In an internal combustion engine, the cylinder head sits above the cylinders on top of the cylinder block. It closes in the top of the cylinder, forming the combustion chamber and this joint is sealed by a head gasket. In most engines, the head provides space for the passages that feed air and fuel to the cylinder, the head can be a place to mount the valves, spark plugs, and fuel injectors. With a chain drive to a camshaft, the extra length of chain needed for an overhead cam design could give trouble from wear. Early sidevalve engines were in use at a time of simple fuel chemistry, low octane ratings and this made their combustion chamber design less critical and there was less need to design their ports and airflow carefully. One difficulty experienced at this time was that the low compression ratio implied a low expansion ratio during the power stroke, exhaust gases were thus still hot, hotter than a contemporary engine, and this led to frequent trouble with burnt exhaust valves. A major improvement to the engine was the advent of Ricardos turbulent head design.
This reduced the space within the chamber and the ports. Most importantly, it used turbulence within the chamber to thoroughly mix the fuel and this, of itself, allowed the use of higher compression ratios and more efficient engine operation. Despite common knowledge, the limit on performance is not the gas flow through the valves. With high speed engines and high compression, the limiting difficulty becomes that of achieving complete and efficient combustion, efficient engines thus tend towards the pent roof or hemi designs, where the valves are brought close in to the centre of the space. Where fuel quality is low and octane rating is poor, compression ratios will be restricted, in these cases, the sidevalve engine still has much to offer. Such engines remained in production into the 1990s, only being replaced when the fuels available in the field became more likely to be diesel than petrol. In the overhead valve design, the head contains the poppet valves. In the overhead camshaft design, the head contains the valves, spark plugs and inlet/exhaust tracts just like the OHV engine.
The number of heads in an engine is a function of the engine configuration. Almost all inline engines today use a cylinder head that serves all the cylinders. A V engine has two heads, one for each cylinder bank of the V
A petrol engine is an internal combustion engine with spark-ignition, designed to run on petrol and similar volatile fuels. In most petrol engines, the fuel and air are usually pre-mixed before compression, the process differs from a diesel engine in the method of mixing the fuel and air, and in using spark plugs to initiate the combustion process. In a diesel engine, only air is compressed, and the fuel is injected into very hot air at the end of the compression stroke, and self-ignites. The first practical petrol engine was built in 1876 in Germany by Nikolaus August Otto, although there had been attempts by Étienne Lenoir, Siegfried Marcus, Julius Hock. The first petrol engine was prototyped in 1882 in Italy by Enrico Bernardi. British engineer Edward Butler constructed the first petrol combustion engine. Butler invented the spark plug, ignition magneto, coil ignition and spray jet carburetor, with both air and fuel in a closed cylinder, compressing the mixture too much poses the danger of auto-ignition — or behaving like a diesel engine.
Spark plugs are typically set statically or at idle at a minimum of 10 degrees or so of crankshaft rotation before the piston reaches T. D, higher octane petrol burns slower, therefore it has a lower propensity to auto-ignite and its rate of expansion is lower. Thus, engines designed to run high-octane fuel exclusively can achieve higher compression ratios, Petrol engines run at higher rotation speeds than diesels, partially due to their lighter pistons, connecting rods and crankshaft and due to petrol burning more quickly than diesel. However the lower compression ratios of petrol engines give petrol engines lower efficiency than diesel engines, Bedford OB bus Bedford M series lorry GE 57-ton gas-electric boxcab locomotive Petrol engines may run on the four-stroke cycle or the two-stroke cycle. For details of working cycles see, Four-stroke cycle Two-stroke cycle Wankel engine Common cylinder arrangements are from 1 to 6 cylinders in-line or from 2 to 16 cylinders in V-formation. Flat engines – like a V design flattened out – are common in airplanes and motorcycles and were a hallmark of Volkswagen automobiles into the 1990s.
