United Arab Emirates
The United Arab Emirates, sometimes called the Emirates, is a country in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north. The sovereign constitutional monarchy is a federation of seven emirates consisting of Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Ras Al Khaimah and Umm Al Quwain, their boundaries are complex, with numerous enclaves within the various emirates. Each emirate is governed by a ruler. One of the rulers serves as the President of the United Arab Emirates. In 2013, the UAE's population was 9.2 million, of which 1.4 million are Emirati citizens and 7.8 million are expatriates. Human occupation of the present UAE has been traced back to the emergence of anatomically modern humans from Africa some 125,000 BCE through finds at the Faya-1 site in Mleiha, Sharjah. Burial sites dating back to the Neolithic Age and the Bronze Age include the oldest known such inland site at Jebel Buhais.
Known as Magan to the Sumerians, the area was home to a prosperous Bronze Age trading culture during the Umm Al Nar period, which traded between the Indus Valley and Mesopotamia as well as Iran and the Levant. The ensuing Wadi Suq period and three Iron Ages saw the emergence of nomadism as well as the development of water management and irrigation systems supporting human settlement in both the coast and interior; the Islamic age of the UAE dates back to the expulsion of the Sasanians and the subsequent Battle of Dibba. The UAE's long history of trade led to the emergence of Julfar, in the present day emirate of Ras Al Khaimah, as a major regional trading and maritime hub in the area; the maritime dominance of the Persian Gulf by Emirati traders led to conflicts with European powers, including the Portuguese and British. Following decades of maritime conflict, the coastal emirates became known as the Trucial States with the signing of a Perpetual Treaty of Maritime Peace with the British in 1819, which established the Trucial States as a British Protectorate.
This arrangement ended with independence and the establishment of the United Arab Emirates on 2 December 1971 following the British withdrawal from its treaty obligations. Six emirates joined the UAE in 1971, the seventh, Ras Al Khaimah, joined the federation on 10 February 1972. Islam is the official religion and Arabic is the official language of the UAE; the UAE's oil reserves are the seventh-largest in the world while its natural gas reserves are the world's seventeenth-largest. Sheikh Zayed, ruler of Abu Dhabi and the first President of the UAE, oversaw the development of the Emirates and steered oil revenues into healthcare and infrastructure; the UAE's economy is the most diversified in the Gulf Cooperation Council, while its most populous city of Dubai is an important global city and an international aviation and maritime trade hub. The country is much less reliant on oil and gas than in previous years and is economically focusing on tourism and business; the UAE government does not levy income tax although there is a system of corporate tax in place and value added tax was established in 2018 at 5%.
The UAE's rising international profile has led to it being recognised as a regional and a middle power. It is a member of the United Nations, the Arab League, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, OPEC, the Non-Aligned Movement and the Gulf Cooperation Council; the land of the Emirates has been occupied for thousands of years. Stone tools recovered from Jebel Faya in the emirate of Sharjah reveal a settlement of people from Africa some 127,000 years ago and a stone tool used for butchering animals discovered at Jebel Barakah on the Arabian coast suggests an older habitation from 130,000 years ago. There is no proof of contact with the outside world at that stage, although in time lively trading links developed with civilisations in Mesopotamia and the Harappan culture of the Indus Valley; this contact persisted and became wide-ranging motivated by the trade in copper from the Hajar Mountains, which commenced around 3,000 BCE. Sumerian sources talk of the UAE as home to Magan people. There are six major periods of human settlement with distinctive behaviours in the pre-Islamic UAE, which includes the Hafit period from 3,200-2,600 BCE.
