born on 15 July 1946 in Brunei Town as Pengiran Muda Hassanal Bolkiah. The Sultan received high school education at Victoria Institution in Kuala Lumpur, after which he attended the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst in the United Kingdom and he became the Sultan of Brunei Darussalam on 5 October 1967, after his father abdicated. His coronation was held on 1 August 1968, and made him the Yang di-Pertuan of Brunei, like his father, he has been knighted by Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom, of which Brunei was a protectorate until 1984. Under Bruneis 1959 constitution, the Sultan is the head of state with full executive authority, on 9 March 2006, the Sultan was reported to have amended Bruneis constitution to make himself infallible under Bruneian law.
Bolkiah, as Prime Minister, is the head of government, in addition, he holds the portfolios both of Minister of Defense and Minister of Finance. He appointed himself as Inspector General of Police of the Royal Brunei Police Force, Bolkiah addressed the United Nations General Assembly on Brunei Darussalams admission to the United Nations in September 1984. In 1991, he introduced a conservative ideology to Brunei called Melayu Islam Beraja and he has recently favoured Brunei government democratisation and declared himself Prime Minister and President. In 2004, the Legislative Council, which had been dissolved since 1962, was reopened and his designated successor is his eldest son, Prince Al-Muhtadee Billah. The Sultans official residence is the Istana Nurul Iman, with 1,788 rooms,257 bathrooms, parts of the Ministry of Defence and Ministry of Finance are located at the palace. The Crown Prince, who is the Senior Minister, works from offices at the Istana, hyatt Borneo Management Services and HM The Sultans flight maintain offices there.
The University of Brunei Darussalam and Sultan Sharif Ali Islamic University were established and vocational institutions were built, such as the Brunei Technological University, Sultan Saiful Rijal Technical College, and vocational schools. The religious Institute Tahfiz Al-Quran Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah was established, scholarships for study in the country and abroad were provided. The Royal Brunei Armed Forces were expanded with the establishment of three branches of the Royal Brunei Land Forces, Royal Brunei Navy and Royal Brunei Air Force. Medicines and medical treatment are free of charge to children and members of the Royal Brunei Armed Forces in hospitals and government clinics, there is one doctor per 949 patients. The life expectancy of the people and the population is 74.2 years for men and 77.3 years for women. Hassanal Bolkiah established the Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah Foundation, in January 2013, the Royal College of General Practitioners created the honour of ‘Companion of the College’ to mark its 60th anniversary
Ferrari N. V. is an Italian sports car manufacturer based in Maranello. Founded by Enzo Ferrari in 1939 as Auto Avio Costruzioni, the company built its first car in 1940, however the companys inception as an auto manufacturer is usually recognized in 1947, when the first Ferrari-badged car was completed. Ferrari is the worlds most powerful according to Brand Finance. In May 2012 the 1962 Ferrari 250 GTO became the most expensive car in history, Fiat S. p. A. acquired 50 percent of Ferrari in 1969 and expanded its stake to 90 percent in 1988. In October 2014 Fiat Chrysler Automobiles announced its intentions to separate Ferrari S. p. A. from FCA, through the remaining steps of the separation, FCAs interest in Ferraris business was distributed to shareholders of FCA, with 10 percent continuing to be owned by Piero Ferrari. The spin-off was completed on 3 January 2016, Ferrari road cars are generally seen as a symbol of speed and wealth. Enzo Ferrari was not initially interested in the idea of producing road cars when he formed Scuderia Ferrari in 1929, Scuderia Ferrari literally means Ferrari Stable and is usually used to mean Team Ferrari.
Ferrari bought and fielded Alfa Romeo racing cars for gentlemen drivers, in September 1939 Enzo Ferrari left Alfa Romeo under the provision that he would not use the Ferrari name in association with races or racing cars for at least four years. A few days he founded Auto Avio Costruzioni, headquartered in the facilities of the old Scuderia Ferrari, the new company ostensibly produced machine tools and aircraft accessories. In 1940 Ferrari did in fact produce a race car – the Tipo 815 and it was the first Ferrari car and debuted at the 1940 Mille Miglia, but due to World War II it saw little competition. In 1943 the Ferrari factory moved to Maranello, where it has remained ever since, the factory was bombed by the Allies and subsequently rebuilt including a works for road car production. The first Ferrari-badged car was the 1947125 S, powered by a 1.5 L V12 engine, Enzo Ferrari reluctantly built, the Scuderia Ferrari name was resurrected to denote the factory racing cars and distinguish them from those fielded by customer teams.
