Enzo Ferrari (automobile)
The Enzo Ferrari is a 12 cylinder mid-engine berlinetta sports car named after the companys founder, Enzo Ferrari. Also used are not allowed in F1 such as active aerodynamics. After a downforce of 7600 N is reached at 300 km/h the rear wing is actuated by computer to maintain that downforce, the Enzos F140 B V12 engine was the first of a new generation for Ferrari. It is based on the design of the V8 found in Maseratis Quattroporte and this design will replace the former architectures seen in V12 and V8 engines used in most other contemporary Ferraris. The 2005 F430 is the second Ferrari to get a version of this new powerplant. The Enzo was designed by Ken Okuyama, the Japanese former Pininfarina head designer, the company sent invitations to existing customers, those who had previously bought the F40 and F50. All 349 cars were sold in this way before production began, after numerous requests, Ferrari decided to build 50 more Enzos, bringing the total to 399. Before being unveiled at the Paris Motor show, the Enzo was flown from Italy to the U. S.
to be filmed in Charlies Angels and it was driven on a beach by actress Demi Moore. After filming was complete, the Enzo was flown to France to be in the Motor Show, Enzos are listed as being built in 2003. In 2004, a 400th Enzo was built and donated to the Vatican for charity, three development mules were built, M1, M2, and M3. Each was bodied to look like a 348, a model which had succeeded by two generations of mid-engined V8 sports cars—the F355 and the 360 Modena—by the time the mules were built. The third mule was offered for auction alongside the 400th Enzo in June 2005, the Enzo is a rear mid-engined vehicle with a 43. 9/56.1 front/rear weight distribution. The engine is Ferraris F140B 65° V12 with 4 valves per cylinder, dual overhead cams, bosch Motronic ME7 fuel injection is used and the engine is naturally aspirated. It displaces 5998 cc and produces 660 PS at 7800 rpm and 657 N·m at 5500 rpm, the Enzo has a semi-automatic transmission using paddles to control an automated shifting and clutch mechanism, with LED lights on the steering wheel telling the driver when to change gears.
The gearbox has a time of just 150 milliseconds. The transmission was a first generation design from the late 1990s. The Enzo has 4 wheel independent suspension with push-rod actuated shock absorbers which can be adjusted from the cabin, complemented with anti-roll bars at the front, the Enzo uses 19-inch wheels and has 15-inch Brembo disc brakes. The wheels are held by a lug nut and fitted with Bridgestone Potenza Scuderia RE050A tires
Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria, San Marino, Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate and Mediterranean climate. Due to its shape, it is referred to in Italy as lo Stivale. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state, the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated other nearby civilisations. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, exploration, Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo and Machiavelli. The weakened sovereigns soon fell victim to conquest by European powers such as France and Austria.
Despite being one of the victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in defeat, economic destruction. Today, Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and it has a very high level of human development and is ranked sixth in the world for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs, as a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth most visited country. The assumptions on the etymology of the name Italia are very numerous, according to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning land of young cattle. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned by Aristotle and Thucydides.
The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy – according to Antiochus of Syracuse, but by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name Italia to a larger region, excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other ancient Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily, the Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern world
Governments and private organizations have developed car classification schemes that are used for innumerable purposes including regulation and categorization, among others. This article details commonly used classification schemes in use worldwide, vehicles can be categorized in numerous ways. Regulatory agencies may establish a vehicle classification system for determining a tax amount, in the United Kingdom, a vehicle is taxed according to the vehicles construction, weight, type of fuel and emissions, as well as the purpose for which it is used. Other jurisdictions may determine vehicle tax based upon environmental principles, such as the user pays principle, another standard for road vehicles of all types that is used internationally, is ISO 3833-1977. In the United States, since 2010 the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety uses a scheme it has developed that takes into account a combination of both shadow and weight. The United States Federal Highway Administration has developed a scheme used for automatically calculating road use tolls.
