Hybrid electric vehicle
A hybrid electric vehicle is a type of hybrid vehicle and electric vehicle that combines a conventional internal combustion engine propulsion system with an electric propulsion system. The presence of the powertrain is intended to achieve either better fuel economy than a conventional vehicle or better performance. There are a variety of HEV types, and the degree to which functions as an electric vehicle varies as well. The most common form of HEV is the electric car, although hybrid electric trucks. Many HEVs reduce idle emissions by shutting down the ICE at idle and restarting it when needed, as of January 2017, over 12 million hybrid electric vehicles have been sold worldwide since their inception in 1997.5 million hybrids delivered since 2000. Japan has the worlds highest hybrid market penetration, in 2016 the hybrid market share accounted for 38% of new standard passenger car sales, and 25. 7% of new passenger vehicle sales including kei cars. Norway ranks second with a market share of 6.
9% of new car sales in 2014, followed by the Netherlands with 3. 7%, France and Sweden. As of January 2017, worldwide sales are led by the Toyota Prius liftback. The Prius nameplate had sold more than 6 million hybrids up to January 2017, global Lexus hybrid sales achieved the 1 million unit milestone in March 2016. As of January 2017, the conventional Prius is the all-time bst-selling hybrid car in both Japan and the U. S. with sales of over 1.8 million in Japan and 1.75 million in the United States. The internal combustion engine of many parallel hybrids can act as a generator for supplemental recharging, in series hybrids, only the electric motor drives the drivetrain, and a smaller ICE works as a generator to power the electric motor or to recharge the batteries. They usually have a battery pack than parallel hybrids. Once the batteries are low, the combustion engine can generate power at its optimum settings at all times. Power-split hybrids have the benefits of a combination of series and parallel characteristics, examples of power-split hybrid powertrains include current models of Ford, General Motors, Lexus and Toyota.
In each of the hybrids above it is common to use regenerative braking to recharge the batteries, full hybrid, sometimes called a strong hybrid, is a vehicle that can run on just the engine, just the batteries, or a combination of both. Fords hybrid system, Toyotas Hybrid Synergy Drive and General Motors/Chryslers Two-Mode Hybrid technologies are full hybrid systems, the Toyota Prius, Ford Escape Hybrid, and Ford Fusion Hybrid are examples of full hybrids, as these cars can be moved forward on battery power alone. A large, high-capacity battery pack is needed for battery-only operation and these vehicles have a split power path allowing greater flexibility in the drivetrain by interconverting mechanical and electrical power, at some cost in complexity. Mild hybrid, is a vehicle that cannot be solely on its electric motor
Kinetic energy recovery system
A kinetic energy recovery system is an automotive system for recovering a moving vehicles kinetic energy under braking. The recovered energy is stored in a reservoir for use under acceleration. Xtrac and Flybrid are both licensees of Torotraks technologies, which employ a small and sophisticated ancillary gearbox incorporating a continuously variable transmission, the CPC-KERS is similar as it forms part of the driveline assembly. However, the whole mechanism including the flywheel sits entirely in the vehicle’s hub, in the CPC-KERS, a differential replaces the CVT and transfers torque between the flywheel, drive wheel and road wheel. The first of these systems to be revealed was the Flybrid and this system weighs 24 kg and has an energy capacity of 400 kJ after allowing for internal losses. A maximum power boost of 60 kW for 6.67 seconds is available, the 240 mm diameter flywheel weighs 5.0 kg and revolves at up to 64,500 rpm. Maximum torque at the flywheel is 18 Nm, and the torque at the connection is correspondingly higher for the change in speed.
The system occupies a volume of 13 litres, already in 2006, a first KERS system based on supercapacitors has been studied at EPFL in the framework of the development of the Formula S2000. A 180kJ system has developed in collaboration with other institutes. Two minor incidents were reported during testing of various KERS systems in 2008, the first occurred when the Red Bull Racing team tested their KERS battery for the first time in July, it malfunctioned and caused a fire scare that led to the teams factory being evacuated. The second was less than a week when a BMW Sauber mechanic was given a shock when he touched Christian Kliens KERS-equipped car during a test at the Jerez circuit. Formula One has stated that they support responsible solutions to the environmental challenges. Teams began testing systems in 2008, energy can either be stored as energy or as electrical energy. With the introduction of KERS in the 2009 season, only four teams used it at point in the season, Renault, BMW. Eventually, during the season, Renault and BMW stopped using the system, vodafone McLaren Mercedes became the first team to win an F1 GP using a KERS equipped car when Lewis Hamilton won the Hungarian Grand Prix on July 26,2009.
