A V8 engine is an eight-cylinder V configuration engine with the cylinders mounted on the crankcase in two sets of four, with all eight pistons driving a common crankshaft. Most banks are set at an angle to each other, some at a narrower angle, with 45°, 60°. In its simplest form, the V8 is basically two parallel inline-four engines sharing a common crankshaft, since the 1920s, most V8s have used the somewhat more complex crossplane crankshaft with heavy counterweights to eliminate the vibrations. This results in an engine that is smoother than a V6, most racing V8s continue to use the single plane crankshaft because it allows faster acceleration and more efficient exhaust system designs. In 1902, Léon Levavasseur took out a patent on a light and he called it the Antoinette after the young daughter of his financial backer. From 1904 he installed this engine in a number of competition speedboats, the aviation pioneer Alberto Santos-Dumont saw one of these boats in Côte dAzur and decided to try it on his 14-bis aircraft.
Its early 24 hp at 1400 rpm version with only 55 kg of weight was interesting, Santos-Dumont ordered a larger and more powerful version from Levavasseur. He changed its dimensions from the original 80 mm stroke and 80 mm bore to 105 mm stroke and 110 mm bore, obtaining 50 hp with 86 kg of weight and its power-to-weight ratio was not surpassed for 25 years. Levavasseur eventually produced its own line of V8 equipped aircraft, named Antoinette I to VIII, hubert Latham piloted the V8 powered Antoinette IV and Antoinette VII in July 1909 on two failed attempts to cross the English Channel. However, in 1910, Latham used the VII with the engine to become the first in the world to reach an altitude of 3600 feet. Voisin constructed pusher biplanes with Antoinette engines, notably the one first flown successfully by Henry Farman in 1908, the V8 engine configuration became popular in France from 1904 onward, and was used in a number of aircraft engines introduced by Renault, and Buchet among others.
Some of these found their way into automobiles in small quantities. In 1905, Darracq built a car to beat the world speed record. They came up with two racing car built on a common crankcase and camshaft. The result was monstrous engine with a displacement of 1,551 cu in, victor Hemery fixed that record on 30 December 1905 with a speed of 109.65 mph. Rolls-Royce built a 3,535 cc V8 car from 1905 to 1906, in 1907 The Hewitt Motor Company built a large 5 passenger Touring Car. It was equipped with a hefty V8 engine that developed 50/60 horsepower and had a bore of 4 inches, the Hewitt was the first American Automobile to be equipped with a V8 engine. De Dion-Bouton introduced a 7,773 cc automobile V8 in 1910 and it was produced only in small quantities, but inspired a number of manufacturers to follow suit
A transmission is a machine in a power transmission system, which provides controlled application of the power. Often the term refers simply to the gearbox that uses gears and gear trains to provide speed. In British English, the term refers to the whole drivetrain, including clutch, prop shaft, differential. In American English, the term more specifically to the gearbox alone. The most common use is in vehicles, where the transmission adapts the output of the internal combustion engine to the drive wheels. Such engines need to operate at a high rotational speed, which is inappropriate for starting, stopping. The transmission reduces the engine speed to the slower wheel speed. Transmissions are used on bicycles, fixed machines. Often, a transmission has multiple gear ratios with the ability to switch between them as speed varies and this switching may be done manually or automatically. Directional control may be provided, single-ratio transmissions exist, which simply change the speed and torque of motor output.
The output of the transmission is transmitted via the driveshaft to one or more differentials, while a differential may provide gear reduction, its primary purpose is to permit the wheels at either end of an axle to rotate at different speeds as it changes the direction of rotation. Conventional gear/belt transmissions are not the mechanism for speed/torque adaptation. Alternative mechanisms include torque converters and power transformation, automatic transmissions use a valve body to shift gears using fluid pressures in conjunction with an ecm. Early transmissions included the right-angle drives and other gearing in windmills, horse-powered devices, and steam engines, in support of pumping, most modern gearboxes are used to increase torque while reducing the speed of a prime mover output shaft. This means that the shaft of a gearbox rotates at a slower rate than the input shaft. A gearbox can be set up to do the opposite and provide an increase in speed with a reduction of torque. Some of the simplest gearboxes merely change the rotational direction of power transmission.