Flat 6s are still used in many modern Porsches, as well as Subarus, less common, but notable in vehicles designed for high speeds is the W formation, similar to having 2 V engines side by side. Alternatives include rotary and radial engines the latter typically have 7 or 9 cylinders in a single ring, Petrol engines may be air-cooled, with fins, or liquid-cooled, by a water jacket and radiator. The coolant was formerly water, but is now usually a mixture of water and either ethylene glycol or propylene glycol, the cooling system is usually slightly pressurized to further raise the boiling point of the coolant. Petrol engines use spark ignition and high current for the spark may be provided by a magneto or an ignition coil. In modern car engines the ignition timing is managed by an electronic Engine Control Unit, the most common way of engine rating is what is known as the brake power, measured at the flywheel, and given in kilowatts or horsepower. This is the mechanical power output of the engine in a usable
The automotive industry is a wide range of companies and organizations involved in the design, manufacturing and selling of motor vehicles, some of them are called automakers. It is one of the worlds most important economic sectors by revenue, the term automotive was created from Greek autos, and Latin motivus to represent any form of self-powered vehicle. This term was proposed by Elmer Sperry, the automotive industry began in the 1890s with hundreds of manufacturers that pioneered the horseless carriage. For many decades, the United States led the world in automobile production. In 1929, before the Great Depression, the world had 32,028,500 automobiles in use, at that time the U. S. had one car per 4.87 persons. After World War II, the U. S. produced about 75 percent of auto production. In 1980, the U. S. was overtaken by Japan, in 2006, Japan narrowly passed the U. S. in production and held this rank until 2009, when China took the top spot with 13.8 million units. With 19.3 million units manufactured in 2012, China almost doubled the U. S. production, with 10.3 million units, from 1970 over 1998 to 2012, the number of automobile models in the U. S. has grown exponentially.
Safety is a state that implies to be protected from any risk, danger, in the automotive industry, safety means that users, operators or manufacturers do not face any risk or danger coming from the motor vehicle or its spare parts. Safety for the automobiles themselves, implies there is no risk of damage. Safety in the industry is particularly important and therefore highly regulated. Automobiles and other vehicles have to comply with a certain number of norms and regulations, whether local or international. The standard ISO26262, is considered as one of the best practice framework for achieving automotive functional safety. In case of safety issues, product defect or faulty procedure during the manufacturing of the motor vehicle and this procedure is called product recall. Product recalls happen in every industry and can be production-related or stem from the raw material, the automotive industry is still particularly concerned about product recalls, which cause considerable financial consequences.
Around the world, there were about 806 million cars and light trucks on the road in 2007, consuming over 980 billion litres of gasoline, the automobile is a primary mode of transportation for many developed economies. The Detroit branch of Boston Consulting Group predicts that, by 2014, meanwhile, in the developed countries, the automotive industry has slowed down. It is expected that this trend will continue, especially as the generations of people no longer want to own a car anymore
The Ferrari 488 is a mid-engined sports car produced by the Italian sports car manufacturer Ferrari, introduced in 2015 to replace the previous 458. It is powered by a 3. 9-litre twin-turbocharged V8, smaller in displacement, the 488 GTB was named The Supercar of the Year 2015 by car magazine Top Gear. The 488 GTB is powered by a 3902cc all-aluminium dry sump unit of the Ferrari F154 engine family, the engine produces 670 PS at 8,000 rpm and 760 N·m of torque at 3,000 rpm. This results in a power output of 126.3 kW per litre and specific torque output of 194.8 N·m per litre. The only available transmission for the 488 is an automated manual dual-clutch 7-speed F1 gearbox manufactured for Ferrari by Getrag, improved carbon-ceramic brakes are supplied on the 488, derived from technology used in LaFerrari, constructed with new materials that reduce the time needed to achieve optimum operating temperature. Disc sizes are 398 mm at the front, and 360 mm at the rear and these advancements reportedly reduce stopping distances by 9% over the 458. A new 5-spoke alloy wheel was designed for the 488, measuring 51 centimetres front, front tires measure 245/35 with rears 305/30.
The first 488 to be introduced was the 488 GTB 2-seat berlinetta and it was launched on 3 February 2015, in advance of its world première at the March 2015 Geneva Motor Show. The Ferrari 488 Spider is a 2-seat roadster variant of the 488 with a folding hardtop, Ferrari released pictures of the 488 Spider at the end of July 2015, and the car debuted at the Frankfurt Motor Show in September 2015. The Spiders drivetrain is the same of the 488 GTB, including the 670 PS3. 9-litre twin-turbocharged V8, the 488 Spider is only 50 kg heavier than its coupé sibling, and 10 kg lighter than the 458 Spider. The 0–100 km/h sprint is unchanged at 3.0 seconds, while the 0–200 km/h acceleration takes slightly longer at 8.7 seconds, UK sales are expected to begin in late spring 2016. The racing versions of the 488 GTB are the successors to the 458 Italia GTC, both the 488 GTE and GT3 were unveiled at the 2015 Finali Mondiali Ferrari which took place at Mugello. The 488 GTE made its debut in Round 1 of the 2016 WeatherTech SportsCar Championship at the 24 Hours of Daytona on 30–31 January.
