Giorgetto Giugiaro is an Italian automobile designer. He has worked on supercars and popular everyday vehicles and he was born in Garessio, Piedmont. Giugiaro was named Car Designer of the Century in 1999 and inducted into the Automotive Hall of Fame in 2002, giugaros earliest cars featured tautly arched shapes, such as the Ferrari 250 Berlinetta Bertone, De Tomaso Mangusta, Iso Grifo, and Maserati Ghibli. However, as the 1970s approached, Giugiaros designs became increasingly angular, straight-lined designs such as the BMW M1, Maserati Bora, and Maserati Merak followed before a softer approach returned in the Calà, Maserati Spyder, and Ferrari GG50
Turin Auto Show
The Turin Motor Show was an auto show held annually in Turin, Italy. The first official show took place between 21 and 24 April 1900, at the Castle of Valentino, becoming a permanent fixture in Turin from 1938 having shared it with Milan and Rome until that time. From 1972, the show was held bi-annually and in 1984, the event was last held in Turin in 2000 and cancelled from 2002, resulting in the Bologna Motor Show taking over the role of Italys International Motor Show. From 2015, Turin will again hold a Motor Show, albeit as a festival to keep exhibitors costs down. It will be held in the precinct of the Parco del Valentino. A. T,5 concept Lancia Appia The 1954 36th Salone dellAutomobile was inaugurated by Italian President Luigi Einaudi on 21 April and closed on 2 May. The exhibitors were 450 from 11 countries, including 66 car manufacturers and 22 coachbuilders, Production cars Alfa Romeo 1900 Super Alfa Romeo Giulietta Sprint Fiat 1100 Familiare Fiat 1400 A Fiat 1900 A Lancia Aurelia series II Concept cars and prototypes Alfa Romeo B. A. T.
7 by Bertone Fiat Turbina Fibreglass-bodied Fiat 8V At least 30 vehicle models from different manufacturers designed by Michelotti Alfa Romeo B. A. T. 9 concept Alfa Romeo Giulietta Italian President Giovanni Gronchi, escorted by a troop of Corazzieri, the motor show closed on 2 May. There were 490 exhibitors from 12 countries, including 65 car manufacturers, the exhibitors were 524 from 13 countries, including 72 car manufacturers and 21 coachbuilders. It saw the presence of 580 exhibitors from 15 countries, including 70 car manufacturers and 13 coachbuilders. Production cars Lancia Fulvia Berlina GTE, Coupé1.3 S, Sport 1.3 S, the change in date was to avoid clashing with the Geneva Motor Show. Instead, it becomes a public festival held at the historical Parco del Valentino
An engine or motor is a machine designed to convert one form of energy into mechanical energy. Heat engines burn a fuel to heat, which is used to create a force. Electric motors convert electrical energy into motion, pneumatic motors use compressed air. In biological systems, molecular motors, like myosins in muscles, use energy to create forces. The word engine derives from Old French engin, from the Latin ingenium–the root of the word ingenious. Pre-industrial weapons of war, such as catapults and battering rams, were called siege engines, the word gin, as in cotton gin, is short for engine. Most mechanical devices invented during the revolution were described as engines—the steam engine being a notable example. However, the steam engines, such as those by Thomas Savery, were not mechanical engines. In this manner, an engine in its original form was merely a water pump. Devices converting heat energy into motion are commonly referred to simply as engines, examples of engines which exert a torque include the familiar automobile gasoline and diesel engines, as well as turboshafts.