Many typical automobile transmissions include the ability to select one of several gear ratios, in this case, most of the gear ratios are used to slow down the output speed of the engine and increase torque
A retractable hardtop, known as coupé convertible or coupé cabriolet, employs an automatically operated, multi-part, self-storing hardtop in lieu of a folding textile-based roof. Frenchman Georges Paulin subsequently designed the production 1934 Peugeot 601 Éclipse manually retractable hardtop, advances in electronics and weatherproofing materials have made the modern retractable hardtop increasingly popular. 1919 Ben P. Ellerbeck conceived a retractable hardtop – a manually operated system on a Hudson coupe that allowed unimpeded use of the seat even with the top down –. 1935 Peugeot introduced the first production, power-operated retractable hardtop in 1935, the French coachbuilder, Marcel Pourtout, custom-built other examples of Paulins designs on a larger Peugeot chassis as well. The first Eclipse 402s offered a top, but in 1936 was replaced by a manually operated version on a stretched chassis. 1941 Chrysler introduced a retractable hardtop concept car, the Chrysler Thunderbolt,1953 Ford Motor Company spent an estimated US$2 million to engineer a Continental Mark II with a servo-operated retractable roof.
The project was headed by Ben Smith, a 30-year-old draftsman, the concept was rejected for cost and marketing reasons. Engineering work was recycled to the Ford Division which used the mechanism in their 1957-1959 flagship Ford Fairlane 500 Skyliner after an estimated US$18 million more was spent. 1955 Brothers Ed and Jim Gaylord showed their first prototype at the 1955 Paris motor show,1957 Ford introduced the Fairlane 500 Skyliner in the United States. A total of 48,394 were built from 1957 to 1959, the retractable top was noted for its complexity and usually decent reliability in the pre-transistor era. The Skyliner was a car with little luggage space. 1989 Toyota introduced a retractable hardtop, the MZ20 Soarer Aerocabin. The car featured a folding hardtop and was marketed as a 2-seater with a cargo area behind the front seats. 1995 The Mitsubishi GTO Spyder by ASC was marketed in the U. S, produced by French coachbuilding specialist Heuliez, the Macarenas top can be folded in about 30 seconds.
It has a beam behind the front seats which incorporates LCD screens into the crossmember for the rear passengers. 2006 General Motors introduced a retractable version of the Pontiac G6. The roof featured a relatively simple two-piece folding design and did not materially reduce rear seat space, production continued through the 2009 model year. The Volkswagen Eos features a five-segment retractable roof where one section is itself an independently sliding transparent sunroof, the Mercedes SL hardtop features a glass section that rotates during retraction to provide a more compact stack
Ferrari 288 GTO
The Ferrari GTO is an exotic homologation of the Ferrari 308 GTB produced from 1984 through 1987, designated GT for Gran Turismo and O for Omologato. The Ferrari GTO was built to compete in the new Group B Race series, after the death of Henri Toivonen and his co-driver Sergio Cresto in the 1986 Tour de Corse, the FIA disestablished the class, leaving just the Group A Rally championship. As a result, the GTO never raced and all 272 cars built remained purely road cars, some of the GTOs styling features were first displayed on a 308 GTB design exercise by Pininfarina shown at the 1977 Geneva Salon. The 288 GTO started out as a version of the 308/328 to hold down costs and to build the car quickly. Easily noticeable differences were the GTOs bulging fender flares, larger front/rear spoilers, large flag-style outside mirrors, retained from the original 250 GTO were slanted air vents, put in the GTOs rear fenders to cool the brakes. The GTO had wider body panels than the 308s because they had to much larger Goodyear tires mounted on racing wheels.