There are two categories depending on whether the vehicle carries passengers or commodities. Vehicles that carry commodities are further subdivided by number of axles and number of units, the United States Environmental Protection Agency has developed a classification scheme used to compare fuel economy among similar vehicles. Passenger vehicles are classified based on a total interior passenger. Trucks are classified based upon their gross vehicle weight rating, heavy duty vehicles are not included within the EPA scheme. A similar set of classes is used by the Canadian EPA, in Australia, the Federal Chamber of Automotive Industries publishes its own classifications. This is a table listing several different methods of vehicle classification. Straddling the boundary between car and motorbike, these vehicles have engines under 1.0 litre, typically only two passengers, and are sometimes unorthodox in construction. Some microcars are three-wheelers, while the majority have four wheels, microcars were popular in post-war Europe, where their appearance led them to be called Bubble cars.
More recent microcars are often electric powered, the size of ultracompact cars will be less than minicars, but have engine greater than 50cc displacement and able to transport 1 or 2 persons. Ultracompact cars cannot use standard, because of strict safety standards for minicars. The regulation about running capacity and safety performance of cars will be published in early autumn. Today, there are smaller than ultracompact cars, called category-1 motorized vehicles which it has 50cc displacement or less
The Ferrari F430 is a sports car that was produced by the Italian car manufacturer Ferrari from 2004 to 2009. A successor to the Ferrari 360, it debuted at the 2004 Paris Motor Show and its successor, the Ferrari 458, was unveiled on 28 July 2009. Designed by Pininfarina, under the guidance of Frank Stephenson, the styling of the F430 was revised from its predecessor. Although the drag coefficient remained the same, downforce was greatly enhanced, despite sharing the same basic Alcoa Aluminium chassis, roof line and glass, the car looked significantly different from the 360. A great deal of Ferrari heritage was included in the exterior design, at the rear, the Enzos tail lights and interior vents were added. The cars name was etched into the Testarossa-styled drivers side mirror, the large oval openings in the front bumper are reminiscent of Ferrari racing models from the 60s, specifically the 156 sharknose Formula One car and 250 TR61 Le Mans cars of Phil Hill. The F430 features a 4. 3L V8 petrol engine of the Ferrari-Maserati F136 family and this new power plant was a significant departure for Ferrari, as all previous Ferrari V8s were descendants of the Dino racing program of the 1950s.
This fifty-year development cycle came to an end with the entirely new 4. 3L, the engines output specifications are,490 PS, at 8500 rpm and 465 N·m of torque at 5250 rpm, 80% of which is available below 3500rpm. Despite a 20% increase in displacement, engine weight grew by only 4 kg and engine dimensions were decreased, the brakes on the F430 were designed in close cooperation with Brembo and Bosch, resulting in a new cast-iron alloy for the discs. The new alloy includes molybdenum which has better heat dissipation performance, the F430 was available with the optional Carbon fibre-reinforced Silicon Carbide ceramic composite brake package. Ferrari claims the carbon ceramic brakes will not fade even after 300-360 laps at their test track, the F430 featured the E-Diff, a computer-controlled limited slip active differential which can vary the distribution of torque based on inputs such as steering angle and lateral acceleration. Other notable features include the first application of Ferraris manettino steering wheel-mounted control knob, drivers can select from five different settings which modify the vehicles ESC system, Skyhook electronic suspension, transmission behavior, throttle response, and E-Diff.
The feature is similar to Land Rovers Terrain Response system, the Ferrari F430 was released with exclusive Goodyear Eagle F1 GSD3 EMT tires, which have a V-shaped tread design, run-flat capability, and OneTRED technology. In the US, the company requested an exemption from the design requirements. The F430 Spider is the convertible version based on the coupé, the F430 Spider is Ferraris 21st road going convertible. The Ferrari F430 Spider made its premiere at the Geneva motor show. The car was designed by Pininfarina with aerodynamic simulation programs used for Formula 1 cars. The roof panel automatically folds away inside a space above the engine bay, the conversion from a closed top to an open-air convertible is a two-stage folding-action
Paris Motor Show
The Paris Motor Show is a biennial auto show in Paris. Held during October, it is one of the most important auto shows, often with new production automobile. The show presently takes place in Paris expo Porte de Versailles, the Mondial is scheduled by the Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs dAutomobiles, which considers it a major international auto show. In 2014, the Paris Motor Show welcomed 1,253,513 visitors, making it the most visited auto show in the world, ahead of Tokyo, until 1986, it was called the Salon de lAutomobile, it took the name Mondial de lAutomobile in 1988. The show was held annually through 1976, since, it has been biennial, the show was the first motor show in the world, started in 1898 by industry pioneer, Albert de Dion. After 1910 it was held at the Grand Palais in the Champs-Élysées, during the First World War motor shows were suspended, meaning that the show of October 1919 was only the 15th Salon. There was again no Paris Motor Show in 1925, the venue having been booked instead for an Exhibition of Decorative Arts, in October 1926 the Motor Show returned, this being the 26th Paris Salon de lAutomobile.
