An electric motor is an electrical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. The reverse of this is the conversion of energy into electrical energy and is done by an electric generator. In normal motoring mode, most electric motors operate through the interaction between an electric motors magnetic field and winding currents to generate force within the motor, small motors may be found in electric watches. General-purpose motors with highly standardized dimensions and characteristics provide convenient mechanical power for industrial use, the largest of electric motors are used for ship propulsion, pipeline compression and pumped-storage applications with ratings reaching 100 megawatts. Electric motors may be classified by electric power source type, internal construction, type of motion output, perhaps the first electric motors were simple electrostatic devices created by the Scottish monk Andrew Gordon in the 1740s. The theoretical principle behind production of force by the interactions of an electric current.
The conversion of energy into mechanical energy by electromagnetic means was demonstrated by the British scientist Michael Faraday in 1821. A free-hanging wire was dipped into a pool of mercury, on which a permanent magnet was placed, when a current was passed through the wire, the wire rotated around the magnet, showing that the current gave rise to a close circular magnetic field around the wire. This motor is often demonstrated in experiments, brine substituting for toxic mercury. Though Barlows wheel was a refinement to this Faraday demonstration. In 1827, Hungarian physicist Ányos Jedlik started experimenting with electromagnetic coils, after Jedlik solved the technical problems of the continuous rotation with the invention of the commutator, he called his early devices electromagnetic self-rotors. Although they were used only for instructional purposes, in 1828 Jedlik demonstrated the first device to contain the three components of practical DC motors, the stator and commutator. The device employed no permanent magnets, as the fields of both the stationary and revolving components were produced solely by the currents flowing through their windings.
His motor set a record which was improved only four years in September 1838 by Jacobi himself. His second motor was powerful enough to drive a boat with 14 people across a wide river and it was not until 1839/40 that other developers worldwide managed to build motors of similar and also of higher performance. The first commutator DC electric motor capable of turning machinery was invented by the British scientist William Sturgeon in 1832, following Sturgeons work, a commutator-type direct-current electric motor made with the intention of commercial use was built by the American inventor Thomas Davenport, which he patented in 1837. The motors ran at up to 600 revolutions per minute, and powered machine tools, due to the high cost of primary battery power, the motors were commercially unsuccessful and Davenport went bankrupt. Several inventors followed Sturgeon in the development of DC motors but all encountered the same battery power cost issues, no electricity distribution had been developed at the time
Royal Dutch Shell
Royal Dutch Shell plc, commonly known as Shell, is a British–Dutch multinational oil and gas company headquartered in the Netherlands and incorporated in the United Kingdom. It is one of the six oil and gas supermajors and the sixth-largest company in the world measured by 2016 revenues. Shell was first in the 2013 Fortune Global 500 list of the worlds largest companies and it has renewable energy activities in the form of biofuels and wind. Shell has operations in over 70 countries, produces around 3.7 million barrels of oil equivalent per day and has 44,000 service stations worldwide, as of 31 December 2014, Shell had total proved reserves of 13.7 billion barrels of oil equivalent. Shell Oil Company, its subsidiary in the United States, is one of its largest businesses. Shell holds 50% of Raízen, a joint venture with Cosan, which is the third-largest Brazil-based energy company by revenues, Shell was formed in 1907 through the amalgamation of the Royal Dutch Petroleum Company of the Netherlands and the Shell Transport and Trading Company of the United Kingdom.
Shell first entered the industry in 1929. In 1970 Shell acquired the mining company Billiton, which it sold in 1994. In recent decades gas exploration and production has become an important part of Shells business. Shell acquired BG Group in 2016, making it the worlds largest producer of liquefied natural gas, Shell has a primary listing on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE100 Index. It has secondary listings on Euronext Amsterdam and the New York Stock Exchange, as of January 2013, Shells largest shareholder was Capital Research Global Investors with 9. 85% ahead of BlackRock in second with 6. 89%. Shells logo, known as the pecten, is one of the most familiar commercial symbols in the world and it was a move largely driven by the need to compete globally with Standard Oil. The Shell Transport and Trading Company was a British company, founded in 1897 by Marcus Samuel, 1st Viscount Bearsted, and his brother Samuel Samuel. Their father had owned a company in Houndsditch, London.