Their second KERS equipped car finished fifth, at the following race, Lewis Hamilton became the first driver to take pole position with a KERS car, his team mate, Heikki Kovalainen qualifying second. This was the first instance of an all KERS front row, on August 30,2009, Kimi Räikkönen won the Belgian Grand Prix with his KERS equipped Ferrari. It was the first time that KERS contributed directly to a victory, with second placed Giancarlo Fisichella claiming Actually
Margherita of Savoy
Princess Margherita of Savoy, was the Queen consort of the Kingdom of Italy by marriage to Umberto I. Margherita was born to Prince Ferdinand, Duke of Genoa and Princess Elisabeth of Saxony and her father died in 1855, and her mother remarried morganatically to Major Nicholas Rapallo. She was educated by countess Clelia Monticelli di Casalrosso and her Austrian governess Rosa Arbesser, she was given a more advanced education than most princesses at the time, and displayed a great deal of intellectual curiosity. As a person, she was described as sensitive and with a force of will without being hard. To her appearance, she was described as a tall, stately blonde, she was suggested to marry prince Charles of Romania. After the wedding, the crown prince settled in Naples. On 11 November 1869, Margherita gave birth to Victor Emmanuel, Prince of Naples, Victor Emmanuel III of Italy and their son was therefore to remain their only child. Margherita was raised with the idea of monarchy with the ideal of enlightened despotism.
She became an asset in this role with her ability to say and do the right things to effectively arouse public enthusiasm. In January 1871, after the unification of Italy and the proclamation of Rome as the capital of Italy. Margherita became queen of Italy upon the succession of Umberto to the throne 9 January 1878, in the critical situation that year, with the king and the pope as well as an assassination attempt against the new king, Umberto reportedly asked Margherita of politic advise. She founded cultural institutions, notably the Società del Quartetto, Queen Margherita fostered loyalty toward the monarchy by social and charitable work. She frequently visited and acted as the benefactor of hospitals and institutions for children, the queen, was close to her son and strengthen her relation to him even further after his wedding. Queen Margherita was involved in affairs, viewing democracy as a potential threat to the monarchy. As a nationalist, she did not hesitate to support First Italo-Ethiopian War in 1896, in contrast to Umberto, as a center figure of the conservative forces, she supported the repressive actions toward the rioters in Milan in 1898, which lead to the Bava-Beccaris massacre.
At 4,554 metres the Capanna Regina Margherita, remains the highest hut in Europe, Margherita accepted the position of Honorary President of the Ladies Alpine Club. On 29 July 1900 Umberto I, after the murders by anarchists Giovanni Passannante and Pietro Acciarito, was killed by another anarchist. Margherita was met with an amount of sympathy as the widow of an assassinated monarch
An electric motor is an electrical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. The reverse of this is the conversion of energy into electrical energy and is done by an electric generator. In normal motoring mode, most electric motors operate through the interaction between an electric motors magnetic field and winding currents to generate force within the motor, small motors may be found in electric watches. General-purpose motors with highly standardized dimensions and characteristics provide convenient mechanical power for industrial use, the largest of electric motors are used for ship propulsion, pipeline compression and pumped-storage applications with ratings reaching 100 megawatts. Electric motors may be classified by electric power source type, internal construction, type of motion output, perhaps the first electric motors were simple electrostatic devices created by the Scottish monk Andrew Gordon in the 1740s. The theoretical principle behind production of force by the interactions of an electric current.
The conversion of energy into mechanical energy by electromagnetic means was demonstrated by the British scientist Michael Faraday in 1821. A free-hanging wire was dipped into a pool of mercury, on which a permanent magnet was placed, when a current was passed through the wire, the wire rotated around the magnet, showing that the current gave rise to a close circular magnetic field around the wire. This motor is often demonstrated in experiments, brine substituting for toxic mercury. Though Barlows wheel was a refinement to this Faraday demonstration. In 1827, Hungarian physicist Ányos Jedlik started experimenting with electromagnetic coils, after Jedlik solved the technical problems of the continuous rotation with the invention of the commutator, he called his early devices electromagnetic self-rotors. Although they were used only for instructional purposes, in 1828 Jedlik demonstrated the first device to contain the three components of practical DC motors, the stator and commutator. The device employed no permanent magnets, as the fields of both the stationary and revolving components were produced solely by the currents flowing through their windings.
