Kinetic energy recovery system
A kinetic energy recovery system is an automotive system for recovering a moving vehicles kinetic energy under braking. The recovered energy is stored in a reservoir for use under acceleration. Xtrac and Flybrid are both licensees of Torotraks technologies, which employ a small and sophisticated ancillary gearbox incorporating a continuously variable transmission, the CPC-KERS is similar as it forms part of the driveline assembly. However, the whole mechanism including the flywheel sits entirely in the vehicle’s hub, in the CPC-KERS, a differential replaces the CVT and transfers torque between the flywheel, drive wheel and road wheel. The first of these systems to be revealed was the Flybrid and this system weighs 24 kg and has an energy capacity of 400 kJ after allowing for internal losses. A maximum power boost of 60 kW for 6.67 seconds is available, the 240 mm diameter flywheel weighs 5.0 kg and revolves at up to 64,500 rpm. Maximum torque at the flywheel is 18 Nm, and the torque at the connection is correspondingly higher for the change in speed.
The system occupies a volume of 13 litres, already in 2006, a first KERS system based on supercapacitors has been studied at EPFL in the framework of the development of the Formula S2000. A 180kJ system has developed in collaboration with other institutes. Two minor incidents were reported during testing of various KERS systems in 2008, the first occurred when the Red Bull Racing team tested their KERS battery for the first time in July, it malfunctioned and caused a fire scare that led to the teams factory being evacuated. The second was less than a week when a BMW Sauber mechanic was given a shock when he touched Christian Kliens KERS-equipped car during a test at the Jerez circuit. Formula One has stated that they support responsible solutions to the environmental challenges. Teams began testing systems in 2008, energy can either be stored as energy or as electrical energy. With the introduction of KERS in the 2009 season, only four teams used it at point in the season, Renault, BMW. Eventually, during the season, Renault and BMW stopped using the system, vodafone McLaren Mercedes became the first team to win an F1 GP using a KERS equipped car when Lewis Hamilton won the Hungarian Grand Prix on July 26,2009.
Their second KERS equipped car finished fifth, at the following race, Lewis Hamilton became the first driver to take pole position with a KERS car, his team mate, Heikki Kovalainen qualifying second. This was the first instance of an all KERS front row, on August 30,2009, Kimi Räikkönen won the Belgian Grand Prix with his KERS equipped Ferrari. It was the first time that KERS contributed directly to a victory, with second placed Giancarlo Fisichella claiming Actually
Auto racing is a sport involving the racing of automobiles for competition. Almost as soon as automobiles had been invented, races of various sorts were organised, by the 1930s specialist racing cars had developed. There are now numerous different categories, each with different rules and it was won by the carriage of Isaac Watt Boulton. Internal combustion auto racing events began soon after the construction of the first successful gasoline-fueled automobiles, the first organized contest was on April 28,1887, by the chief editor of Paris publication Le Vélocipède, Monsieur Fossier. It ran 2 kilometres from Neuilly Bridge to the Bois de Boulogne, on July 22,1894, the Parisian magazine Le Petit Journal organized what is considered to be the worlds first motoring competition, from Paris to Rouen. One hundred and two competitors paid a 10-franc entrance fee, the first American automobile race is generally held to be the Thanksgiving Day Chicago Times-Herald race of November 28,1895. Press coverage of the event first aroused significant American interest in the automobile, brooklands, in Surrey, was the first purpose-built motor racing venue, opening in June 1907.
It featured a 4.43 km concrete track with high-speed banked corners, One of the oldest existing purpose-built automobile racing circuits in the United States, still in use, is the 2. 5-mile -long Indianapolis Motor Speedway in Speedway, Indiana. It is the largest capacity venue of any variety worldwide, with a top capacity of some 257. NASCAR was founded by Bill France, Sr. on February 21,1948, the first NASCAR Strictly Stock race ever was held on June 19,1949, at Daytona Beach, Florida. From 1962, sports cars temporarily took a seat to GT cars. From 1972 through 2003, NASCARs premier series was called the Winston Cup Series, the changes that resulted from RJRs involvement, as well as the reduction of the schedule from 48 to 31 races a year, established 1972 as the beginning of NASCARs modern era. The IMSA GT Series evolved into the American Le Mans Series, the European races eventually became the closely related Le Mans Series, both of which mix prototypes and GTs. The best-known variety of racing, Formula One, which hosts the famous Monaco Grand Prix.