The outbreak of war again intervened in 1939 when the 33rd Salon de lAutomobile was cancelled at short notice, normality of a sorts returned some six years and the 33rd Salon finally opened in October 1946. 1898 1st 1913 14th Salon de lAutomobile 1919 15th Salon de lAutomobile The first Salon since 1913,9 October 191965 French automobile makers exhibited. At least 118 exhibitors in total, there was no Salon de lAutomobile in 19201921 16th Salon de lAutomobile 1922 17th Salon de lAutomobile 4 October 192281 French automobile makers exhibited 113 exhibitors in total. 1923 18th Salon de lAutomobile 1924 19th Salon de lAutomobile 2 October 192478 French automobile makers exhibited 116 exhibitors in total,1931 25th Salon de lAutomobile 1 October 193139 French automobile makers and 37 non-French automobile makers exhibited. 1932 26th Salon de lAutomobile 1933 27th Salon de lAutomobile 5 October 193326 French automobile makers exhibited,1934 28th Salon de lAutomobile 1935 29th Salon de lAutomobile 1936 30th Salon de lAutomobile 1937 31st Salon de lAutomobile 7 October 193722 French automobile makers exhibited.
1938 32nd 1946 33rd 1947 34th Salon de lAutomobile 23 October 194727 French automobile makers exhibited,1948 35th 1949 36th 1950 37th 1951 38th Salon de lAutomobile 4 October 195123 French automobile makers exhibited. 1952 39th 1953 40th 1954 41st 1955 42nd 1956 43rd 1957 44th Salon de lAutomobile 3 October 195724 French automobile makers exhibited,1958 45th 1959 46th 1960 47th 1961 48th Salon de lAutomobile 5 October 19619 French automobile makers exhibited. 1962 49th Salon This was the first year the show was held at the Porte de Versailles on the outskirts of Paris,1963 50th 1964 51st 1965 52nd Salon de lAutomobile October 19659 French automobile makers exhibited
A business magnate refers to an entrepreneur of great influence, importance, or standing in a particular enterprise or field of business. Such individuals may be called czars, proprietors, taipans, the word magnate derives from the Latin magnates, meaning a great man or great nobleman. The word tycoon derives from the Japanese word taikun, which means great lord, the word entered the English language in 1857 with the return of Commodore Perry to the United States. U. S. President Abraham Lincoln was humorously referred to as the Tycoon by his aides John Nicolay, the term spread to the business community, where it has been used ever since. The word mogul is an English corruption of mughal, Persian or Arabic for Mongol and it alludes to emperors of the Mughal Empire in the Medieval India, who possessed great power and storied riches capable of producing wonders of opulence such as the Taj Mahal. Modern business magnates are entrepreneurs that amass on their own or wield substantial family fortunes in the process of building or running their own businesses and their dominance was known as the Second Industrial Revolution, the Gilded Age, or the Robber Baron Era.
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Luca Cordero di Montezemolo
Luca Cordero di Montezemolo is an Italian businessman, former Chairman of Ferrari, and formerly Chairman of Fiat S. p. A. and President of Confindustria and FIEG. He comes from a family from the region of Piedmont in Italy. First he graduated in law from La Sapienza University in 1971, afterward, he studied for a masters in International commercial law at Columbia University in the City of New York. He is one of the founders and former president of NTV, in 2009, Montezemolo founded Future Italy, a free market think tank that joined Civic Choice in the 2013 parliamentary election. His uncle, Admiral Giorgio Cordero dei Marchesi di Montezemolo was a commander in the Regia Marina in World War II and his grandfather and great-grandfather Carlo were both Generals in the Italian Army. His surname is actually Cordero di Montezemolo and the usage is either the full surname or just Montezemolo. Montezemolos sporting career began at the wheel of a Giannini Fiat 500 which he raced together with his friend Cristiano Rattazzi, Montezemolo briefly drove for the famous privately owned Lancia rally team known as HF Squadra Corse.