For various reasons, the new firm operated as a company, whereby the merging companies maintained their legal existence. The terms of the merger gave 60 percent ownership of the new group to the Dutch arm and 40 percent to the British, national patriotic sensibilities would not permit a full-scale merger or takeover of either of the two companies. The Dutch company, Koninklijke Nederlandsche Petroleum Maatschappij at The Hague, was in charge of production, the British Anglo-Saxon Petroleum Company was based in London, to direct the transport and storage of the products. During the First World War, Shell was the supplier of fuel to the British Expeditionary Force
2015 Canadian Grand Prix
The 2015 Canadian Grand Prix, formally known as the Formula 1 Grand Prix du Canada 2015, was a Formula One motor race held on 7 June 2015 at the Circuit Gilles Villeneuve in Montreal, Canada. The race was the round of the 2015 season. Daniel Ricciardo was the race winner, having won his first ever grand prix the year before. Lewis Hamilton of the Mercedes team won the race from pole position, leading for all and he extended his championship lead over teammate Nico Rosberg, who finished second, to 17 points. The pit-stop decision that seemingly cost Lewis Hamilton a victory at the race in Monaco was still a talking point when the paddock arrived in Canada. Max Verstappen received a grid penalty for the Canadian Grand Prix after causing a collision with Romain Grosjean in Monaco. During the final session, Toro Rosso had to equip his car with the fifth internal combustion engine of the season. As he exceeded the limit of four units per power unit element per season, minor changes were made to the last right-left chicane of the track.
Prior to the first session of the weekend, the placed a bollard in the run-off area to keep the drivers from re-entering the track too early. Ahead of the practice session on Saturday, an additional orange-coloured kerb was added on the apex of turn 14. Going into the race, Hamilton was leading the World Drivers Championship by ten points from teammate Nico Rosberg, Sebastian Vettel was third, a further 18 points behind Rosberg. In the Constructors Championship, Mercedes was leading Ferrari by 84 points, per the regulations for the 2015 season, three practice sessions were held, two 1. 5-hour sessions on Friday and another one-hour session before qualifying on Saturday. Both Lotus and Force India showed good pace with Romain Grosjean and Nico Hülkenberg being third and fourth fastest respectively, in second practice, Hamilton was again quickest but was caught out again. He went off at the turn ten hairpin and crashed his car while he was doing a run on tyres in wet conditions – a downpour of rain affected the second half of the session.
Most teams sent their drivers out only in the dry first half, Ferrari looked to be significantly closer to Mercedes, with Sebastian Vettel and Kimi Räikkönen finishing second and third respectively, less than 0.4 seconds behind Hamilton. Lotus confirmed their good pace from the first session when Pastor Maldonado was fifth fastest, the third practice session on Saturday morning was disrupted by two red flag periods. After the red flag was lifted, only minutes of the session remained. This did not last long however, as Jenson Button had to park his car at turn seven and this brought out the red flag once again, effectively ending the session
Kinetic energy recovery system
A kinetic energy recovery system is an automotive system for recovering a moving vehicles kinetic energy under braking. The recovered energy is stored in a reservoir for use under acceleration. Xtrac and Flybrid are both licensees of Torotraks technologies, which employ a small and sophisticated ancillary gearbox incorporating a continuously variable transmission, the CPC-KERS is similar as it forms part of the driveline assembly. However, the whole mechanism including the flywheel sits entirely in the vehicle’s hub, in the CPC-KERS, a differential replaces the CVT and transfers torque between the flywheel, drive wheel and road wheel. The first of these systems to be revealed was the Flybrid and this system weighs 24 kg and has an energy capacity of 400 kJ after allowing for internal losses. A maximum power boost of 60 kW for 6.67 seconds is available, the 240 mm diameter flywheel weighs 5.0 kg and revolves at up to 64,500 rpm. Maximum torque at the flywheel is 18 Nm, and the torque at the connection is correspondingly higher for the change in speed.
The system occupies a volume of 13 litres, already in 2006, a first KERS system based on supercapacitors has been studied at EPFL in the framework of the development of the Formula S2000. A 180kJ system has developed in collaboration with other institutes. Two minor incidents were reported during testing of various KERS systems in 2008, the first occurred when the Red Bull Racing team tested their KERS battery for the first time in July, it malfunctioned and caused a fire scare that led to the teams factory being evacuated. The second was less than a week when a BMW Sauber mechanic was given a shock when he touched Christian Kliens KERS-equipped car during a test at the Jerez circuit. Formula One has stated that they support responsible solutions to the environmental challenges. Teams began testing systems in 2008, energy can either be stored as energy or as electrical energy. With the introduction of KERS in the 2009 season, only four teams used it at point in the season, Renault, BMW. Eventually, during the season, Renault and BMW stopped using the system, vodafone McLaren Mercedes became the first team to win an F1 GP using a KERS equipped car when Lewis Hamilton won the Hungarian Grand Prix on July 26,2009.