The suspensions height could be set higher for use and lower for racing on tracks. Bodywork material was new and lighter for better acceleration and handing, the GTOs weight was only 2,555 pounds, compared to 3, 085-3,350 for the 308/328. Steel was used just for the doors because major body panels were made from molded fiberglass, Kevlar was used for the hood, and the roof was made from Kevlar and carbon fiber. The GTO was based on the mid-engine, rear wheel drive 308 GTB, the 288 refers to the GTOs 2.8 litre V8 engine as it used a de-bored V8 with twin IHI turbochargers and Weber-Marelli fuel injection. The 2855 cc engine capacity was dictated by the FIAs requirement for a Turbocharged engines capacity to be multiplied by 1.4 and this gave the GTO a theoretical engine capacity of 3997 cc, just under the Group B limit of 4.0 litres. Unlike the 308s 2926 cc engine, the GTOs 2855 cc engine was mounted longitudinally and this was necessary to make room for the twin turbochargers and intercoolers.
The racing transmission was mounted to the rear of the engine, moving the rear differential. The arrangement let the GTO use a more conventional race-car engine/transmission layout for such things as quick gear ratio changes for various tracks, as a result, the wheelbase was 110 mm longer at 2,450 mm. The track was widened to accommodate wider wheels and tires to provide increased cornering and braking performance. The GTO was a performer, with 0-60 mph times around 5 seconds. Ferrari claimed 0-125 mph in 15 seconds flat and a top speed of 189 mph, the engine in the 288 GTO Evoluzione originally put out as much as 650 hp. With weight of 940 kg the car had a top speed of 225 mph and these cars form the clearest visual link between the 288 GTO and the F40 soon to follow
LaFerrari is a limited production hybrid sports car built by Ferrari. LaFerrari literally means The Ferrari in most Romance languages, in the sense that it is the definitive Ferrari, on December 3,2016, a LaFerrari auctioned off for $7 million making this car the most valuable 21st century automobile ever sold at auction. LaFerrari Concept Manta, LaFerrari Concept Tensostruttura were unveiled in Ferrari Museum Maranello, the LaFerrari is based on findings from testing of the FXX and on research being conducted by the Millechili Project at the University of Modena. Association with the Millechili Project led to speculation during development that the car would weigh under 1,000 kg, only 499 units have been built, and each cost more than 1 million US dollars. An additional 500th car was made to be sold at an auction. The vehicle was unveiled at the 2013 Geneva Auto Show, followed by Auto Shanghai 2013,2013 Tour Auto Optic 2000,2013 Supercar Chronicle, the LaFerrari Aperta is a limited version of the LaFerrari.
200 cars will be sold, the additional nine Ferrari LaFerrari are reserved for selected distribution during the 70th anniversary celebrations of Ferrari, the LaFerrari Aperta comes with a removable carbon-fibre hard top and a removable soft top. The vehicle was unveiled in 2016 Paris Auto Show, like past convertible Ferrari models, it may use the Aperta label to denote its retractable roof. According to Ferrari, all units have already sold to customers via invitation. LaFerrari is the first mild hybrid from Ferrari, providing the highest power output of any Ferrari whilst decreasing fuel consumption by 40 percent, the KERS system adds extra power to the combustion engines output level for a total of 963 PS and a combined torque of 900 N·m. Ferrari claims CO2 emissions of 330 g/km, the engines bore and stroke is 94×75.2 mm with a compression ratio of 13.5,1 and a specific power output of 94 kW per litre. It is connected to a 7-speed dual-clutch transmission and the car is rear-wheel drive, Ferrari LaFerrari has a power to weight ratio of 1.3 kg per horsepower.
The car is equipped with carbon-ceramic Brembo discs on the front and rear, with the car sitting on Pirelli P Zero Corsa tires measuring 265/30 R19 and it has a double wishbone suspension in the front and a multi-link suspension in the rear. Ferrari claims that the car has lapped its Fiorano Test Circuit in 1,19.70 which is faster than any other road-legal car Ferrari has ever produced. LaFerrari received no input from Pininfarina, making it the first Ferrari since the Bertone-styled 1973 Dino 308 GT4 not to have Pininfarina bodywork or other styling and this decision is a rare exception to the collaboration between Ferrari and Pininfarina that began in 1951. However, Ferrari has stated that two new models designed jointly with Pininfarina have yet to be unveiled and that there are no plans to end relations with Pininfarina. The cockpit stands out for its essentiality and the sportiness of the shapes, there is a steering wheel with integrated controls and gear levers directly fixed to the steering column, a solution that allows better use in all conditions.