From 1,200 BC to the advent of Islam in Eastern Arabia, through three distinctive Iron Ages and the Mleiha period, the area was variously occupied by Achaemenid and other forces and saw the construction of fortified settlements and extensive husbandry thanks to the development of the falaj irrigation system. In ancient times, Al Hasa adjoined Greater Oman. From the second century AD, there was a movement of tribes from Al Bahreyn towards the lower Gulf, together with a migration among the Azdite Qahtani and Quda'ah tribal groups from south-west Arabia towards central Oman; the spread of Islam to the North Eastern tip of the Arabian Peninsula is thought to have followed directly from a letter sent by the Islamic prophet, Muhammad, to the rulers of Oman in 630 AD, nine years after the hijrah. This led to a group of rulers travelling to Medina, converting to Islam and subsequently driving a successful u
Maurer AG is a steel construction company and roller coaster manufacturer. Founded in Munich, Germany in 1876, the company has built many styles of steel buildings, ranging from bridges, industrial buildings, art structures. While known for building various wild mouse coasters, Maurer Söhne has been branching out into spinning and launching coasters recently; the company produces a free-fall tower ride. On December 15, 2014, the company changed its name from Maurer Söhne Co.. KG to Maurer AG. In 1993, Maurer took over the amusement ride division of a fellow German firm, BHS. BHS constructed four Schwarzkopf-designed roller coasters, working with Sansei Yusoki and Zierer in the process. Maurer's first ride was a custom looping roller coaster called Venus GP that opened at Space World in 1996. Since they have produced 50 roller coasters including spinning, launched and wild mouse roller coasters. One of the first types of roller coaster that Maurer manufactured was a wild mouse; the design, known as Wilde Maus Classic, was first installed as Kopermijn at Drievliet Family Park in 1996.
At the end of 2010, the Wilde Maus Classic design has been replicated at 13 locations around the world. In 2000, the S-Coaster was introduced by Maurer; the S-Coaster is Maurer's spinning roller coaster design. It is the most popular design that Maurer has produced with over 21 installations worldwide. Maurer's X-Coaster comes in a variety of different designs: X-Train and SkyLoop. Under the X-Car category Maurer manufactures rides with launches, vertical lifts, floorless cars and cars with embedded music systems. An X-Train X-Coaster is one. Under the SkyLoop category Maurer has a variety of models including XT 150, XT 450, launched and custom designs. Most in 2010, Maurer introduced the R-Coaster; the R-Coaster is a type of racing roller coaster which features several sets of Linear Synchronous Motors on two parallel tracks. The first, only, R-Coaster is Fiorano GT Challenge at Ferrari World in Abu Dhabi. In 2018, it was announced that Maurer would be building the first roller coaster at sea, on the Carnival Mardi Gras.
As of 2019, Maurer AG has built 63 roller coasters around the world. Maurer German Wheels is a subsidiary of Maurer Söhne, it manufactures the R80XL giant Ferris wheel under licence from Bussink Design. Official website
Log flume (ride)
Log flumes are amusement rides consisting of a water flume and artificial hollow logs or boats. Passengers sit in the logs; the ride culminates with a rapid descent and splashdown into a body of water, which may happen more than once. It provides people with an entertaining way to get wet and cool off on a hot summer day, with certain seating sections being splashed with more water for a more exciting and wet ride. Most log flume rides have a height restriction. Log flumes are a variant of the chute rides and old mill rides that were popular in the United States in the early 20th century. Shoot the Chute rides continue to be built today. Both of these types of rides took rather simple approaches to handling water flow, it was not until Karl Bacon of Arrow Development got involved and studied hydrodynamics that the use of water flow in an amusement ride was exploited. The first modern day log flume amusement ride constructed by Arrow was El Aserradero at Six Flags Over Texas in Arlington, which opened in 1963 and is still in operation.
The Mill Race, Arrow Log Flume number two, opened just a few weeks at Cedar Point. Log flumes proved to be popular and became staples at amusement and theme parks throughout the world; the ride was so popular that some parks started adding second flume rides to help reduce the long lines. Cedar Point added Shoot the Rapids in 1967, Six Flags Over Texas and Six Flags Over Georgia both added second flumes in 1968; when Six Flags Over Mid America opened in 1971, it featured twin flumes. In the 1960s and early 1970s Arrow had a monopoly on the log flume business, producing over 50 flumes by 1979. In 1976, the French company Reverchon Industries started building flumes and In 1979 Hopkins Rides entered the flume building business. Other manufacturers followed with Intamin building its first log flume in 1986 and Mack Rides in 1987. Log flumes are out in the open, though some may contain enclosed or tunneled sections; the flume is made of fiberglass, concrete or galvanized steel. In a typical course, the boatful of riders floats through a small section of channel upon leaving the station engages a lift hill that takes them on a winding course in the water-filled trough.