Their second KERS equipped car finished fifth, at the following race, Lewis Hamilton became the first driver to take pole position with a KERS car, his team mate, Heikki Kovalainen qualifying second. This was the first instance of an all KERS front row, on August 30,2009, Kimi Räikkönen won the Belgian Grand Prix with his KERS equipped Ferrari. It was the first time that KERS contributed directly to a victory, with second placed Giancarlo Fisichella claiming Actually
Mercedes F1 W06 Hybrid
The cars were driven by 2008 and 2014 World Drivers Champion Lewis Hamilton and Nico Rosberg, both of whom remained with the team for a third and sixth season, respectively. The car made its debut at the 2015 Australian Grand Prix. After participating in 18 rounds of Grand Prix racing, the car made its final appearance at the season finale race – the 2015 Abu Dhabi Grand Prix. This was the last Mercedes car to feature sponsorship from BlackBerry, the F1 W06 Hybrid was the successor of the highly successful F1 W05 Hybrid, which has been described as one of the most dominant in the sports history. The new car was seen as a design, with Lewis Hamilton declaring that it is difficult to pick up any differences between the two. Differences in design, apart from regulated changes for noses and front wings, were minimal, the car underwent several changes over the course of the season, although not all of them were permanent. In Spain, the team arrived with narrower sidepots, including an air duct at the bottom.
The larger part necessitated a bulge on the engine cover, the curve rear wing was again used at the notable track, Autodromo Nazionale Monza, hosting the 2015 Italian Grand Prix. The F1 W06 Hybrid was officially unveiled on 1 February 2015 at the day of pre-season testing held at Circuito de Jerez. The car was driven by 2015 DTM Champion, Pascal Wehrlein during in-season testings. Both cars finished on the podium for 9 consecutive races, matching the record held by Ferrari – from the 1952 Belgian Grand Prix to the 1953 Belgian Grand Prix, the team clinched their second consecutive Constructors Championship at the Russian Grand Prix, the 15th race of the season. Hamilton clinched his third Drivers championship one race at the United States Grand Prix after gaining his tenth win of the season. In the nineteen races, the F1 W06 Hybrid took sixteen wins, eighteen positions, thirteen fastest laps, fifteen front row lockouts. The competitiveness and performance of F1 W06 Hybrid had set numerous number of records, like its predecessor, the F1 W06 Hybrid started the season strongly.
Lewis Hamilton took pole position for the season-opening Australian Grand Prix and Rosberg moved clear of the field at the start of the race, and ultimately recorded a 1–2 finish, over half a minute clear of Ferraris Sebastian Vettel, who finished in third place. Mercedes finished the race both cars on the podium, behind Vettel therefore allowing him to close to within three points of Hamilton in the drivers standings after two rounds. Hamilton took his fourth pole position at the Bahrain Grand Prix while Rosberg qualified third. After four rounds, Mercedes had a 52-point lead over Ferrari, Rosberg took his first pole position of 2015, at the Spanish Grand Prix, beating his teammate Hamilton by over a quarter of a second, with Vettel in third position
The geometry of honeycomb structures can vary widely but the common feature of all such structures is an array of hollow cells formed between thin vertical walls. The cells are columnar and hexagonal in shape. A honeycomb shaped structure provides a material with minimal density and relative high out-of-plane compression properties, man-made honeycomb structural materials are commonly made by layering a honeycomb material between two thin layers that provide strength in tension. Honeycomb materials are used where flat or slightly curved surfaces are needed. They can be found in other fields, from packaging materials in the form of paper-based honeycomb cardboard, to sporting goods like skis. Natural honeycomb structures include beehives, honeycomb weathering in rocks, man-made honeycomb structures include sandwich-structured composites with honeycomb cores. The strength of laminated or sandwich panels depends on the size of the panel, facing material used, Honeycomb composites are used widely in many industries, from aerospace industries and furniture to packaging and logistics.