During his involvement with the team, Ferrari won the Formula One World Championship with Niki Lauda in 1975 and 1977, in 1976 Montezemolo was promoted to become head of all FIAT racing activities, and in 1977 he advanced to become a senior manager of FIAT. Throughout the 1980s, Montezemolo occupied a number of positions in the FIAT empire, including managing director of the drinks company Cinzano, in 1982, he managed Americas Cup challenge of Team Azzurra, the first Italian yacht club to enter the event. In 1985, he became manager of the Organizing Committee for 1990 World Cup Italia, in November 1991, FIAT Chairman Gianni Agnelli appointed Montezemolo president of Ferrari, which had been struggling since Enzo Ferraris death. Montezemolo made it his goal to win the Formula One World Constructors Championship once again. Montezemolo quickly made changes at the Italian team, signing up Niki Lauda as consultant, during the 1990s he resurrected the Ferrari road car business from heavy debts into solid profit.
He took on the presidency of Maserati when Ferrari acquired it in 1997, under Montezemolo and executive director Jean Todt, the Ferrari Formula One team won the World Drivers Championship in 2000, the first time since 1979. The previous year,1999, they had won the Constructors Championship for the first time since 1983, on 27 May 2004, Montezemolo became president of Italian business lobby Confindustria. Days later, following the death of Umberto Agnelli on 28 May, since 20 December 2004, he has been president of the LUISS, the Free International University for Social Studies Guido Carli in Rome. Montezemolo has often reported to have aspirations of a career in Italian politics, most recently the office of Prime Minister. On 29 July 2008, Montezemolo founded the Formula One Teams Association which he presided over from 2008 to 2010, the Committee used to meet on a regular basis to discuss improvements to Formula One. FOTA was formally dissolved in 2014, in April 2010, John Elkann replaced Montezemolo as Chairman of Fiat S. p. A
The McLaren F1 is a sports car designed and manufactured by McLaren Cars. Originally a concept conceived by Gordon Murray, he convinced Ron Dennis to back the project and engaged Peter Stevens to design the exterior and interior of the car. On 31 March 1998, the XP5 prototype set the record for the worlds fastest production car, the F1 surpassed the Jaguar XJ220s 213 mph record from 1992, as well as the low production number RUF CTR2s 217 mph record from 1995. The McLarens record lasted until the Bugatti Veyron 16.4 beat it in 2005 with a top speed of 253.81 mph and it features a powerful engine and is somewhat track oriented, but not to the degree that it compromises everyday usability and comfort. It was conceived as an exercise in creating what its designers hoped would be considered the road car. Production began in 1992 and ended in 1998, in all,106 cars were manufactured, with some variations in the design. In 1994, the British car magazine Autocar stated in a road test regarding the F1, The McLaren F1 is the finest driving machine yet built for the public road.
They further stated, The F1 will be remembered as one of the events in the history of the car. In 2005, Channel4 placed the car at one on their list of the 100 greatest cars. In popular culture, the McLaren F1 has earnt its spot as The greatest automobile ever created and The Most Excellent Sports Car Of All Time amongst a variety of car enthusiasts. Notable past and present McLaren F1 owners include Elon Musk, Jay Leno, chief engineer Gordon Murrays design concept was a common one among designers of high-performance cars, low weight and high power. This was achieved through use of high-tech and expensive materials such as fibre, gold, magnesium. The F1 was the first production car to use a carbon-fibre monocoque chassis, Gordon Murray had been thinking of a three-seat sports car since his youth. When Murray was waiting for a home from the Italian Grand Prix in 1988, he drew a sketch of a three-seater sports car. Murray declared that During this time, we were able to visit with Ayrton Senna, the visit related to the fact that at the time, McLarens F1 Grand Prix cars were using Honda engines.