A second lifthill culminates with an exciting drop and a splashdown finale. The amount of splash can be controlled by using rubber belting of differing widths and differing heights. To increase the chance of being soaked, the flume can be designed to be turbulent, or to run underneath waterfalls. Water cannons aimed along the path are sometimes installed alongside the flume. Additionally, the exit path from the ride may cross over or go near to the flume, such that departing riders are drenched by the boat en route. One of the first elaborately-themed flumes was Timber Mountain Log Ride at Knott's Berry Farm. Built as a concession run by Hurlbut Amusement Company, most of the ride is inside a man-made mountain. Bud Hurlbut and his right-hand man Harry Suker were responsible for the theme of the ride. Upon his retirement, Hurlbut sold the ride to Knott's Berry Farm. Log Chute at Mall of America's indoor park Nickelodeon Universe contains sections within a large rocky structure and some out in the open.
Disney's Splash Mountain consists of a single trough running in a continuous circuit through the middle of a show building with Audio-Animatronic scenes playing on the left and right of the main flume, with only the largest drops and a few turns positioned placed outside the show building. ABC Rides Arrow Dynamics Barr Engineering Bear Rides Big Country Motioneering D. P. V. Rides Fabbri Group Hafema Hopkins Rides I. E Park Intamin Interlink L&T Systems Mack Rides Mimafab Preston & Barbieri Reverchon Industries Rides and Fun S. D. C. SBF Visa Group Schwarzkopf Senyo Kogyo Soquet Technical Park Van Egdom Venture Rides WGH Transportation Engineering Zamperla Old Mill Log flume
Dynamic Structures is a Canadian company with a history of steel fabrication dating back to 1926. They create amusement rides, theme park rides, observatory telescopes and other complex steel structures. Dynamic Structures' history dates back to 1926; the firm was renamed Coast Steel Fabricators Limited in 1952. In 1976, the firm was purchased by AGRA Inc. before being renamed AGRA Coast Limited in 1994. AGRA Inc. and its subsidiaries were acquired by British firm AMEC in 2001, with the company changing its name to AMEC Dynamic Structures. In 2007, AMEC sold the company to Empire Industries. In 2011, Dynamic Structures' amusement ride manufacturing was spun off into a sister company named Dynamic Attractions. Dynamic Structures has been involved in the design and construction of most of the world's largest observatories; these include: Canada France Hawaii Telescope - Enclosure, Hawaii Isaac Newton Telescope - Enclosure, La Palma William Herschel Telescope - Enclosure, La Palma W. M. Keck Observatory, Phase 1 - Enclosure, Hawaii Owens Valley Radio Observatory - 3 Radio Telescope Support Structures, California Starfire Optical Range - Enclosure, New Mexico W.
M. Keck Observatory, Phase 2 - Enclosure, Hawaii W. M. Keck Observatory, Phase 2 - Telescope Structure, Hawaii Subaru Telescope - Enclosure, Hawaii Gemini North and Gemini South - 2 Enclosures, Hawaii & Chile Atacama Cosmology TelescopeCurrently the company is busy with the design of what will be the largest telescope in the world, called the Thirty Meter Telescope Other structures that Dynamic Structures have constructed include: Helix Pedestrian Bridge, Seattle, WA Vancouver Olympic Ski Jumps, Whistler, BC Richmond Olympic Oval, Richmond, BC Lougheed Skytrain Station, Burnaby, BC, Dynamic Attractions was a sister company to Dynamic Structures, created in 2011 to serve the primary function of soliciting sales for rides systems that would be manufactured by Dynamic Structures; the firm entered the theme park ride system industry after one of the engineers on the Keck Observatory project asked the firm for assistance with steel fatigue on a roller coaster. Following the observatory project, this engineer secured a job at Walt Disney World in Florida.
Due to the success of the project, Dynamic Structures gained additional contracts with Walt Disney Imagineering to manufacture the ride systems for Soarin' Over California and Test Track. This expanded the firm's presence in the theme park industry. In 2015, the company expanded their capabilities to include complete design and installation services for all elements of the attraction. Using the marketing of "Ride – Show – Integration," this focus led to the opening of a research and development facility called the "Attraction Development Center" in Orlando FL. Through this facility, the company can do large-scale mock-ups and is staffed for design and development of ideas as well as ride systems. In July 2017, the Dynamic Attractions company combined with all the "ride system" elements of the Dynamic Structures company, to become one, the concise entity focused on delivering world-class attractions; the new Dynamic Attractions organization includes the Ride Development Center in Port Coquitlam, Canada, as well as the Attraction Development Center in Orlando FL.