The material takes its name from its resemblance to a bees honeycomb – a hexagonal sheet structure. The hexagonal comb of the bee has been admired and wondered about from ancient times. The first man-made honeycomb is said to have been manufactured by Daedalus from gold by lost wax casting more than 3000 years ago, Marcus Varro reports that the Greek geometricians Euclid and Zenodorus found that the hexagon shape makes most efficient use of space and building materials. The interior ribbing and hidden chambers in the dome of the Pantheon in Rome is an example of a honeycomb structure. The first paper honeycomb structures might have made by the Chinese 2000 years ago for ornaments. Paper honeycombs and the production process has been invented in Halle/Saale in Germany by Hans Heilbrun in 1901 for decorative applications. First honeycomb structures from corrugated metal sheets had been proposed for bee keeping in 1890, for the same purpose, as foundation sheets to harvest more honey, a honeycomb moulding process using a paper paste glue mixture had been patented in 1878.
The three basic techniques for production that are still used today—expansion and moulding—were already developed by 1901 for non-sandwich applications. Hugo Junkers first explored the idea of a core within a laminate structure. He proposed and patented the first honeycomb cores for aircraft application in 1915, the problem of bonding a continuous skin to cellular cores led Junkers to the open corrugated structure, which could be riveted or welded together. The first use of structures for structural applications had been independently proposed for building application
Mercedes-Benz in Formula One
Mercedes-Benz is currently involved in Formula One, running Mercedes-AMG Petronas Motorsport, a Formula One racing team, based in Brackley, United Kingdom, using a German licence. Mercedes-Benz had competed in the pre-war European Championship winning three titles, and debuted in Formula One in 1954, running a team for two years. After winning their first race at the 1954 French Grand Prix and it supplied Sauber for one season, switched to McLaren in 1995. In 2009 they became suppliers of Brawn GP and Force India, Mercedes-Benz returned with a factory team in 2010 after the purchase of Brawn. A fourth team was added to the program in 2014. For the 2015 season, the 20-year long partnership with McLaren ended, Mercedes supplied engines to the Lotus F1 team, before switching to Manor in 2016. The manufacturer has collected more than 100 wins as engine supplier, five Constructors and seven Drivers Championships have been won with Mercedes-Benz engines. Mercedes has become one of the most successful teams in recent Formula One history, in 2014, Mercedes managed 11 one-two finishes beating McLarens 1988 record of 10.
The record was beaten the year having achieved 12 one-two finishes. Mercedes collected 16 victories in 2014 and 2015 apiece breaking McLaren, in 2016, they broke their own record, achieving 19 wins. Mercedes-Benz formerly competed in Grand Prix motor racing in the 1930s, both teams were heavily funded by the Nazi regime, winning all European Grand Prix Championships after 1932, of which Rudolf Caracciola won three for Mercedes-Benz. In 1954, Mercedes-Benz returned to what was now known as Formula One under the leadership of Alfred Neubauer, the car was run in both the conventional open-wheeled configuration and a streamlined form, which featured covered wheels and wider bodywork. Juan Manuel Fangio, the 1951 champion, transferred mid-season from Maserati to Mercedes-Benz for their debut at the French Grand Prix on 4 July 1954, the team had immediate success and recorded a 1–2 victory with Fangio and Karl Kling, as well as the fastest lap. Fangio went on to win three races in 1954, winning the championship.
The success continued into the 1955 season, with Mercedes-Benz developing the W196 throughout the year, Mercedes-Benz again dominated the season, with Fangio taking four races, and his new team mate Stirling Moss winning the British Grand Prix. Fangio and Moss finished first and second in that years championship, at the end of the season, the team withdrew from motor sport, including Formula One. Following the purchase of the team, as well as a deal with Petronas. BAR, who had formed a partnership with Honda, eventually became Honda Racing F1 Team in 2006 when BAT withdrew from the sport
Carbon fiber reinforced polymer
Carbon fiber reinforced polymer, carbon fiber reinforced plastic or carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic, is an extremely strong and light fiber-reinforced plastic which contains carbon fibers. The spelling fibre is common in British Commonwealth countries, the binding polymer is often a thermoset resin such as epoxy, but other thermoset or thermoplastic polymers, such as polyester, vinyl ester or nylon, are sometimes used. The composite may contain other fibers, such as an aramid, ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene or glass fibers, the properties of the final CFRP product can be affected by the type of additives introduced to the binding matrix. The most frequent additive is silica, but other such as rubber. The material is referred to as graphite-reinforced polymer or graphite fiber-reinforced polymer. In product advertisements, it is referred to simply as graphite fiber for short. In this case the composite consists of two parts, a matrix and a reinforcement, in CFRP the reinforcement is carbon fiber, which provides the strength.