In 1960 the company was restructured as a corporation under the name SEFAC S. p. A. Early in 1969, Fiat took a 50 percent stake in Ferrari, new model investment further up in the Ferrari range received a boost. In 1988, Enzo Ferrari oversaw the launch of the Ferrari F40, the last new Ferrari to be launched before his death that year, in 1989 the company was renamed as Ferrari S. p. A. From 2002 to 2004, Ferrari produced the Enzo, their fastest model at the time and it was to be called the F60, continuing on from the F40 and F50, but Ferrari was so pleased with it, they called it the Enzo instead. It was initially offered to loyal and reoccurring customers, each of the 399 made had a tag of $650,000 apiece. On 15 September 2012,964 Ferrari cars (worth over $162 million attended the Ferrari Driving Days event at Silverstone Circuit, on 29 October 2014, the FCA group, resulting from the merger between manufacturers Fiat and Chrysler, announced the split of its luxury brand, Ferrari
Ferrari 212 Inter
The Ferrari 212 Inter replaced Ferraris successful 166 and 195 Inter grand tourers in 1951. Unveiled at the Brussels Motor Show that year, the 212 was an evolution of the 166 — a sports car for the road that could win international races, the chassis was similar to the 125 with a suspension featuring double wishbones in front and live axle in back. Coachbuilders included Carrozzeria Touring, Ghia-Aigle, Stabilimenti Farina, the latter was an important move for the company, as Farina was already well-known and adding his styling skills would be a tremendous boost for Maranello. However, Pinin Farina was as prideful as Enzo Ferrari, a mutual meeting halfway between Maranello and Turin was the negotiated solution. First Ferrari to be bodied by Pinin Farina was 212 Inter Cabriolet, the Inters 2,600 mm wheelbase was 4 longer than the 2,500 mm Exports. The cars shared a larger, bored-out 2.6 L version of Ferraris Colombo V12 engine, output was 150 hp for the single Weber 36DCF carburetor Inter,165 hp for the triple Weber Export.
Improved cylinder heads raised power 5 hp in 1952, the British magazine Autocar got hold of what they described as the first production model Ferrari 212 in 1950, which outperformed any car that they had previously tested. It recorded a top speed of over 116 mph and acceleration times of 0 to 60 mph of 10.5 seconds and 100 mph in 22, the test appears to have been the Autocar teams first encounter with a five speed gear box. A single 212 Inter, chassis no, 0223EL2, was fitted with the available 225 or 2.7 L Colombo V12, creating a unique model that would be properly referred to as a 225 Inter. This one-off model was given a Giovanni Michelotti penned berlinetta body by Vignale
The Ferrari F50 is a mid-engined range-topping sports car made by Ferrari. The F50 was introduced in 1995, the car is a two-door, two seat roadster with a removable hardtop. It has a 4.7 L naturally aspirated 60-valve V12 engine that was developed from the 3.5 L V12 used in the 1990 Ferrari 641 Formula One car, the last F50 was produced in Maranello, Italy, in July 1997. The F50s engine predated the car, it was used in the Ferrari 333 SP for the American IMSA series in 1994, following the motorsport theme, Ferrari developed the F50 GT, a prototype based on the F50 that was built to compete in GT2-class racing. The car had a roof, large rear spoiler, new front spoiler. The 4.7 litre V12 engine was tuned to generate around 720 bhp, in testing in 1996 the car proved to be quicker even than the 333SP, but this went unnoticed as Ferrari cancelled the F50 GT project, instead focusing on Formula One. Ferrari sold off the three complete chassis that were built–the test car 001,002 and 003, chassis 002 and 003 had bodies fitted before being sold.
The remaining three tubs were reportedly destroyed, a custom-made F50 variant named the Bolide was commissioned by the Sultan of Brunei in 1998 and delivered in the same year. It used the F1 derived V12 engine and the same chassis, One car was produced in the coupe configuration. Very few images and no official statistics of this car are available. At least two cars were produced in RHD, One was for the sultan, and was subsequently bought by a collector in Ireland. Another one is now in Hong Kong, power,520 PS @8000 rpm Max. Torque,347 lb·ft @6500 rpm Power/Disp,109.1 bhp/litre Weight/Power ratio,5.8 lb/bhp Bore x Stroke,3.35 in. It completed the track in 7,47,3 seconds faster than the Dodge Challenger SRT Hellcat but 28 seconds slower than the Mercedes-AMG GT R. Buckley, Rees, Chris
Pininfarina S. p. A. is an Italian car design firm and coachbuilder in Cambiano, Italy. It was founded by Battista Pinin Farina in 1930. On December 14,2015, Mahindra Group, Pininfarina is employed by a wide variety of automobile manufactures to design vehicles. Since the 1980s Pininfarina has designed high-speed trains, trams, rolling stocks, automated light rail cars, people movers, airplanes, with the 1986 creation of Pininfarina Extra they have consulted on industrial design, interior design and graphic design. Pininfarina was run by Battistas son Sergio Pininfarina until 2001, his grandson Andrea Pininfarina until his death in 2008, after Andreas death his younger brother Paolo Pininfarina was appointed as CEO. At its height in 2006 the Pininfarina Group employed 2,768 with subsidiary company offices throughout Europe, as well as in Morocco, as of 2012 with the end of series automotive production, employment has shrunk to 821. Pininfarina is registered and publicly traded on the Borsa Italiana, on December 14,2015, Mahindra Group, announced a deal to acquire Pininfarina S. p. A. in a deal worth about 168 million euros.