The bridge which exists between the two seats, designed like a wing, is home to other instruments linked to the dual-clutch gearbox
The Ferrari 488 is a mid-engined sports car produced by the Italian sports car manufacturer Ferrari, introduced in 2015 to replace the previous 458. It is powered by a 3. 9-litre twin-turbocharged V8, smaller in displacement, the 488 GTB was named The Supercar of the Year 2015 by car magazine Top Gear. The 488 GTB is powered by a 3902cc all-aluminium dry sump unit of the Ferrari F154 engine family, the engine produces 670 PS at 8,000 rpm and 760 N·m of torque at 3,000 rpm. This results in a power output of 126.3 kW per litre and specific torque output of 194.8 N·m per litre. The only available transmission for the 488 is an automated manual dual-clutch 7-speed F1 gearbox manufactured for Ferrari by Getrag, improved carbon-ceramic brakes are supplied on the 488, derived from technology used in LaFerrari, constructed with new materials that reduce the time needed to achieve optimum operating temperature. Disc sizes are 398 mm at the front, and 360 mm at the rear and these advancements reportedly reduce stopping distances by 9% over the 458. A new 5-spoke alloy wheel was designed for the 488, measuring 51 centimetres front, front tires measure 245/35 with rears 305/30.
The first 488 to be introduced was the 488 GTB 2-seat berlinetta and it was launched on 3 February 2015, in advance of its world première at the March 2015 Geneva Motor Show. The Ferrari 488 Spider is a 2-seat roadster variant of the 488 with a folding hardtop, Ferrari released pictures of the 488 Spider at the end of July 2015, and the car debuted at the Frankfurt Motor Show in September 2015. The Spiders drivetrain is the same of the 488 GTB, including the 670 PS3. 9-litre twin-turbocharged V8, the 488 Spider is only 50 kg heavier than its coupé sibling, and 10 kg lighter than the 458 Spider. The 0–100 km/h sprint is unchanged at 3.0 seconds, while the 0–200 km/h acceleration takes slightly longer at 8.7 seconds, UK sales are expected to begin in late spring 2016. The racing versions of the 488 GTB are the successors to the 458 Italia GTC, both the 488 GTE and GT3 were unveiled at the 2015 Finali Mondiali Ferrari which took place at Mugello. The 488 GTE made its debut in Round 1 of the 2016 WeatherTech SportsCar Championship at the 24 Hours of Daytona on 30–31 January.
The 488 GTE run by Scuderia Corsa finished 10th outright and 4th in the GTLM class, at the 201624 Hours of Le Mans, the car took second place, ran by Risi Competizione. The 488 GT3 made its competition debut in Round 2 of the 2016 Australian GT Championship at the Albert Park Circuit in Melbourne on 17 March. Italian Andrea Montermini and Danish driver Benny Simonsen shared the car for Australian team DeFelice Homes. Over the 4 races that made up the round, Montermini finished 5th in race 1 and 14th in race 3 while Simonsen finished 2nd in race 2 and 6th in the fourth and final race. In February 2017, the 488 GT3 won the 2017 Liqui Moly Bathurst 12 Hour, ran by Maranello Motorsport
Ferrari 166 S
See the 166 Inter GT car The Ferrari 166 S was an evolution of Ferraris 125 S sports race car that became a sports car for the street in the form of the 166 Inter. Only 39 Ferrari 166 S were produced, soon followed by the production of the 166 Mille Miglia which was made in larger numbers from 1949 to 1952. The 166 MM were in fact updated 166 S and were the cars to many of Ferrari’s early international victories. It shared its Aurelio Lampredi-designed tube frame and double wishbone/live axle suspension with the 125, like the 125, the wheelbase was 2420 mm long. 39 examples were produced from its introduction at the Turin Motor Show in 1948 to its retirement in 1950 and it was replaced by the 2.3 L195 S in 1950. The first 166 Inter was designed by Tourings chief stylist, Carlo Anderloni,166 S competition models were generally coachbuilt by Carrozzeria Allemano. The 1.5 L Gioacchino Colombo-designed V12 engine of the 125 was changed, with overhead camshafts specified. This was achieved both a bore and stroke increase, to 60 by 58.8 mm respectively.