As of 2019, Dynamic Attractions has built 6 roller coasters around the world. Astronomy Projects Amusement Park Rides Steel Structures Official website RoboCoaster Ltd SNOX
Yas Island is an island in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. The island’s development project was initiated in 2006 by Abu Dhabi-based Aldar Properties, with the aim of turning the island into a multi-purpose leisure and entertainment center at an estimated total cost of over billion; this investment was planned as a multi-staged project to unfold in phases until 2018, with project stakeholders foreseeing the possibility of extending development by adding new venues and upgrading existing facilities. It occupies a total land area of 2,500 ha. Yas Island holds the Yas Marina Circuit, which has hosted the Formula One Etihad Airways Abu Dhabi Grand Prix since 2009. Both business and leisure travelers visit Yas Island. Yas Island was named the world's leading tourism project at the World Travel Awards in November 2009; the Park’s foundation stone was laid on 3 November 2007. The development was completed in a little under three years, opening to the public for the first time on November 2010. Formula Rossa, one of the park's most famous attractions, is the world’s fastest rollercoaster reaching a speed of 240 kph.
Yas Waterworld Surf’s up! Bubbles' Barrel slide has the largest surf-able sheet wave surf in the world. Named the “second best waterpark in the world” by the Los Angeles Times - Global Ranking of the World’s Top 20 Waterparks feature in May 2013. Listed by CNN as one of the top 12 water parks in the world in July 2013. Won the World Travel Awards award for the Middle East’s Leading Tourist Attraction of the year 2013. Won the Leading Edge Award at the World Waterpark Association's Annual Show, in Las Vegas, USA in October 2012; the Bandit Bomber is the first rollercoaster to be incorporated into a waterpark and was ranked amongst the world’s newest and baddest roller coasters for the summer of 2013, by CNN. Warner Bros. World Abu Dhabi is located on Yas Island near Ferrari World and Yas Waterworld and was built by Miral Asset Management. WB World is organized into six themed lands, Gotham City, Cartoon Junction, Dynamite Gulch and Warner Bros Plaza. Gotham and Metropolis are based on the cities of DC Comics super heroes Batman and Superman, respectively.
Warner Bros.'s Looney Tunes and Hanna-Barbera cartoon libraries are featured in Cartoon Junction and Dynamite Gulch except for Bedrock which features the Flintstones. Warner Bros Plaza mimics the Hollywood of the past; the park opened on July 2018, which makes it the world's third Warner Bros. theme park. On December 13, 2016, SeaWorld Parks & Entertainment announced a new partnership with Miral to bring SeaWorld Abu Dhabi to Yas Island; the park, which will be situated to the northeast of Ferrari World, is set to opened in 2020 and will be the first SeaWorld without orcas. The full circuit length is 5.554 km and can be configured in five different ways to accommodate a variety of motorsport events. Yas Marina Circuit is the only motorsports venue in the world that offers covered and shaded grandstands throughout the facility, coupled with pit lanes that run beneath the track. Three charter boat companies operate from Yas Marina namely Jalboot Marine, Captain Tony's and Azure Marine. Seawings operates flights to and from Dubai to Yas Marina and 20 minute Abu Dhabi tours from Yas Marina.
Yas Links is a golf course designed by Kyle Philips, ranked 24th World’s best Golf courses outside the USA. 1.8 million cubic metres of material were dredged to form the 18 Hole Championship Golf Course, Golf Club & Golf Shop, pool Area, air-conditioned swing studio and meeting and conference rooms for corporate events. Mangrove Tours launch daily from Yas Beach courtesy of Noukhada Adventure Company. Du Live! is an entertainment venue. The "du Arena" is a large open-air concert venue located in Yas Bay; the venue opened in 2009, depending on configuration, the venue can hold up to 35,000. It is coined as the largest open air venue in the Middle East; the rebranding preceded the first Madonna concert, part of her MDNA Tour, in the Arab region on 3 and 4 June 2012. Du and Think Flash revamped the venue for Madonna’s concert, including building up a new 23m x 54m stage and developing a complex pyrotechnic and lighting system. Grass has been relaid, gravel removed, tarmac walkways laid down throughout the arena and a central public plaza area featuring merchandise and entertainment has been installed.