Examples of engines which produce thrust include turbofans and rockets, the term motor derives from the Latin verb moto which means to set in motion, or maintain motion. Thus a motor is a device that imparts motion and engine came to be used largely interchangeably in casual discourse. However, the two words have different meanings, rocketry uses the term rocket motor, even though they consume fuel. A heat engine may serve as a prime mover—a component that transforms the flow or changes in pressure of a fluid into mechanical energy. An automobile powered by a combustion engine may make use of various motors and pumps. Another way of looking at it is that a motor receives power from an external source, simple machines, such as the club and oar, are prehistoric. More complex engines using human power, animal power, water power, wind power and these were used in cranes and aboard ships in Ancient Greece, as well as in mines, water pumps and siege engines in Ancient Rome. The writers of those times, including Vitruvius and Pliny the Elder, treat these engines as commonplace, by the 1st century AD, cattle and horses were used in mills, driving machines similar to those powered by humans in earlier times
Sergio Pininfarina, born Sergio Farina, was an Italian automobile designer and Senator for life. After joining his father Battista Farina at Carrozzeria Pininfarina, he quickly became integral to the company, in 1961, by decree of the Italian president, his family surname was changed from Farina to Pininfarina to match that of the company. The resulting Ferrari Dino Berlinette Speciale was presented at the Paris Motor Show in October, after his fathers death in 1966, Pininfarina became chairman of the company. In 2006 Sergio and his son Andrea, who died in 2008, were named Honorary Chairmen of Pininfarina, between 1979 and 1988 Pininfarina was a Liberal Party MEP, where his party was a part of the European Liberal Democrat alliance. On 23 September 2005 he was named Senator for life of the Italian Republic by Carlo Azeglio Ciampi. On 21 February 2007 he attended the vote in which the government motion on foreign policy was defeated in the Senate, who attended his first Senate assembly in nine months, cast an abstain vote, which helped the opposition forces to defeat the government foreign policy.
After the aforementioned tally Pininfarina did not ever vote in the assembly again, Pininfarina died in Turin on 3 July 2012 aged 85
Mauro Forghieri is an Italian mechanical engineer, best known for his work as a Formula One racing car designer with Scuderia Ferrari during the 1960s and 1970s. Forghieri was born in Modena, the child of Reclus. His father, a turner, did war work during World War II for the Ansaldo mechanical workshops of Naples, after the conflict, he took up work in the Ferrari workshop in Maranello. Meanwhile, Forghieri completed the Liceo Scientifico and obtained a degree in Mechanical Engineering from the University of Bologna, despite his initial interest in aviation design, he accepted an offer from Ferrari, where he had been introduced by his father. He became part of the team in 1962, with the position of Chief of the Technical Department for racing cars after the departure of Carlo Chiti. He was promoted to Technical Director of the Racing Department, in 1970, Forghieri designed the Ferrari 312 series. He designed the first transversal automatic gear and Ferraris first turbo-compressed engine, under his guidance Ferrari won the drivers F1 world championship title four times, with John Surtees, Niki Lauda, and Jody Scheckter.
Ferrari won the constructors F1 world championship eight times. After leaving Ferrari in 1987, Forghieri joined Lamborghini Engineering, a department created by Lee Iacocca, the CEO of Chrysler, the V12 engine was used exclusively by the Larrousse team in the 1989 F1 season. Following the encouraging performance of the engine, the project of designing a car was conceived. Nevertheless, the car debuted thanks to financing by Carlo Patrucco, the latter was an unsuccessful enterprise and Forghieri left Lamborghini soon afterwards. In 1992, he became the director of the re-emerging Bugatti. In the same year, he was called as an expert in the trial relating to the death of driver Ayrton Senna on the Imola track. In 1994, Forghieri co-founded with Franco Antoniazzi and Sergio Lugli the Oral Engineering Group and their projects there have included making the Ferrari Pinin concept car actually run. Mauro Forghieris Biography ISBN 978-88-09-06209-2 Forghieri, Buzzonetti, Daniele, la Ferrari secondo Forghieri - dal 1947 ad oggi.