His motor set a record which was improved only four years in September 1838 by Jacobi himself. His second motor was powerful enough to drive a boat with 14 people across a wide river and it was not until 1839/40 that other developers worldwide managed to build motors of similar and also of higher performance. The first commutator DC electric motor capable of turning machinery was invented by the British scientist William Sturgeon in 1832, following Sturgeons work, a commutator-type direct-current electric motor made with the intention of commercial use was built by the American inventor Thomas Davenport, which he patented in 1837. The motors ran at up to 600 revolutions per minute, and powered machine tools, due to the high cost of primary battery power, the motors were commercially unsuccessful and Davenport went bankrupt. Several inventors followed Sturgeon in the development of DC motors but all encountered the same battery power cost issues, no electricity distribution had been developed at the time
Sebastian Vettel is a German racing driver, currently driving in Formula One for Scuderia Ferrari. He is a four-time Formula One World Champion, having won the championship in 2010,2011,2012 and 2013 with Red Bull Racing and he is among the most successful F1 drivers of all time. He is one of four drivers to have won four or more drivers titles. He is contracted to remain as a Formula One driver with Scuderia Ferrari until at least the end of 2017. Vettel started his career in Formula One as a test driver for BMW Sauber and made his debut with the team at the 2007 United States Grand Prix, in the season, he signed with Toro Rosso and stayed with the team into 2008. He became the youngest race winner at the time when he took victory at the 2008 Italian Grand Prix, in his first year driving for Red Bull in 2009, Vettel finished the season as the youngest-ever World Drivers Championship runner-up. The following year he went on to become the youngest driver ever to win the World Drivers Championship, in the same year he helped Red Bull win the teams first World Constructors Championship.
He followed up his first championship with three titles, becoming the youngest double and quadruple world champion in Formula One. The 2011 and 2013 titles saw Vettel dominating the seasons and wrapping up the titles early, after his winless 2014 season he returned to winning ways in his first Ferrari season, being the closest challenger to the dominant Mercedes cars and winning three races. He is currently in place among all time race winners. Vettel was born in Heppenheim, West Germany, to Norbert and he has one younger brother and two older sisters, Melanie, a dental technician, and Stefanie, a physiotherapist for disabled children. Vettel suggested in an interview that he was terrible at school, Vettel is a fan of The Beatles, collecting several records, including Abbey Road and his favourite song being Drive My Car. In an interview on Top Gear, Vettel stated that he was a fan of British comedy such as Little Britain, Vettel lives in Thurgovia, Switzerland amongst other racing drivers and is a fan of German football team Eintracht Frankfurt.
Vettel has described himself as competitive and impatient, Vettel appears in advertisements for Head & Shoulders. Vettel provided the voice of character Sebastian Schnell in the version of the movie Cars 2 dubbed for German-speaking audiences, Vettel is in a relationship with Hanna Prater, a childhood friend. In January 2014, Vettel became a father for the first time with the birth of his daughter, in September 2015, Vettel became a father for the second time with the birth of his second daughter, Matilda. In 2015, Forbes estimated that Vettels annual income was $33 million, on the Formula One circuit, Kimi Räikkönen, his Ferrari teammate for 2015 to 2017, is a close friend. Vettel shows to have a friendship with fellow drivers such as Lewis Hamilton, Michael Schumacher, Nico Rosberg with whom he repeatedly showcases a close
A queen consort is the wife of a reigning king. In Brunei, the wife of the Sultan is known as a Raja Isteri with prefix Pengiran Anak, equivalent with queen consort in English, a queen consort usually shares her husbands social rank and status. She holds the equivalent of the kings monarchical titles, but historically, she does not share the kings political. A queen regnant is a queen in her own right with all the powers of a monarch, where some title other than that of king is held by the sovereign, his wife is referred to by the feminine equivalent, such as princess consort or empress consort. In monarchies where polygamy has been practiced in the past, or is practiced today. In Morocco, King Mohammed VI has broken with tradition and given his wife, Lalla Salma, prior to the reign of King Mohammed VI, the Moroccan monarchy had no such title. In Thailand, the king and queen must both be of royal descent, the kings other consorts are accorded royal titles that confer status. Other cultures maintain different traditions on queenly status, a Zulu chieftain designates one of his wives Great Wife, which would be the equivalent to queen consort.
Conversely, in Yorubaland, all of a chiefs princess consorts are essentially of equal rank, in general, the consorts of monarchs have no power per se, even when their position is constitutionally or statutorily recognized. In some cases, the queen consort has been the power behind her husbands throne, e. g. Maria Luisa of Parma. Past queens consort, Queen Jang, consort to Sukjong of Joseon
Turbochargers were originally known as turbosuperchargers when all forced induction devices were classified as superchargers. Nowadays the term supercharger is usually applied only to mechanically driven forced induction devices, compared to a mechanically driven supercharger, turbochargers tend to be more efficient, but less responsive. Twincharger refers to an engine with both a supercharger and a turbocharger, turbochargers are commonly used on truck, train and construction equipment engines. They are most often used with Otto cycle and Diesel cycle internal combustion engines and they have been found useful in automotive fuel cells. Forced induction dates from the late 19th century, when Gottlieb Daimler patented the technique of using a pump to force air into an internal combustion engine in 1885. During World War I French engineer Auguste Rateau fitted turbochargers to Renault engines powering various French fighters with some success, in 1918, General Electric engineer Sanford Alexander Moss attached a turbocharger to a V12 Liberty aircraft engine.