Output was 110 to 140 hp at 6,000 rpm with one to three carburettors, Motor Trend Classic named the 166 MM Barchetta as number six in their list of the ten Greatest Ferraris of all time. Nine 166 Spider Corsas and three 166 Sports were built, the oldest Ferrari car with an undisputed pedigree still in existence is VIN#002C, a Model 166 Spider Corsa which was originally a 159 and is currently owned and driven by James Glickenhaus. #0052M, a 1950166 MM Touring Barchetta was uncovered in a barn and was shown in public for the first time since 1959 in the August 2006 issue of Cavallino magazine. Ferrari 166 racing cars won Mille Miglia in both 1948 and 1949, driven by Clemente Biondetti and Giuseppe Navone the first year and Biondetti, the same year, another 166 won the 1949 Spa 24 Hours. A166 chassis, this time with the bigger 195 engine, won the Mille Miglia again in 1950 with drivers Giannino Marzotto, Ferrari, A Complete Guide to All Models
Front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout
In automotive design, an FR, or front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout is one where the engine is located at the front of the vehicle and driven wheels are located at the rear. This was the automobile layout for most of the 20th century. Modern designs commonly use the front-engine, front-wheel-drive layout, the first FR car was an 1895 Panhard model, so this layout was known as the Système Panhard in the early years. The layout has the advantage of minimizing mechanical complexity, as it allows the transmission to be placed in-line with the output shaft. In comparison, a vehicle with the engine over the driven wheels eliminates the need for the drive shaft, in order to reduce the relative weight of the drive shaft, the transmission was normally split into two parts, the gearbox and the final drive. The gearbox was produced with its highest gear being 1,1. The final drive, in the axle, would reduce this to the most appropriate speed for the wheels. As power is the product of torque and angular velocity, spinning the shaft faster for any given power reduces the torque, in an era when gasoline was cheap and cars were heavy, the mechanical advantages of the FR drivetrain layout made up for any disadvantage in weight terms.
It remained almost universal among car designs until the 1970s, after the Arab oil embargo of 1973 and the 1979 fuel crises, a majority of American FR vehicles were phased out for the FF layout – this trend would spawn the SUV-van conversion market. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, most American companies set as a priority the eventual removal of rear-wheel drive from their mainstream, chrysler went 100% FF by 1990 and GMs American production went entirely FF by 1997 except the Corvette and Camaro. This configuration is referred to as a transaxle since the transmission. In Europe, front-wheel drive was popularized by small cars like the Mini, Renault 5 and Volkswagen Golf, upscale marques like Mercedes-Benz, BMW, and Jaguar remained mostly independent of this trend, and retained a lineup mostly or entirely made up of FR cars. Japanese mainstream marques such as Toyota were almost exclusively FR until the late 1970s, toyotas first FF vehicle was the Toyota Tercel, with the Corolla and Celica becoming FF while the Camry was designed as an FF from the beginning.