The arena has hosted many international musicians under the telecom’s entertainment platform du Live! in addition to Beyoncé, including the Rolling Stones, Janet Jackson, Black Sabbath, Eric Clapton, Kylie Minogue, Linkin Park, Eminem,Rihanna, Andrea Bocelli, Kanye West, Creamfields dance music festival featuring DJs such as Tiesto, David Guetta and Armin Van Buuren. Furthermore, the du Arena has been the venue for the Middle East's first KCON event featuring various K-pop artists such as Bangtan Boys, Taeyeon of Girls' Generation, Cho Kyuhyun of Super Junior, Monsta X, Ailee, SS301, Spica last March 25, 2016; the "du Forum" is an indoor events venue. It seats up to 4,500; the venues are operated by Spectra. The du World Music Festival has been organized annually by du Live! and their partners since 2011. The first du World Music Festival took place at the Burj Khalifa Steps in Downtown Dubai and The Walk in JBR between 26 February to 25 March 2011, with performances by top-class artists from around the world such as Tamer Hosny, Mona Amarcha, Janet Kapuya, Mashrou’ Leila, Amit Chatterjee Alliance, Sponge Cola, Wust el Balad.
The second du World Music Festival took place at the DownTown B
In architecture and structural engineering, a space frame or space structure is a rigid, truss-like structure constructed from interlocking struts in a geometric pattern. Space frames can be used to span large areas with few interior supports. Like the truss, a space frame is strong because of the inherent rigidity of the triangle. Steel space frames provide great freedom of expression and composition as well as the possibility to evenly distribute loads along each rod and external constraints. With these features, steel space frames can be used to achieve complex geometries with a structural weight lower than any other solution; the inner hyper-static system provides an increased resistance to damages caused by fire, explosions and earthquakes. Space frames are modular and made of industrialized elements designed with a remarkable dimensional accuracy and precise surface finish. Alexander Graham Bell from 1898 to 1908 developed space frames based on tetrahedral geometry. Bell's interest was in using them to make rigid frames for nautical and aeronautical engineering, with the tetrahedral truss being one of his inventions.
Dr. Ing. Max Mengeringhausen developed the space grid system called MERO in 1943 in Germany, thus initiating the use of space trusses in architecture; the used method, still in use has individual tubular members connected at node joints and variations such as the space deck system, octet truss system and cubic system. Stéphane de Chateau in France invented Unibat system, Pyramitec. A method of tree supports was developed to replace the individual columns. Buckminster Fuller patented the octet truss in 1961 while focusing on architectural structures. Space frames are designed using a rigidity matrix; the special characteristic of the stiffness matrix in an architectural space frame is the independence of the angular factors. If the joints are sufficiently rigid, the angular deflections can be neglected, simplifying the calculations; the simplest form of space frame is a horizontal slab of interlocking square pyramids and tetrahedra built from aluminium or tubular steel struts. In many ways this looks like the horizontal jib of a tower crane repeated many times to make it wider.
A stronger form is composed of interlocking tetrahedra. More technically this is referred to as an isotropic vector matrix or in a single unit width an octet truss. More complex variations change the lengths of the struts to curve the overall structure or may incorporate other geometrical shapes. Within the meaning of space frame, we can find three systems different between them:Curvature classification Space plane covers; these spatial structures are composed of planar substructures. Their behavior is similar to that of a plate in which the deflections in the plane are channeled through the horizontal bars and the shear forces are supported by the diagonals. Barrel vaults; this type of vault has a cross section of a simple arch. This type of space frame does not need to use tetrahedral modules or pyramids as a part of its backing. Spherical domes and other compound curves require the use of tetrahedral modules or pyramids and additional support from a skin. Classification by the arrangement of its elements Single layer grid.