Grand Prix History – Hall of Fame, Mauro Forghieri
Ferrari 166 S
See the 166 Inter GT car The Ferrari 166 S was an evolution of Ferraris 125 S sports race car that became a sports car for the street in the form of the 166 Inter. Only 39 Ferrari 166 S were produced, soon followed by the production of the 166 Mille Miglia which was made in larger numbers from 1949 to 1952. The 166 MM were in fact updated 166 S and were the cars to many of Ferrari’s early international victories. It shared its Aurelio Lampredi-designed tube frame and double wishbone/live axle suspension with the 125, like the 125, the wheelbase was 2420 mm long. 39 examples were produced from its introduction at the Turin Motor Show in 1948 to its retirement in 1950 and it was replaced by the 2.3 L195 S in 1950. The first 166 Inter was designed by Tourings chief stylist, Carlo Anderloni,166 S competition models were generally coachbuilt by Carrozzeria Allemano. The 1.5 L Gioacchino Colombo-designed V12 engine of the 125 was changed, with overhead camshafts specified. This was achieved both a bore and stroke increase, to 60 by 58.8 mm respectively.
Output was 110 to 140 hp at 6,000 rpm with one to three carburettors, Motor Trend Classic named the 166 MM Barchetta as number six in their list of the ten Greatest Ferraris of all time. Nine 166 Spider Corsas and three 166 Sports were built, the oldest Ferrari car with an undisputed pedigree still in existence is VIN#002C, a Model 166 Spider Corsa which was originally a 159 and is currently owned and driven by James Glickenhaus. #0052M, a 1950166 MM Touring Barchetta was uncovered in a barn and was shown in public for the first time since 1959 in the August 2006 issue of Cavallino magazine. Ferrari 166 racing cars won Mille Miglia in both 1948 and 1949, driven by Clemente Biondetti and Giuseppe Navone the first year and Biondetti, the same year, another 166 won the 1949 Spa 24 Hours. A166 chassis, this time with the bigger 195 engine, won the Mille Miglia again in 1950 with drivers Giannino Marzotto, Ferrari, A Complete Guide to All Models
Mercedes-Benz is a global automobile manufacturer and a division of the German company Daimler AG. The brand is known for vehicles, coaches. The headquarters is in Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg, the slogan for the brand is the best or nothing and Mercedes-Benz was one of the top growing brands in 2014 with 18% growth. The Mercedes automobile was first marketed in 1901 by Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft, emil Jellinek, an Austrian automobile entrepreneur who worked with DMG created the trademark in 1902, naming the 1901 Mercedes 35 hp after his daughter Mercedes Jellinek. The first Mercedes-Benz brand name vehicles were produced in 1926, following the merger of Karl Benzs, on 28 June 1926, Mercedes Benz was formed with the merger of Karl Benz and Gottlieb Daimlers two companies. Gottlieb Daimler was born on 17 March 1834 in Schorndorf, after training as a gunsmith and working in France, he attended the Polytechnic School in Stuttgart from 1857 to 1859. After completing various activities in France and England, he started work as a draftsman in Geislingen in 1862.
At the end of 1863, he was appointed inspector in a machine tool factory in Reutlingen. Throughout the 1930s, Mercedes-Benz produced the 770 model, a car that was popular during Germanys Nazi period, Adolf Hitler was known to have driven these cars during his time in power, with bulletproof windshields. Most of the models have been sold at auctions to private buyers. One of them is currently on display at the War Museum in Ottawa, the pontiffs Popemobile has often been sourced from Mercedes-Benz. In 1944,46,000 forced laborers were used in Daimler-Benzs factories to bolster Nazi war efforts, the company paid $12 million in reparations to the laborers families. Mercedes-Benz has introduced many technological and safety innovations that became common in other vehicles. Mercedes-Benz is one of the best-known and established automotive brands in the world, for information relating to the famous three-pointed star, see under the title Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft including the merger into Daimler-Benz.