In single-seater, the wheels are not covered, and the cars often have aerofoil wings front, in Europe and Asia, open-wheeled racing is commonly referred to as Formula, with appropriate hierarchical suffixes. In North America, the Formula terminology is not followed, the sport is usually arranged to follow an international format, a regional format, and/or a domestic, or country-specific, format. In North America, the used in the National Championship have traditionally been similar though less sophisticated than F1 cars. The series most famous race is the Indianapolis 500, the other major international single-seater racing series is GP2
A tire or tyre is a ring-shaped vehicle component that covers the wheels rim to protect it and enable better vehicle performance. Most tires, such as those for automobiles and bicycles, provide traction between the vehicle and the road providing a flexible cushion that absorbs shock. The materials of modern tires are synthetic rubber, natural rubber and wire, along with carbon black. They consist of a tread and a body, the tread provides traction while the body provides containment for a quantity of compressed air. Before rubber was developed, the first versions of tires were bands of metal fitted around wooden wheels to prevent wear and tear. Pneumatic tires are used on many types of vehicles, including cars, motorcycles, trucks, heavy equipment, and aircraft. Metal tires are used on locomotives and railcars, and solid rubber tires are still used in various non-automotive applications, such as some casters, lawnmowers. The etymology of tire is that the word is a form of attire. The spelling tyre does not appear until the 1840s when the English began shrink fitting railway car wheels with malleable iron, traditional publishers continued using tire.
The Times newspaper in Britain was still using tire as late as 1905, the spelling tyre began to be commonly used in the 19th century for pneumatic tires in the UK. However, over the course of the 20th century, tyre became established as the standard British spelling, the earliest tires were bands of leather, placed on wooden wheels, used on carts and wagons. The tire would be heated in a fire, placed over the wheel and quenched, causing the metal to contract. A skilled worker, known as a wheelwright, carried out this work, the outer ring served to tie the wheel segments together for use, providing a wear-resistant surface to the perimeter of the wheel. The word tire thus emerged as a variant spelling to refer to the bands used to tie wheels. The first patent for what appears to be a standard pneumatic tire appeared in 1847 lodged by the Scottish inventor Robert William Thomson, this never went into production. The first practical pneumatic tire was made in 1888 on May Street, Belfast, by Scots-born John Boyd Dunlop and it was an effort to prevent the headaches of his 10-year-old son Johnnie, while riding his tricycle on rough pavements.
His doctor, Sir John Fagan, had prescribed cycling as an exercise for the boy, Fagan participated in designing the first pneumatic tires. In Dunlops tire patent specification dated 31 October 1888, his interest is only in its use in cycles, in September 1890, he was made aware of an earlier development but the company kept the information to itself
SpA is a multinational company based in Milan, formerly listed on the Milan Stock Exchange since 1922. It was acquired in 2015 by ChemChina, the company is one of the largest tyre manufacturers behind Bridgestone, Michelin and Goodyear. It is present in over 160 countries, has 20 manufacturing sites in 14 countries, Pirelli has been sponsoring sport competitions since 1907 and is the exclusive tyre supplier for the Formula One Championship for 2011–2019 and for the FIM World Superbike Championship. Pirelli is now a pure tyre manufacturing company, in the past it has launched fashion project and operated in renewable energy and sustainable mobility. Founded in Milan in 1872 by Giovanni Battista Pirelli, the company specialised in rubber and derivative processes. Thereafter, Pirellis activities were focused on the production of tyres and cables. In 2005, Pirelli sold its division to Goldman Sachs. In the 1950s, Alberto Pirelli commissioned the building of a skyscraper, Pirelli Tower, in 1974, Pirelli invented the wide radial tyre, upon a request from the Lancia rally racing team for a tyre strong enough to withstand the power of the new Lancia Stratos.
At that time, racing tyres were either slick tyres made with the cross ply technique, or radial tyres, both were unusable for the Lancia Stratos, as the radials were destroyed within 10 km, and the slicks too stiff. Lancia asked Pirelli for a solution, and in 1975 Pirelli created a wide tyre with a reduced sidewall height like a slick, Porsche started using the same tyres with the Porsche 911 Turbo. In 1988, Pirelli acquired the Armstrong Rubber Company, which was headquartered in New Haven, Connecticut, in 2002 the company started a range of Pirelli branded clothing and eyewear. In March 2015, it was announced that Pirelli shareholders has accepted a €7.1 billion bid from ChemChina for the company, the transaction was completed and the company was delisted in November 2015. The list of Pirelli main shareholders As of September 2016 The list of Pirelli Board of Directors, the Pirelli Calendar is published annually, and regularly features famous actresses and fashion models. The Pirelli Internetional Award is given annually for the best international multimedia involving the communication of science, power is nothing without control is the well known slogan of Pirelli Tyre Company, and is featured in numerous television and print advertisements.