Turbochargers were first used in aircraft engines such as the Napier Lioness in the 1920s. Ships and locomotives equipped with turbocharged diesel engines began appearing in the 1920s, turbochargers were used in aviation, most widely used by the United States. During World War II, notable examples of U. S. aircraft with turbochargers include the B-17 Flying Fortress, B-24 Liberator, P-38 Lightning, and P-47 Thunderbolt. Turbochargers are widely used in car and commercial vehicles because they allow smaller-capacity engines to have improved fuel economy, reduced emissions, higher power, in contrast to turbochargers, superchargers are mechanically driven by the engine. Belts, chains and gears are common methods of powering a supercharger, for example, on the single-stage single-speed supercharged Rolls-Royce Merlin engine, the supercharger uses about 150 horsepower. Yet the benefits outweigh the costs, for the 150 hp to drive the supercharger the engine generates an additional 400-horsepower, a net gain of 250 hp.
This is where the principal disadvantage of a supercharger becomes apparent, another disadvantage of some superchargers is lower adiabatic efficiency as compared to turbochargers. Adiabatic efficiency is a measure of an ability to compress air without adding excess heat to that air. Even under ideal conditions, the compression process always results in elevated temperature, however. Roots superchargers impart significantly more heat to the air than turbochargers, for a given volume and pressure of air, the turbocharged air is cooler, and as a result denser, containing more oxygen molecules, and therefore more potential power than the supercharged air. In practical application the disparity between the two can be dramatic, with turbochargers often producing 15% to 30% more power based solely on the differences in adiabatic efficiency. By comparison, a turbocharger does not place a direct mechanical load on the engine, although turbochargers place exhaust back pressure on engines, in contrast to supercharging, the primary disadvantage of turbocharging is what is referred to as lag or spool time
Shell V-Power, known as Shell V-Power Nitro+, is the brand name given to Shells enhanced high specification fuels for road motor vehicles. Shell launched the fuel in March 2008 under the name Nitrogen-Enriched Shell V-Power, initially used for higher octane Super Unleaded petrol/gasoline, it is now additionally used for high specification diesel fuel. Petrol or gasoline is assessed and sold by an octane rating, generally, in most areas of the world, the Research Octane Number is used, but in North America, the Anti-Knock Index is used. Conventional standard Super Unleaded petrol in Europe, South Asia and Australia has an rating of 95 RON. However, higher octane Super Plus Unleaded - often formulated with higher quality additives, is set at around 98 RON in mainland Europe. Most oil/petroleum companies now market their own Super Plus Unleaded petrols under a unique name -, like most Super Plus Unleaded petrols, V-Power contains higher concentrations of detergents and other additives to help clean the engine and smooth its operation.
In the United Kingdom and Denmark, V-Power has a rating of 99 RON, there is one other 99 RON fuel available in the UK, namely Tesco MOMENTUM99. In The Netherlands, V-Power used to have a 95 RON rating, due to the limited categories of 92 RON,95 RON,98 RON and 100 RON. it was officially rated at 95. These days, the RON rating of the V-power petrol in the Netherlands is rated at 98, in Germany, all Shell stations offer V-Power Racing 100, rated at 100 RON. In Greece, all Shell stations offer V-Power rated at 97 RON, most Shell stations offer V-Power Racing. In Australia, from October 2006, Shell and Coles Express re-branded Optimax to V-Power, V-Power Racing, the ultra-high performance variant has a rating of 100 RON although Shell have decided to phase out V-Power Racing from 21 July to mid August 2008, instead recommending V-Power. The previously obtainable higher grade V-Power Racing which contained 5% ethanol to boost V-Powers octane rating to 100 RON has now been phased out by Shell due to a changing market, in the United States, at around 2004, all U. S.
Shell Premium gas was rebranded as V-Power, in 2015, Shell re-branded V-Power to the newly launched V-Power Nitro+. In Canada, from June 2005, Shell Canada re-branded Optimax Gold to V-Power, in 2015, Shell Canada re-branded V-Power to V-Power Nitro+. In Hong Kong, as there is no oil refinery plant located in Hong Kong, Gasoline was imported from Singapore, however, V-Power sold in gas stations rumored reach 107 RON. Such figure is not supported by actual test, nor is it confirmed by Shell, in New Zealand, from 2007, Shell rebranded 95 Premium Unleaded as V-Power. It was still rated at 95 RON, Shell sold its New Zealand retail operations in 2010 to a consortium which became Z Energy, and upon re-branding Shell V-Power was replaced with ZX Premium Unleaded. In Sweden, Shell V-Power was previously 99 RON, but is now been re-branded under the new owner St1 from June 2011 to Shell V-Power E5 making it 98 RON with a mix of 5% ethanol