As part of the Daimler AG company, the Mercedes-Benz Cars division includes Mercedes-Benz, mercedes-AMG became a majority owned division of Mercedes-Benz in 1999. The company was integrated into DaimlerChrysler in 1999, and became Mercedes-Benz AMG beginning on 1 January 1999, Daimlers ultra-luxury brand Maybach was under Mercedes-Benz cars division until 2013, when the production stopped due to poor sales volumes. It now exists under the Mercedes-Maybach name, with the models being ultra-luxury versions of Mercedes cars, Daimler coorporates with BYD Auto to make and sell a battery-electric car called Denza in China. In 2016, Daimler announced plans to sell Mercedes-Benz branded all-electric battery cars in China, beside its native Germany, Mercedes-Benz vehicles are manufactured or assembled in, Since its inception, Mercedes-Benz had maintained a reputation for its quality and durability
He was widely known as il Commendatore or il Drake. In his final years he was referred to as lIngegnere or il Grande Vecchio. Ferrari was born on 18 February 1898 in Modena and his birth certificate had recorded his birth date on 20 February because a heavy snowstorm had prevented his father from reporting the birth at the local registry office. He was the younger of two children to Alfredo and Adalgisa Ferrari, after his elder sibling Alfredo Junior, Alfredo Senior was the son of a grocer from Carpi and started a workshop fabricating metal parts at the family home. Enzo grew up with formal education. At the age of 10 he witnessed Felice Nazzaros win at the 1908 Circuit di Bologna, during World War I he served in the 3rd Mountain Artillery Regiment of the Italian Army. His father Alfredo, and his brother, Alfredo Jr. died in 1916 as a result of a widespread Italian flu outbreak. Ferrari became severely sick himself in the 1918 flu pandemic and was discharged from Italian service. Following the familys carpentry business collapse, Ferrari started searching for a job in the car industry and he unsuccessfully volunteered his services to FIAT in Turin, eventually settling for a job as test-driver for C. M. N.
A car manufacturer in Milan, which rebuilt used truck bodies into small passenger cars, on November 23 of the same year, he took part in the Targa Florio but had to retire after his cars fuel tank developed a leak. The prancing horse emblem was created when Italian fighter pilot Francesco Baracca was shot down during World War I, Baracca gave Enzo Ferrari a necklace with the prancing horse on it prior to takeoff. Baracca was tragically shot down and killed, in memory of his death, Enzo Ferrari used the prancing horse to create the emblem that would become the world famous Ferrari shield. However the world first saw this emblem on an Alfa Romeo as Ferrari was still tied up with Alfa Romeo and it was not until 1947 that the shield was first seen on a Ferrari. This was the birth of Ferrari, in 1924 Ferrari won the Coppa Acerbo at Pescara, a success that encouraged Alfa Romeo to offer him a chance to race in much more prestigious competitions. Ferrari himself continued racing until 1932, before he left Alfa Romeo to found Scuderia Ferrari, despite the quality of the Scuderia drivers, the team struggled to compete with Auto Union and Mercedes.
In 1937 Alfa Romeo decided to regain control of its racing division. Unhappy with the arrangement, Ferrari left and founded Auto-Avio Costruzioni, with the outbreak of World War II in 1943, Ferraris factory was forced to undertake war production for Mussolinis fascist government. Following Allied bombing of the factory, Ferrari relocated from Modena to Maranello, at the end of the conflict, Ferrari decided to start making cars bearing his name, and founded Ferrari S. p. A. in 1947
The Ferrari 488 is a mid-engined sports car produced by the Italian sports car manufacturer Ferrari, introduced in 2015 to replace the previous 458. It is powered by a 3. 9-litre twin-turbocharged V8, smaller in displacement, the 488 GTB was named The Supercar of the Year 2015 by car magazine Top Gear. The 488 GTB is powered by a 3902cc all-aluminium dry sump unit of the Ferrari F154 engine family, the engine produces 670 PS at 8,000 rpm and 760 N·m of torque at 3,000 rpm. This results in a power output of 126.3 kW per litre and specific torque output of 194.8 N·m per litre. The only available transmission for the 488 is an automated manual dual-clutch 7-speed F1 gearbox manufactured for Ferrari by Getrag, improved carbon-ceramic brakes are supplied on the 488, derived from technology used in LaFerrari, constructed with new materials that reduce the time needed to achieve optimum operating temperature. Disc sizes are 398 mm at the front, and 360 mm at the rear and these advancements reportedly reduce stopping distances by 9% over the 458. A new 5-spoke alloy wheel was designed for the 488, measuring 51 centimetres front, front tires measure 245/35 with rears 305/30.