Pirelli is the main sponsor of Italian football club Inter Milan. Pirelli has a history of sponsoring football teams, Pirelli is well known for its long term primary sponsorship of the Italian football team Inter Milan. Pirelli previously appeared as a sponsor on the shirts of the Maltese football club Valletta for a short time, Pirellis sponsorship of football teams is not limited to Europe, South America is a key market and as a result successful clubs have been sponsored by the tyre company. The Brazilian team Palmeiras, Uruguayan team Peñarol and Argentinian side Vélez Sársfield all had Pirelli as a shirt sponsor, when English Football League One side Burton Albion Football Club built their new stadium in 2005, Pirelli became the title sponsor of the new ground
In paint technology, the sheen is the glossiness of a paint finish. Glossy and flat are typical extreme levels of glossiness of a finish, glossy paints are shiny and reflect most light in the specular direction, while on flat paints most of the light diffuses in a range of angles. The gloss level of paint can affect its apparent colour. Between those extremes, there are a number of intermediate gloss levels and their common names, from the most dull to the most shiny, matte, satin, semi-gloss and high gloss. These terms are not standardized, and not all manufacturers use all these terms, to a lesser extent, gloss is affected by other factors, refraction index of the pigment particles and refraction index of the binder. Matte paints have less binder, which makes them susceptible to mechanical damages. More binder provides a smoother and more solid surface, CPVC generally depends on the binder-pigment system used, and generally falls in the 35–65% range. As a gloss finish will reveal surface imperfections such as sanding marks, gloss-finish paints are generally more resistant to damage than flat paint, more resistant to staining, and easier to clean.
Flat paint may become glossier through burnishing or staining with grease, glossy paint may lose its gloss, unlike gloss paint, flat paint can generally be touched up locally without repainting the entire surface. In traditional household interiors, walls are painted in flat or eggshell gloss, wooden trim in high gloss. Similarly, exterior trim is painted with a gloss paint. PCI Magazine article, What is the Level of Confidence in Measuring Gloss, NPL, Good practice guide for the measurement of Gloss
A brake is a mechanical device that inhibits motion by absorbing energy from a moving system. It is used for slowing or stopping a vehicle, axle, or to prevent its motion. Most brakes commonly use friction between two surfaces pressed together to convert the energy of the moving object into heat, though other methods of energy conversion may be employed. For example, regenerative braking converts much of the energy to electrical energy, other methods convert kinetic energy into potential energy in such stored forms as pressurized air or pressurized oil. Eddy current brakes use magnetic fields to convert energy into electric current in the brake disc, fin, or rail. Still other braking methods even transform kinetic energy into different forms, Brakes are generally applied to rotating axles or wheels, but may take other forms such as the surface of a moving fluid. In practice, fast vehicles usually have significant air drag, almost all wheeled vehicles have a brake of some sort. Even baggage carts and shopping carts may have them for use on a moving ramp, most fixed-wing aircraft are fitted with wheel brakes on the undercarriage.
Some aircraft feature air brakes designed to reduce their speed in flight, notable examples include gliders and some World War II-era aircraft, primarily some fighter aircraft and many dive bombers of the era. These allow the aircraft to maintain a speed in a steep descent. The Saab B17 dive bomber and Vought F4U Corsair fighter used the deployed undercarriage as an air brake, Friction brakes on automobiles store braking heat in the drum brake or disc brake while braking conduct it to the air gradually. When traveling downhill some vehicles can use their engines to brake, when the brake pedal of a modern vehicle with hydraulic brakes is pushed against the master cylinder, ultimately a piston pushes the brake pad against the brake disc which slows the wheel down. On the brake drum it is similar as the cylinder pushes the brake shoes against the drum which slows the wheel down, Brakes may be broadly described as using friction, pumping, or electromagnetics. Typically the term brake is used to mean pad/shoe brakes and excludes hydrodynamic brakes.
Friction brakes are often rotating devices with a pad and a rotating wear surface. Other brake configurations are used, but less often, a drum brake is a vehicle brake in which the friction is caused by a set of brake shoes that press against the inner surface of a rotating drum. The drum is connected to the rotating roadwheel hub, drum brakes generally can be found on older car and truck models. However, because of their low production cost, drum brake setups are installed on the rear of some low-cost newer vehicles, compared to modern disc brakes, drum brakes wear out faster due to their tendency to overheat
Turbochargers were originally known as turbosuperchargers when all forced induction devices were classified as superchargers. Nowadays the term supercharger is usually applied only to mechanically driven forced induction devices, compared to a mechanically driven supercharger, turbochargers tend to be more efficient, but less responsive. Twincharger refers to an engine with both a supercharger and a turbocharger, turbochargers are commonly used on truck, train and construction equipment engines. They are most often used with Otto cycle and Diesel cycle internal combustion engines and they have been found useful in automotive fuel cells. Forced induction dates from the late 19th century, when Gottlieb Daimler patented the technique of using a pump to force air into an internal combustion engine in 1885. During World War I French engineer Auguste Rateau fitted turbochargers to Renault engines powering various French fighters with some success, in 1918, General Electric engineer Sanford Alexander Moss attached a turbocharger to a V12 Liberty aircraft engine.