That first year the firm employed eighteen and built 50 automobile bodies, on May 22,1930 papers were filed to become a corporation, Società anonima Carrozzeria Pinin Farina headquartered in Turin, Italy, at 107 Corso Trapani. During the 1930s, the company built bodies for Lancia, Alfa Romeo, Isotta-Fraschini, Hispano Suiza, Fiat and this development happened in the mid-1930s when others saw the frameless construction as the end of the independent coachbilder. In 1939, World War II ended automobile production, but the company had 400 employees building 150 bodies a month, the war effort against the Allies brought work making ambulances and searchlight carriages. The Pininfarina factory was destroyed by Allied bombers ending the firms operations, after the war, Italy was banned from the 1946 Paris Motor Show. The Paris show was attended by 809,000 visitors, lines of people stretched from the gate all the way to the Seine. The managers of the Grand Palais said of the display, the devil Pininfarina, but to the press, at the end of 1945 the Cisitalia 202 Coupé was designed.
An elegantly proportioned design with a low hood, it is the car that usually is given credit for establishing Pininfarinas reputation, the Pininfarina design was honored in the Museum of Modern Arts landmark presentation Eight Automobiles in 1951. A total of 170 Coupés where produced by Pininfarina, the publicity of the Museum of Modern Art exhibit brought Pininfarina to the attention of Nash-Kelvinator managers. The subsequent cooperation with Nash Motors resulted in production of Pininfarina designs. In 1952, Mr. Farina visited the U. S, the Nash-Healey sports car body was, completely designed and assembled in limited numbers from 1952 to 1954 at Pininfarinas Turin facilities. Nash heavily advertised its link to the famous Italian designer, much as Studebaker promoted its longtime association with Raymond Loewy, there were 99 Broughams built in 1959 and 101 in 1960. A similar arrangement was repeated in the late 1980s when Pininfarina designed the Cadillac Allanté at the San Giusto Canavese factory, the car bodies were assembled and painted in Italy before being flown from the Turin International Airport to Detroit for final vehicle assembly
The Ferrari F40 is a mid-engine, rear-wheel drive, two-door coupé sports car built from 1987 to 1992, with the LM and GTE race car versions continuing production until 1994 and 1996 respectively. The successor to the Ferrari 288 GTO, it was designed to celebrate Ferraris 40th anniversary and was the last Ferrari automobile personally approved by Enzo Ferrari, at the time it was Ferraris fastest, most powerful, and most expensive car for sale. 1,311 F40s were manufactured in total, as early as 1984, the Maranello factory had begun development of an evolution model of the 288 GTO intended to compete against the Porsche 959 in FIA Group B. However, when the FIA brought an end to the Group B category for the 1986 season, Enzo Ferrari was left with five 288 GTO Evoluzione development cars, and no series in which to campaign them. Enzos desire to leave a legacy in his final supercar allowed the Evoluzione program to be developed to produce a car exclusively for road use. The F40 is for the most enthusiastic of our owners who want nothing and it isnt a laboratory for the future, as the 959 is.
And it wasnt created because Porsche built the 959, power came from an enlarged,2. 9L version of the GTOs IHI twin turbocharged V8 developing 478 bhp. The F40 did without a catalytic converter until 1990 when US regulations made them a requirement for emissions control reasons, the flanking exhaust pipes guide exhaust gases from each bank of cylinders while the central pipe guides gases released from the wastegate of the turbochargers. Engines with catalytic converters bear F120D code, the body was an entirely new design by Pininfarina featuring panels made of Kevlar, carbon fiber, and aluminum for strength and low weight, and intense aerodynamic testing was employed. Weight was further minimized through the use of a plastic windshield, the cars did have air conditioning, but had no sound system, door handles, glove box, leather trim, carpets, or door panels. The first 50 cars produced had sliding Lexan windows, while cars were fitted with wind down windows. The F40 was designed with aerodynamics in mind, for speed the car relied more on its shape than its power.