Of course the car we would create, the McLaren F1, needed to be faster than the NSX, but the NSXs ride quality and handling would become our new design target. Being a fan of Honda engines, I went to Hondas Tochigi Research Center on two occasions and requested that they consider building for the McLaren F1 a 4.5 litre V10 or V12. I asked, I tried to persuade them, but in the end could not convince them to do it, and the McLaren F1 ended up equipped with a BMW engine
Ferrari 333 SP
The Ferrari 333 SP is a sports prototype car that was built by Dallara and Michelotto to World Sports Car regulations for Ferrari. Unveiled at the end of 1993, at the behest of amateur racer Giampiero Moretti, the car was built to compete in the IMSAs new WSC class, which replaced the previous GTP cars.0 L, with power around 600 bhp. The car debuted in the round of the 1994 IMSA GT Championship at Road Atlanta. Four cars were allocated to three teams, Momo Corse, and Team Scandia, in the following round, at Lime Rock, the Italian cars monopolized the podium, and would take three more wins until the end of the season. However, due to Ferrari starting the late, they were beaten by Oldsmobile to the makes championship. In 1995, the 333 SP took its revenge, although proving unreliable at the 24 Hours of Daytona, it took top honors at the 12 Hours of Sebring before securing another four wins. With the four cars taking more consistent results, Ferrari won the championship and Fermín Velez won the drivers title, with Mauro Baldi and Wayne Taylor taking third and fourth.
The car made its debut at the 24 Hours of Le Mans, in 1997, the Ferrari won again at Sebring and took another four wins. In America, the car won three rounds in the IMSA Championship and took Wayne Taylor to second in the standings while Ferrari won the makes championship. In the rival USRRC Can-Am championship, the 333 SP finally managed to take the Daytona 24 Hours crown. Starting from 1999, the car found its niche in the European races, as the newly introduced American Le Mans Series saw factory-backed Audi and BMW entries dominating against privateer Ferraris. The cars were consistently outclassed in the ALMS races, and in 2000 Doran Racing even fit a Judd engine in an attempt to stay competitive, as the 333 SP became outdated in chassis and aerodynamics, it gradually disappeared from international sports car racing. In 2002, the 333 SP was absent from the championship, the 333 SPs final appearance was at the 2003 500km of Monza. Mulsannes Corner - Ferrari 333 SP technical World Sports Racing Prototypes - Ferrari 333 SP chassis index Racing Sports Cars - Ferrari 333 SP results
United States dollar
The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution. It is divided into 100 smaller cent units, the circulating paper money consists of Federal Reserve Notes that are denominated in United States dollars. The U. S. dollar was originally commodity money of silver as enacted by the Coinage Act of 1792 which determined the dollar to be 371 4/16 grain pure or 416 grain standard silver, the currency most used in international transactions, it is the worlds primary reserve currency. Several countries use it as their currency, and in many others it is the de facto currency. Besides the United States, it is used as the sole currency in two British Overseas Territories in the Caribbean, the British Virgin Islands and Turks and Caicos Islands. A few countries use the Federal Reserve Notes for paper money, while the country mints its own coins, or accepts U. S. coins that can be used as payment in U. S. dollars. After Nixon shock of 1971, USD became fiat currency, Article I, Section 8 of the U. S.
Constitution provides that the Congress has the power To coin money, laws implementing this power are currently codified at 31 U. S. C. Section 5112 prescribes the forms in which the United States dollars should be issued and these coins are both designated in Section 5112 as legal tender in payment of debts. The Sacagawea dollar is one example of the copper alloy dollar, the pure silver dollar is known as the American Silver Eagle. Section 5112 provides for the minting and issuance of other coins and these other coins are more fully described in Coins of the United States dollar. The Constitution provides that a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and that provision of the Constitution is made specific by Section 331 of Title 31 of the United States Code. The sums of money reported in the Statements are currently being expressed in U. S. dollars, the U. S. dollar may therefore be described as the unit of account of the United States. The word dollar is one of the words in the first paragraph of Section 9 of Article I of the Constitution, dollars is a reference to the Spanish milled dollar, a coin that had a monetary value of 8 Spanish units of currency, or reales.