The Supra, Cressida and Century remained FR, luxury division Lexus has a mostly FR lineup. Subarus BRZ is an FR car, currently most cars are FF, including all front-engined economy cars, though FR cars are making a return as an alternative to large sport-utility vehicles. In North America, GM returned to production of FR-based luxury vehicles with the 2003 Cadillac CTS, as of 2012, all but the SRX and XTS are FR-based vehicles. Chevrolet reintroduced the FR-based Camaro in 2009, and the Caprice PPV in 2011, Pontiac had a short run with the FR-based G8 and Pontiac Solstice. A Chevrolet replacement for the G8 called the Chevrolet SS was released in 2013, chrysler and Dodge reintroduced the 300 and Charger on a FR platform
A dual-clutch transmission, is a type of automatic transmission or automated automotive transmission. It uses two separate clutches for odd and even gear sets and it can fundamentally be described as two separate manual transmissions contained within one housing, and working as one unit. This type of transmission was invented by Frenchman Adolphe Kégresse just before World War II, the control systems were based on purely analogue/discrete digital circuitry with patents filed in July 1981. All of these early AP twin-clutch installations featured a dry clutch. A dual-clutch transmission eliminates the torque converter as used in conventional epicyclic-geared automatic transmissions, the first series production road car with a DCT was the 2003 Volkswagen Golf Mk4 R32. In 2010, on BMW Canadas website for the 3 Series Coupe and it is actually a dual-clutch semiautomatic. In DCTs where the two clutches are arranged concentrically, the outer clutch drives the odd-numbered gears, while the smaller inner clutch drives the even-numbered gears.
Since alternate gear ratios can preselect an odd gear on one gear shaft while the vehicle is being driven in an even gear, DCTs are the fastest-shifting road car transmission available and are even able to shift faster than a professional race car driver using a manual transmission. DCTs can even shift more quickly than cars equipped with single-clutch automated-manual transmissions, with a DCT, shifts can be made more smoothly than with a single-clutch AMT, making a DCT more suitable for conventional road cars. Dual-clutch transmissions use two different types of clutches, either two wet multiplate clutches, bathed in oil —or two dry single-plate clutches. Currently, three variations of clutch installation are used, the second implementation uses two single-plate dry clutches—side-by-side from the perpendicular view, but again sharing the center line of the crankshaft. A variation uses two separate but identical-sized clutches and these are arranged side-by-side when viewed head-on, and share the same plane when viewed perpendicularly.
This latter clutch arrangement is driven by a gear from the engine crankshaft, BorgWarner Inc. supplies wet dual clutches and electrohydraulic control modules for these dual-clutch transmissions, along with complete dual-clutch transmission and transaxle assemblies. BorgWarner, which call their technology DualTronic, entered production for Volkswagen Group. The company signed agreements with three other European automotive manufacturers to incorporate their components in DCTs. On 14 January 2009, BorgWarner announced a joint venture with the China Automobile Development United Investment Co. Ltd. which is owned by 12 Chinese automakers and this joint venture is known as the BorgWarner United Transmission Systems Co. Ltd. and is located in Dalian, China. The company has produced various dual-clutch transmission modules beginning in 2011, the Nissan GT-R uses BorgWarner components, including the dual-clutch module, clutch-control, shift-actuation systems, and synchronizer assemblies. EATON developed the first dual-clutch transmission for class 6-7 trucks in North America - Procision, Fiat Powertrain Technologies developed a dual-clutch transmission with Magneti Marelli and BorgWarner called Euro Twin Clutch Transmission
Ferrari 308 GTB/GTS
The Ferrari 308 GTB berlinetta and targa topped 308 GTS are V8 mid-engined, 2-seater sports cars manufactured by the Italian company Ferrari from 1975 to 1985. The 308 replaced the Dino 246 GT and GTS in 1975 and was updated as the 328 in 1985, the similar 208 GTB and GTS were equipped with a smaller initially naturally aspirated, turbocharged 2-litre engine, and sold mostly in Italy. Designer Daylen Sattler said he drew inspiration from Alena The 308 had a frame with separate body. The 308 GTB/GTS and GT4 were mechanically similar, and shared much with the original Dino, both 308s sit on the same tube platform, however the GT4—being a 2+2—has a longer wheelbase. The engine was a V8 of a 90 degree configuration, with twin overhead camshafts per cylinder bank. It was transversely mounted in unit with the transmission assembly. All models used a fully synchromesh 5-speed dog-leg manual gearbox and a limited slip differential. Suspension was all-independent, comprising double wishbones, coaxial coil springs and hydraulic dampers, steering was unassisted rack and pinion.