Frontal area was reduced, and airflow greatly smoothed, but stability rather than terminal velocity was a primary concern, so too was cooling as the forced induction engine generated a great deal of heat. In consequence, the car was somewhat like a racing car with a body. It had a partial undertray to smooth airflow beneath the radiator, front section, and the cabin, and a one with diffusers behind the motor. Nonetheless, the F40 had a low drag coefficient of 0.34 with lift controlled by its spoilers. Although the F40 would not return to IMSA for the following season, in 1994, the car made its debut in international competitions, with one car campaigned in the BPR Global GT Series by Strandell, winning at the 4 Hours of Vallelunga. In 1995, the number of F40s climbed to four, developed independently by Pilot-Aldix Racing and Strandell,10 examples were built, the first two being called F40 LMs, and the remaining 8 being F40 Competizione, as Ferrari felt that the LM tag was too restrictive
Automotive design is the profession involved in the development of the appearance, and to some extent the ergonomics, of motor vehicles or more specifically road vehicles. This most commonly refers to automobiles but refers to motorcycles, buses, the functional design and development of a modern motor vehicle is typically done by a large team from many different disciplines included within automotive engineering. Automotive design in context is primarily concerned with developing the visual appearance or aesthetics of the vehicle. Automotive design is practiced by designers who usually have an art background, the task of the design team is usually split into three main aspects, exterior design, interior design, and color and trim design. Graphic design is an aspect of design, this is generally shared amongst the design team as the lead designer sees fit. Design focuses not only on the outer shape of automobile parts. The aesthetic value will need to correspond to ergonomic functionality and utility features as well, though not all the new vehicular gadgets are to be designated as factory standard items, some of them may be integral to determining the future course of any specific vehicular models.
The stylist responsible for the design of the exterior of the vehicle develops the proportions, Exterior design is first done by a series of digital or manual drawings. Progressively, drawings that are more detailed are executed and approved by appropriate layers of management, Clay and or digital models are developed from, and along with the drawings. The data from these models are used to create a full sized mock-up of the final design. With three- and five-axis CNC milling machines, the model is first designed in a computer program and carved using the machine. Even in times of high-class 3d software and virtual models on power walls, here the emphasis is on ergonomics and the comfort of the passengers. The procedure here is the same as with exterior design, the color and trim designer is responsible for the research and development of all interior and exterior colors and materials used on a vehicle. These include paints, fabric designs, grains, headliner, wood trim, contrast and pattern must be carefully combined to give the vehicle a unique interior environment experience.
Designers work closely with the exterior and interior designers, designers draw inspiration from other design disciplines such as, industrial design, home furnishing and sometimes product design. Specific research is done into global trends to design for two to three model years in the future. Trend boards are created from research in order to keep track of design influences as they relate to the automotive industry. The designer uses this information to develop themes and concepts that are further refined and tested on the vehicle models
Governments and private organizations have developed car classification schemes that are used for innumerable purposes including regulation and categorization, among others. This article details commonly used classification schemes in use worldwide, vehicles can be categorized in numerous ways. Regulatory agencies may establish a vehicle classification system for determining a tax amount, in the United Kingdom, a vehicle is taxed according to the vehicles construction, weight, type of fuel and emissions, as well as the purpose for which it is used. Other jurisdictions may determine vehicle tax based upon environmental principles, such as the user pays principle, another standard for road vehicles of all types that is used internationally, is ISO 3833-1977. In the United States, since 2010 the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety uses a scheme it has developed that takes into account a combination of both shadow and weight. The United States Federal Highway Administration has developed a scheme used for automatically calculating road use tolls.
There are two categories depending on whether the vehicle carries passengers or commodities. Vehicles that carry commodities are further subdivided by number of axles and number of units, the United States Environmental Protection Agency has developed a classification scheme used to compare fuel economy among similar vehicles. Passenger vehicles are classified based on a total interior passenger. Trucks are classified based upon their gross vehicle weight rating, heavy duty vehicles are not included within the EPA scheme. A similar set of classes is used by the Canadian EPA, in Australia, the Federal Chamber of Automotive Industries publishes its own classifications. This is a table listing several different methods of vehicle classification. Straddling the boundary between car and motorbike, these vehicles have engines under 1.0 litre, typically only two passengers, and are sometimes unorthodox in construction. Some microcars are three-wheelers, while the majority have four wheels, microcars were popular in post-war Europe, where their appearance led them to be called Bubble cars.
More recent microcars are often electric powered, the size of ultracompact cars will be less than minicars, but have engine greater than 50cc displacement and able to transport 1 or 2 persons. Ultracompact cars cannot use standard, because of strict safety standards for minicars. The regulation about running capacity and safety performance of cars will be published in early autumn. Today, there are smaller than ultracompact cars, called category-1 motorized vehicles which it has 50cc displacement or less