All elements are located on the surface to be approximated. Double layer grid; the elements are organized in two layers parallel to each other at a certain distance apart. Each of the layers form a lattice of triangles, squares or hexagons in which the projection of the nodes in a layer may overlap or be displaced relative to each other. Diagonal bars connect the nodes of both layers in different directions in space. In this type of meshes, the elements are associated into three groups: upper cordon and cordon lower diagonal. Triple layer grid. Elements are placed in three parallel layers, linked by the diagonals, they are always flat. Other examples classifiable. Emerged to try to solve the problems that formwork and pouring concrete had their counterparts. Run with welded joint, but may raise prefabricated joints, a fact which makes them space meshes. Hanging covers. Designs on the cable taut and the catenary arch antifunicular show their ability to channel forces theoretically better than any other alternative, have an infinite range of possibilities for composition and adaptability to any type of plant cover or ensure vain.
However, imprecisions in shape having the loaded strand and the risk of bending the arc to unexpected stresses are problems that require pre-compression and prestressing elements. Although in most cases tend to be the cheapest and the technical solution that best fits the acoustics and ventilation of the covered enclosure, are vulnerable to vibration. Pneumatic structures. Wherein the closure membrane is subjected to a pressurized state, may be considered within this group. Space frames are a common feature in modern building construction. Examples of buildings based on space frames include: Stansted airport, by Foster and Partners Bank of China Tower and the Louvre Pyramid, by I. M. Pei Rogers Centre by Rod Robbie and Michael Allan McCormick Place East in Chicago Eden Project in Cornwall, England Globen, Sweden - Dome with diameter of 110 m, Biosphere 2 by John P. Allen, Phil Hawes, Peter Jon Pearce in Oracle, Arizona Jacob K. Javits Convention Center, New
Ferrari World Abu Dhabi
Ferrari World Abu Dhabi is a indoors amusement park on Yas Island in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. It is the first Ferrari-branded theme park and has the record for the largest space frame structure built. Formula Rossa, the world's fastest roller coaster, is located here; the foundation stone for the park was laid on 3 November 2007. It took three years to develop the park and it opened to the public on 4 November 2010. Ferrari World Abu Dhabi covers an area of 86,000 square metres. Ferrari World Abu Dhabi was named the "Middle East's Leading Tourist Attraction" at the World Travel Awards 2015 & 2016. In 2017 and 2018, Ferrari World Abu Dhabi was named as the "Middle East's Leading Theme Park" at the World Travel Awards, as well as the Middle East's Best Theme Park by the Middle East and North Africa Leisure and Attraction Council for 2018, in addition to receiving the Trip Advisor Certificate of Excellence in 2017. Best Commercial, Retail Future Development, Cityscape Abu Dhabi, 2010. Best International Leisure Development, International Property Award and Bloomberg, 2010.
CIAT Open Award for Technical Excellence in Architectural Technology, The Chartered Institute of Architectural Technologists, 2010. Overall GCC Project of the Year 2010, MEP Middle East Awards, 2010. 2011 Brass Ring, IAAPA, 2011. Excellence in Live Design Award, Live Design Magazine, 2011. Gold Winner designation for Best Permanent Exhibition, Event Design Award by Event Design Magazine, 2011. Hospitality & Leisure Project of the Year, Middle East Architect Awards 2011, 2011. Most Innovative Retail & Leisure Concept of the Year Award, Global Retail and Leisure International Awards, 2011. PALME award - Best A/V solution in a commercial development, PALME Middle East, 2011. PALME award - Best 3D projection of the year, PALME Middle East, 2011. Project Excellence Award, IPMA – NL, 2011. Best Theme Park in the UAE, Hospitality India, 2013. Best Sports Show Performance Act, Brass Ring Live Entertainment Excellence, Mission Ferrari Show, IAAPA, 2015. Middle East's Leading Tourist Attraction 2015, World Travel Awards, 2015.
Favourite Italian Restaurant Under 400 Dhs, Mamma Rossella, What's On Awards Abu Dhabi, 2015. Middle East's Leading Tourist Attraction 2016, World Travel Awards, 2016. Favourite Italian Restaurant Under 400 Dhs, Mamma Rossella, What's On Awards Abu Dhabi, 2016. Middle East's Leading Theme Park 2017, World Travel Awards, 2017. Middle East's Leading Theme Park 2018, World Travel Awards, 2018. 2018 Middle East's Best Theme Park, Middle East and North Africa Leisure and Attraction Council Official website