The first 488 to be introduced was the 488 GTB 2-seat berlinetta and it was launched on 3 February 2015, in advance of its world première at the March 2015 Geneva Motor Show. The Ferrari 488 Spider is a 2-seat roadster variant of the 488 with a folding hardtop, Ferrari released pictures of the 488 Spider at the end of July 2015, and the car debuted at the Frankfurt Motor Show in September 2015. The Spiders drivetrain is the same of the 488 GTB, including the 670 PS3. 9-litre twin-turbocharged V8, the 488 Spider is only 50 kg heavier than its coupé sibling, and 10 kg lighter than the 458 Spider. The 0–100 km/h sprint is unchanged at 3.0 seconds, while the 0–200 km/h acceleration takes slightly longer at 8.7 seconds, UK sales are expected to begin in late spring 2016. The racing versions of the 488 GTB are the successors to the 458 Italia GTC, both the 488 GTE and GT3 were unveiled at the 2015 Finali Mondiali Ferrari which took place at Mugello. The 488 GTE made its debut in Round 1 of the 2016 WeatherTech SportsCar Championship at the 24 Hours of Daytona on 30–31 January.
The 488 GTE run by Scuderia Corsa finished 10th outright and 4th in the GTLM class, at the 201624 Hours of Le Mans, the car took second place, ran by Risi Competizione. The 488 GT3 made its competition debut in Round 2 of the 2016 Australian GT Championship at the Albert Park Circuit in Melbourne on 17 March. Italian Andrea Montermini and Danish driver Benny Simonsen shared the car for Australian team DeFelice Homes. Over the 4 races that made up the round, Montermini finished 5th in race 1 and 14th in race 3 while Simonsen finished 2nd in race 2 and 6th in the fourth and final race. In February 2017, the 488 GT3 won the 2017 Liqui Moly Bathurst 12 Hour, ran by Maranello Motorsport
The Maserati Quattroporte is a four-door sports luxury saloon produced by Italian car manufacturer Maserati. The name translated from Italian literally means four doors, there have been six generations of this car, with the first introduced in 1963, and the current model launched in 2013. The original Maserati Quattroporte was built between 1963 and 1969 and it was a large saloon car powered by V8 engines—both firsts for a series production Maserati. The task of styling the Quattroporte was given to Turinese coachbuilder Pietro Frua, while the design was by Frua, body construction was carried out by Vignale. The Quattroporte was introduced at the October-November 1963 Turin Motor Show, the Tipo 107 Quattroporte joined two other grand tourers, the Facel Vega and the Lagonda Rapide, capable of traveling at 200 km/h on the new motorways in Europe. It was equipped with a 4. 1-litre V8 engine, producing 260 hp DIN at 5,000 rpm, Maserati claimed a top speed of 230 km/h. The car was exported to the United States, where federal regulations mandated twin round headlamps in place of the single rectangular ones found on European models.
Between 1963 and 1966,230 units were made, in 1966, Maserati revised the Tipo 107, adding the twin headlights already used on the U. S. model. A leaf-sprung solid axle took place of the previous De Dion tube, the interior was completely redesigned, including the dashboard which now had a full width wood-trimmed fascia. In 1968 alongside the 4. 1-litre a 4. 7-litre version became available, top speed increased to a claimed 255 km/h, making the Quattroporte 4700 the fastest four-door saloon in the world at the time. Around 500 of the series were made, for a total of 776 Tipo 107 Quattroportes. The first generation Quattroporte had a unibody structure, complemented by a front subframe. Front suspension was independent, with springs and hydraulic dampers. On both axles there were anti-roll bars, brakes were solid Girling discs all around. A limited slip differential was optional, the long lived quad cam, all-aluminium Maserati V8 engine made its début on the Quattroporte. In 1971, Karim Aga Khan ordered another special on the Maserati Indy platform, rory Brown was the chief engineer.
It received the 4. 9-litre V8 engine, producing 300 PS, Carrozzeria Frua designed the car, the prototype of which was displayed in Paris 1971 and Geneva 1972. The car was ready, even receiving its own chassis code