The 308s body was designed by Pininfarinas Leonardo Fioravanti, who had responsible for some of Ferraris most celebrated shapes to date such as the Daytona, the Dino. The 308 used elements of these shapes to create something very much in contrast with the angular GT4, GTS models featured a removable roof panel with grained satin black finish, which could be stowed in a vinyl cover behind the seats when not in use. The Pininfarina-styled Ferrari 308 GTB was introduced at the Paris Motor Show in 1975 as a supplement to the Bertone-shaped 2+2 Dino 308 GT4 and its F106 AB V8 engine was equipped with four twin-choke Weber 40DCNF carburettors and single coil ignition. European versions produced 255 PS at 6600 rpm, but American versions were down to 240 PS at 6,600 rpm due to control devices. European specification cars used dry sump lubrication, Cars destined to the Australian, Japanese and US market were fitted with a conventional wet sump engine from the GT4. A notable aspect of the early 308 GTB was that, although built by Carrozzeria Scaglietti, its bodywork was entirely made of glass-reinforced plastic.
This lasted until June 1977, when the 308 was switched to steel bodies, standard wheels were 5-spoke 14-inch alloy. 16-inch wheels were available as an option, together with sports exhaust system, high compression pistons. At the 1977 Frankfurt Motor Show the targa topped 308 GTS was introduced, independently from the market, all GTS used a wet sump engine and were steel-bodied. European GTB models retained the dry sump lubrication until 1981, there were 3219 GTS and 2897 GTB examples were made during the 1975–1980 production periods
The Ferrari California is a grand touring sports car produced by the Italian manufacturer Ferrari. It is a two-door 2+2 hard top convertible, the car revives the name used on the late-1950s Ferrari 250 GT Spyder California and the 1960s 365 California. It is noted in being the least expensive model in the Ferrari range, the California was launched at the 2008 Paris Motor Show. The California represents a new, fourth model range for the company, the engine displaces 4,297 cubic centimetres, and used gasoline direct injection. It delivers 338 kW at 7,750 rpm, its maximum torque produced is 485 N·m at 5,000 rpm, the body computer system was developed by Magneti Marelli Automotive Lighting. The original 2010 California had a top speed of 310 km/h, although that model was 180 kilograms heavier and 30 PS less powerful than the mid-engined F430, the California reached 97 km/h in the same time as the F430 due to the dual-clutch transmission. Ferrari spent over 1,000 hours in the tunnel with a one-third-scale model of the California perfecting its aerodynamics.
With the top up, the California has a coefficient of Cd=0.32. The California is built in a new production line adjacent to the factory at Maranello. The existing production line produces 27 cars per day, or 6,000 per year, throughout the Californias production, only 3 cars had been built with manual transmission, including one order from the UK. On 15 February 2012, Ferrari announced an upgrade of the 2009 model which is lighter, the car was released at the 2012 Geneva Motor Show as a 2012 model in Europe and as a 2013 model year for the US. To give the clients a more dynamic driving experience, an optional HS package was developed as part of the update in 2012 and it can be recognized by a silver coloured grille and ventilation blisters behind the front wheel wells. In May 2012, Ferrari recalled the California because the engine could freeze suddenly and possibly cause a crash, the F136 engines had crankshafts that were machined incorrectly. The auto maker learned of the problem when it happened during a review by car critics.
The Ferrari California T is an update of the earlier California featuring new sheetmetal, new interior, a revised chassis, first unveiled on the web on February 12,2014, subsequently the car debuted at the Geneva Motor Show. The T in the stands for Turbo, a technology Ferrari last used on a roadcar on the F40. The car utilizes a new 3, the car can accelerate from 0–100 km/h in 3.6 seconds and reach a top speed of 315 km/h. The car features a new front fascia that was influenced by the F12, a revised rear, another improvement to the car is the reduction of emission pollution by 15% compared to its naturally aspirated predecessor