In 1792 the U. S. Congress passed a Coinage Act, Section 20 of the act provided, That the money of account of the United States shall be expressed in dollars, or units. And that all accounts in the offices and all proceedings in the courts of the United States shall be kept and had in conformity to this regulation. In other words, this act designated the United States dollar as the unit of currency of the United States, unlike the Spanish milled dollar the U. S. dollar is based upon a decimal system of values. Both one-dollar coins and notes are produced today, although the form is significantly more common
Ken Okuyama is a Japanese industrial designer. He is the owner of the Ken Okuyama Design company, Okuyama formerly worked for Pininfarina designing and supervising projects such as the Enzo Ferrari and Ferrari P4/5. His given name is Kiyoyuki Okuyama but goes by Ken Okuyama outside Japan and he was born in the city of Yamagata, but lives in Italy, and speaks Japanese and English fluently. Okuyama graduated from the Art Center College of Design in 1986, for the next 3 years he was a visiting professor at Tohoku University of Art and DesignIn 1991, he returned to teach part-time at the Art Center College of Design in California. Between 2000 and 2004, he was Chair of the Transportation Design Department at the college, Ken Okuyama worked for General Motors and Porsche, helping design the new generation Porsche 911 as well as the Boxster. Before moving to Pininfarina, he worked for General Motors in the Advanced Concepts Center in California, on 10 May 2004, Ken Okuyama began work as Creative Director at Pininfarina.
He had been working with Pininfarina before, supervising the design of the Enzo Ferrari, as Creative Director Ken oversaw projects including the Ferrari 599, Mitsubishi Colt CZC, Maserati Birdcage 75th and Ferrari P4/5. In 2006, Okuyama left Pininfarina and set up his own design firm, in late 2007, Okuyama launched the Ken Okuyama Eyes collection, an eyewear collection manufactured in Japan. In 2008, Ken Okuyama presented his first concept car under his own name - the K. O.7 Spider, the K. O.7 was unveiled at the Geneva Motor Show in March 2008. Ken Okuyama has cooperated with the luxury watch producer TAG Heuer, the interior of the concept car was inspired by the design of the TAG Heuer watch. In 2008, Ken Okuyamas design studio produced the first 20 models of the K. O.7 Spider and it was followed by the production of 99 cars in 2009 and 99 more in 2010. In 2016, Ken Okuyama Launched the Kode 57 and this will be an additional member to the limited-edition family as only five units will be produced.
Forbes Magazine stated Enzo Ferrari Designer Stuns Monterey With Breathtaking Kode 57 Supercar
Ferrari 612 Scaglietti
The Ferrari 612 Scaglietti is a 2+2 coupé grand tourer produced by Ferrari between 2004 and 2010. The 612 Scaglietti was designed to replace the smaller 456 M, the design, especially the large side scallops and the headlights, pays homage to the custom 1954 Ferrari 375 MM that director Roberto Rossellini had commissioned for his wife, Ingrid Bergman. The 612 is Ferraris second all-aluminium vehicle, the first being the 360 Modena and its space frame, developed with Alcoa, is made from extrusions and castings of the material, and the aluminium body is welded on. The chassis of the 612 forms the basis of the 599 GTB, the 612 Scaglietti shares its engine with the Ferrari 575 Superamerica. The engine has compression ratio of 11,1 and it has a top speed of 320 km/h and has a 0–100 km/h acceleration time of 4.2 seconds. The 612 comes with 6-speed manual or the 6-speed F1A semi-automatic paddle shift system, the 612 was produced at Ferraris Carrozzeria Scaglietti plant, the former home of the cars namesake coachbuilder in Modena, Italy.
It was taken down the road to the Maranello factory, the Ferrari 612 was replaced by the Ferrari FF in 2011. This may render the vehicle inoperable and possibly result in a crash, the 612 Sessanta is a limited version commemorating 60th anniversary of the company. It includes HGTC package, Blu Cornes coloured body, a carbon fiber filler cap and it has a MSRP of 33,980,000 Yen. The 612 Kappa is a built for Peter S. Kalikow. The GG50 was a car developed by Italdesign-Giugiaro S. P. A design studio. The vehicle was unveiled in 2006 NAIAS and it has a MSRP of £200,411 including a four-year warranty. The vehicle began its relay at the UK on 18 May 2007,612 OTO F1- Mid 2008 to 2010 demonstrated a revised second generation 612 similar to revisions Ferrari typically makes during their product life cycles. The HGT2 package option gave the 612 a sport and suspension package similar to the HGTE package offered on 599s and its said that less than 50 are circulating within the U. S. market. Total production,3025 Ferrari 612 Scaglietti in police livery for Ferraris 60th Anniversary relay Special 30th Anniversary edition for Japan Ferrari 60th Anniversary Version