The matrix is usually a resin, such as epoxy. Because CFRP consists of two elements, the material properties depend on these two elements. The reinforcement will give the CFRP its strength and rigidity, measured by stress, unlike isotropic materials like steel and aluminum, CFRP has directional strength properties. The properties of CFRP depend on the layouts of the carbon fiber, the following equation, E c = V m E m + V f E f is valid for composite materials with the fibers oriented in the direction of the applied load. Typical epoxy-based CFRPs exhibit virtually no plasticity, with less than 0. 5% strain to failure, although CFRPs with epoxy have high strength and elastic modulus, the brittle fracture mechanics present unique challenges to engineers in failure detection since failure occurs catastrophically. As such, recent efforts to toughen CFRPs include modifying the existing epoxy material, One such material with high promise is PEEK, which exhibits an order of magnitude greater toughness with similar elastic modulus and tensile strength.
However, PEEK is much more difficult to process and more expensive, despite its high initial strength-to-weight ratio, a design limitation of CFRP is its lack of a definable fatigue endurance limit. This means, that stress cycle failure cannot be ruled out, environmental effects such as temperature and humidity can have profound effects on the polymer-based composites, including most CFRPs. While the carbon fibers themselves are not affected by the moisture diffusing into the material, the carbon fibers can cause galvanic corrosion when CRP parts are attached to aluminum. The primary element of CFRP is a filament, this is produced from a precursor polymer such as polyacrylonitrile, rayon. Precursor compositions and mechanical processes used during spinning filament yarns may vary among manufacturers, after drawing or spinning, the polymer filament yarns are heated to drive off non-carbon atoms, producing the final carbon fiber
A transmission is a machine in a power transmission system, which provides controlled application of the power. Often the term refers simply to the gearbox that uses gears and gear trains to provide speed. In British English, the term refers to the whole drivetrain, including clutch, prop shaft, differential. In American English, the term more specifically to the gearbox alone. The most common use is in vehicles, where the transmission adapts the output of the internal combustion engine to the drive wheels. Such engines need to operate at a high rotational speed, which is inappropriate for starting, stopping. The transmission reduces the engine speed to the slower wheel speed. Transmissions are used on bicycles, fixed machines. Often, a transmission has multiple gear ratios with the ability to switch between them as speed varies and this switching may be done manually or automatically. Directional control may be provided, single-ratio transmissions exist, which simply change the speed and torque of motor output.
The output of the transmission is transmitted via the driveshaft to one or more differentials, while a differential may provide gear reduction, its primary purpose is to permit the wheels at either end of an axle to rotate at different speeds as it changes the direction of rotation. Conventional gear/belt transmissions are not the mechanism for speed/torque adaptation. Alternative mechanisms include torque converters and power transformation, automatic transmissions use a valve body to shift gears using fluid pressures in conjunction with an ecm. Early transmissions included the right-angle drives and other gearing in windmills, horse-powered devices, and steam engines, in support of pumping, most modern gearboxes are used to increase torque while reducing the speed of a prime mover output shaft. This means that the shaft of a gearbox rotates at a slower rate than the input shaft. A gearbox can be set up to do the opposite and provide an increase in speed with a reduction of torque. Some of the simplest gearboxes merely change the rotational direction of power transmission.
Many typical automobile transmissions include the ability to select one of several gear ratios, in this case, most of the gear ratios are used to slow down the output speed of the engine and increase torque
2015 Hungarian Grand Prix
The 2015 Hungarian Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race that took place on 26 July 2015 at the Hungaroring in Mogyoród, Hungary. It was the round of the 2015 Formula One season. Daniel Ricciardo of Red Bull was the race winner, while Lewis Hamilton of Mercedes came into the race with a 17-point lead over teammate Nico Rosberg. During Saturdays qualifying, Hamilton took his ninth pole position of the season in only the tenth race, ahead of Rosberg. At the start of the race the two Ferrari drivers Sebastian Vettel and Kimi Räikkönen took first and second respectively from the Mercedes, as a result, Hamilton extended his lead over Rosberg to 21 points, while Vettel moved closer to the pair, another 21 points behind Rosberg. Drivers and teams paid tribute to Bianchi, many of them in the form of written on helmets. A minute of silence was held before the start on Sunday in commemoration of Bianchi. The drivers, and members of the Bianchi family, linked in an arm in arm. Tyre supplier Pirelli opted to bring the soft and white-marked medium tyres to the Hungaroring.