Turbochargers were first used in aircraft engines such as the Napier Lioness in the 1920s. Ships and locomotives equipped with turbocharged diesel engines began appearing in the 1920s, turbochargers were used in aviation, most widely used by the United States. During World War II, notable examples of U. S. aircraft with turbochargers include the B-17 Flying Fortress, B-24 Liberator, P-38 Lightning, and P-47 Thunderbolt. Turbochargers are widely used in car and commercial vehicles because they allow smaller-capacity engines to have improved fuel economy, reduced emissions, higher power, in contrast to turbochargers, superchargers are mechanically driven by the engine. Belts, chains and gears are common methods of powering a supercharger, for example, on the single-stage single-speed supercharged Rolls-Royce Merlin engine, the supercharger uses about 150 horsepower. Yet the benefits outweigh the costs, for the 150 hp to drive the supercharger the engine generates an additional 400-horsepower, a net gain of 250 hp.
This is where the principal disadvantage of a supercharger becomes apparent, another disadvantage of some superchargers is lower adiabatic efficiency as compared to turbochargers. Adiabatic efficiency is a measure of an ability to compress air without adding excess heat to that air. Even under ideal conditions, the compression process always results in elevated temperature, however. Roots superchargers impart significantly more heat to the air than turbochargers, for a given volume and pressure of air, the turbocharged air is cooler, and as a result denser, containing more oxygen molecules, and therefore more potential power than the supercharged air. In practical application the disparity between the two can be dramatic, with turbochargers often producing 15% to 30% more power based solely on the differences in adiabatic efficiency. By comparison, a turbocharger does not place a direct mechanical load on the engine, although turbochargers place exhaust back pressure on engines, in contrast to supercharging, the primary disadvantage of turbocharging is what is referred to as lag or spool time
A transmission is a machine in a power transmission system, which provides controlled application of the power. Often the term refers simply to the gearbox that uses gears and gear trains to provide speed. In British English, the term refers to the whole drivetrain, including clutch, prop shaft, differential. In American English, the term more specifically to the gearbox alone. The most common use is in vehicles, where the transmission adapts the output of the internal combustion engine to the drive wheels. Such engines need to operate at a high rotational speed, which is inappropriate for starting, stopping. The transmission reduces the engine speed to the slower wheel speed. Transmissions are used on bicycles, fixed machines. Often, a transmission has multiple gear ratios with the ability to switch between them as speed varies and this switching may be done manually or automatically. Directional control may be provided, single-ratio transmissions exist, which simply change the speed and torque of motor output.
The output of the transmission is transmitted via the driveshaft to one or more differentials, while a differential may provide gear reduction, its primary purpose is to permit the wheels at either end of an axle to rotate at different speeds as it changes the direction of rotation. Conventional gear/belt transmissions are not the mechanism for speed/torque adaptation. Alternative mechanisms include torque converters and power transformation, automatic transmissions use a valve body to shift gears using fluid pressures in conjunction with an ecm. Early transmissions included the right-angle drives and other gearing in windmills, horse-powered devices, and steam engines, in support of pumping, most modern gearboxes are used to increase torque while reducing the speed of a prime mover output shaft. This means that the shaft of a gearbox rotates at a slower rate than the input shaft. A gearbox can be set up to do the opposite and provide an increase in speed with a reduction of torque. Some of the simplest gearboxes merely change the rotational direction of power transmission.
Many typical automobile transmissions include the ability to select one of several gear ratios, in this case, most of the gear ratios are used to slow down the output speed of the engine and increase torque
Shell V-Power, known as Shell V-Power Nitro+, is the brand name given to Shells enhanced high specification fuels for road motor vehicles. Shell launched the fuel in March 2008 under the name Nitrogen-Enriched Shell V-Power, initially used for higher octane Super Unleaded petrol/gasoline, it is now additionally used for high specification diesel fuel. Petrol or gasoline is assessed and sold by an octane rating, generally, in most areas of the world, the Research Octane Number is used, but in North America, the Anti-Knock Index is used. Conventional standard Super Unleaded petrol in Europe, South Asia and Australia has an rating of 95 RON. However, higher octane Super Plus Unleaded - often formulated with higher quality additives, is set at around 98 RON in mainland Europe. Most oil/petroleum companies now market their own Super Plus Unleaded petrols under a unique name -, like most Super Plus Unleaded petrols, V-Power contains higher concentrations of detergents and other additives to help clean the engine and smooth its operation.