Minor changes were made to the track, renewing catch fences and tyre barriers, the track is considered to be one of the slowest in the calendar, with the fourteen corners and few straights making it hard to overtake. Going into the weekend, Lewis Hamilton was leading the championship with 194 points,17 more than his closest rival. Third placed Sebastian Vettel was another 42 points behind, followed by Valtteri Bottas on 77 points, in the constructors standings, Mercedes was leading on 371, followed by Ferrari with 211 points, and Williams a further 60 points behind. Per the regulations for the 2015 season, three sessions were held, two 1. 5-hour sessions on Friday and another one-hour session before qualifying on Saturday. Lewis Hamilton was fastest in the first practice session on Friday morning, Sebastian Vettel missed the first half-hour of practice due to electrical problems on his Ferrari SF15-T. He eventually was sixth quickest,1.254 seconds down on Hamilton, the session was red-flagged around the hour mark, when Sergio Pérez crashed heavily in turn 11.
Going into the corner, he lost the rear and spun into the barrier. The wheel caused the Force India to flip over when the car bounced back to the track, after the car came to a rest upside down, Pérez was quick to inform his team that he was unharmed. Racing resumed fifteen minutes later, only to be interrupted once more when Kimi Räikkönens front wing came off in turn 12, Räikkönen ultimately finished the session in third place, having put in his fastest lap before the incident
Scuderia Ferrari S. p. A. competing as Scuderia Ferrari is the official name of the racing division of luxury Italian auto manufacturer and competes in Formula One racing. It is the oldest surviving and most successful Formula One team, the team was founded by Enzo Ferrari, initially to race cars produced by Alfa Romeo, though by 1947 Ferrari had begun building its own cars. As a constructor, Ferrari has a record 16 Constructors Championships, Alberto Ascari, Juan Manuel Fangio, Mike Hawthorn, Phil Hill, John Surtees, Niki Lauda, Jody Scheckter, Michael Schumacher and Kimi Räikkönen have won a record 15 Drivers Championships for the team. Since Räikkönens title in 2007 the team narrowly lost out on the 2008 drivers title with Felipe Massa, Schumacher is the teams most successful driver. Joining the team in 1996 and departing in 2006 he won five titles and 72 Grands Prix for the team. His titles came consecutively between 2000 and 2004, including the constructors title of 1999 consecutively being won until the end of 2004, this was the teams most successful period.
Currently, World Champions Kimi Räikkönen and Sebastian Vettel are the two race drivers. The team is known for its passionate support base known as the tifosi. The Italian Grand Prix at Monza is regarded as the home race. The Scuderia Ferrari team was founded by Enzo Ferrari on 16 November 1929 and became the team of Alfa Romeo. In 1938, Alfa Romeo management made the decision to enter racing under its own name, establishing the Alfa Corse organisation, Enzo Ferrari disagreed with this change in policy and was finally dismissed by Alfa in 1939. The terms of his leaving forbade him from motorsport under his own name, in 1939 Ferrari started work on a racecar of his own, the Tipo 815. The 815s, designed by Alberto Massimino, were thus the first Ferrari cars, World War II put a temporary end to racing, and Ferrari concentrated on an alternative use for his factory during the war years, doing machine tool work. After the war, Ferrari recruited several of his former Alfa colleagues and established a new Scuderia Ferrari, the team owns and operates a test track on the same site, the Fiorano Circuit built in 1972, which is used for testing road and race cars.
The team is named after its founder, Enzo Ferrari, Scuderia is Italian for a stable reserved for racing horses and is commonly applied to Italian motor racing teams. In 1947 Ferrari constructed the 12-cylinder,1.5 L Tipo 125, a Formula One version of the Tipo 125, the Ferrari 125 F1 was developed in 1948 and entered in several Grand Prix, at the time a World Championship had not yet been established. In 1950, the Formula One World Championship was established, and it is the only team to have competed in every season of the World Championship, from its inception to the current day. The company switched to the large-displacement naturally aspirated formula for the 275,340, after the 1951 Formula One season the Alfa team withdrew from F1, causing the authorities to adopt the Formula Two regulations due to the lack of suitable F1 cars