In the United Kingdom and Denmark, V-Power has a rating of 99 RON, there is one other 99 RON fuel available in the UK, namely Tesco MOMENTUM99. In The Netherlands, V-Power used to have a 95 RON rating, due to the limited categories of 92 RON,95 RON,98 RON and 100 RON. it was officially rated at 95. These days, the RON rating of the V-power petrol in the Netherlands is rated at 98, in Germany, all Shell stations offer V-Power Racing 100, rated at 100 RON. In Greece, all Shell stations offer V-Power rated at 97 RON, most Shell stations offer V-Power Racing. In Australia, from October 2006, Shell and Coles Express re-branded Optimax to V-Power, V-Power Racing, the ultra-high performance variant has a rating of 100 RON although Shell have decided to phase out V-Power Racing from 21 July to mid August 2008, instead recommending V-Power. The previously obtainable higher grade V-Power Racing which contained 5% ethanol to boost V-Powers octane rating to 100 RON has now been phased out by Shell due to a changing market, in the United States, at around 2004, all U. S.
Shell Premium gas was rebranded as V-Power, in 2015, Shell re-branded V-Power to the newly launched V-Power Nitro+. In Canada, from June 2005, Shell Canada re-branded Optimax Gold to V-Power, in 2015, Shell Canada re-branded V-Power to V-Power Nitro+. In Hong Kong, as there is no oil refinery plant located in Hong Kong, Gasoline was imported from Singapore, however, V-Power sold in gas stations rumored reach 107 RON. Such figure is not supported by actual test, nor is it confirmed by Shell, in New Zealand, from 2007, Shell rebranded 95 Premium Unleaded as V-Power. It was still rated at 95 RON, Shell sold its New Zealand retail operations in 2010 to a consortium which became Z Energy, and upon re-branding Shell V-Power was replaced with ZX Premium Unleaded. In Sweden, Shell V-Power was previously 99 RON, but is now been re-branded under the new owner St1 from June 2011 to Shell V-Power E5 making it 98 RON with a mix of 5% ethanol
In motorsport the pole position is the position at the inside of the front row at the start of a racing event. This position is given to the vehicle and driver with the best qualifying time in the trials before the race. This number-one qualifying driver is referred to as the pole sitter, the fastest qualifier was not necessarily the designated pole-sitter. Different sanctioning bodies in motor sport employ different qualifying formats in designating who starts from pole position, often, a starting grid is derived either by current rank in the championship, or based on finishing position of a previous race. In contrast to contemporary motorsport, where only a participant is designated pole-sitter, prior to World War II. The term has its origins in horse racing, in which the fastest qualifying horse would be placed on the part of the course. Originally in Grand Prix racing, grid positions, including pole, were determined by lottery among the drivers, prior to the inception of the Formula 1 World Championship, the first instance of grid positions being determined by qualifying times was at the 1933 Monaco Grand Prix.
Since then, the FIA have introduced many different qualifying systems to F1, between 1996 and 2006, the FIA made 6 significant changes to the qualifying procedure, each with the intention of making the battle for pole more interesting to an F1 viewer at home. Traditionally, pole was always occupied by the fastest driver due to low-fuel qualifying, the race-fuel qualifying era between 2003 and 2009 briefly changed this. Despite the changing formats, drivers attempting pole were required between 2003 and 2009 to do qualifying laps with the fuel they would use to start the race the next day. An underfuelled slower car and driver would therefore be able to take pole ahead of a better, in this situation, pole was not always advantageous to have in the race as the under-fueled driver would have to pit for more fuel before their rivals. With the race refueling ban introduced, low-fuel qualifying returned and these decisions are no longer in play. Since the reintroduction of the rule in 2011, this applies to the quickest first session time.
Since 2014, the FIA has awarded a trophy to the driver who wins the most pole positions in the season, indicates that the driver won the World Championship in the same season. IndyCar uses four formats for qualifying, one for most oval tracks, one for Iowa Speedway, one for the Indianapolis 500, and another for road and street circuits. Oval qualifying is almost like the Indianapolis 500, with two laps, instead of four, averaged together with one attempt, although with just one session. At Iowa, each car takes one qualifying lap, and the top six cars advance to the race for the pole position. The result of the race determines positions 1–10