The 488 GTE run by Scuderia Corsa finished 10th outright and 4th in the GTLM class, at the 201624 Hours of Le Mans, the car took second place, ran by Risi Competizione. The 488 GT3 made its competition debut in Round 2 of the 2016 Australian GT Championship at the Albert Park Circuit in Melbourne on 17 March. Italian Andrea Montermini and Danish driver Benny Simonsen shared the car for Australian team DeFelice Homes. Over the 4 races that made up the round, Montermini finished 5th in race 1 and 14th in race 3 while Simonsen finished 2nd in race 2 and 6th in the fourth and final race. In February 2017, the 488 GT3 won the 2017 Liqui Moly Bathurst 12 Hour, ran by Maranello Motorsport
The Ferrari 312B was a series of Formula One racing car models and built by Scuderia Ferrari. It was the successor to the Ferrari 312 and was used from 1970 until early 1975, several versions were made, the 312B, 312B2 and 312B3. The early 1970s saw the return of success to the Scuderia, under the direction of Mauro Forghieri, Ferrari developed a new Flat-12 engine, colloquially referred to as a boxer, giving a lower center of gravity and a clear airflow beneath the rear wing. In the remaining races, Ickx could not pass Rindts point score for the drivers title, the 1971 started with a win by new signing Mario Andretti. Although being presented in January, the 312 B2 debuted only at the round in Monaco. However the B2 suffered with handling problems, the combination of the rear suspension. Ferrari ultimately came second in the Constructors Championship, as Jackie Stewart, in 1972 Ferrari fielded a revised B2 with a more conventional rear suspension, but could not keep up with the progress of the competition, dropping to fourth at the end of the year.
Ickx won the 1972 German Grand Prix at his track, the Nürburgring. The sports cars season was a success for Ferrari though, with the Ferrari 312PB based on the F1 car, during the season, Forghieri designed a radical new car featuring a square bodywork and full width nose on a very short wheelbase. This new 312 B3 was tested by Merzario and Ickx but never raced in a Grand Prix, the Italian press nicknamed it the spazzaneve. For 1973, FIAT executives imposed a new staff and Forghieri was transferred to the experimental department, his role was taken by Sandro Colombo. The spazzaneve project was discarded and replaced by a new design, a new full monocoque chassis was built by specialist English company TC Prototypes, under John Thompsons guidance, and the engine became a fully stressed member. In the first races, Ferrari still used the old 312 B2, the car was no longer competitive, the new 312 B3 debuted at the Spanish round, but proved to be slow and unreliable achieving even worse results. In addition to the cars, which were beaten by the French Matra, the F1 program of the Italian team was outclassed.
This was not acceptable to Ickx, because the Nürburgring where the German Grand Prix was being held that year was his race track. During the summer Forghieri was recalled as technical director and set about revising the B3 incorporating some of the used on his radical spazzaneve. For 1974 Ferrari fielded a revised car, named 312 B3-74. The car was succeeded by the 312T which was introduced for the 1975 Formula One season,1 In 1975,63.5 points were scored driving the Ferrari 312T
Ferrari 195 Inter
See the 195 S sports racer The 195 Inter is a sportscar produced by Ferrari in 1950 as a grand tourer version of the Ferrari 195 S racer. Introduced at the 1950 Paris Motor Show, it was similar to the 166 Inter shown a year earlier and was aimed at the same affluent clientele,27 were built in less than a year, receiving the odd-numbered chassis numbers. Coachbuilders were Carrozzeria Vignale, Carrozzeria Ghia, Carrozzeria Touring and Motto, like the last of the 166 Inters, the wheelbase was stretched by 80 mm to 2,500 mm, but the larger 2.3 L version of the Colombo V12 was the true differentiator. The engine increase was accomplished by pushing the bore from 60 to 65 mm, a single Weber 36DCF carburettor was normally fitted, for a total output of 130 hp though some used triple carbs. The more-potent Ferrari 212 Inter was introduced at the 1951 Paris show and outlived the 195
The Ferrari Daytona, officially designated the Ferrari 365 GTB/4, is a two-seat grand tourer produced by Ferrari from 1968 to 1973. It was introduced at the Paris Auto Salon in 1968 to replace the 275 GTB/4, the Daytona was succeeded by the mid-engined 365 GT4 Berlinetta Boxer in 1973. To this day, Ferrari itself only rarely refers to the 365 as the Daytona, unlike Lamborghinis then-new, mid-engined Miura, the Daytona was a traditional front-engined, rear-drive car. At a compression ratio of 9.3,1, it produced 357 PS, 0-60 mph acceleration was just 5.4 seconds. The five-speed manual transmission was mounted in the rear for optimal weight distribution, although a Pininfarina design, as with many previous Ferrari road cars styled by Leonardo Fioravanti, the 365 GTB/4 was radically different. Its sharp-edged styling resembled a Lamborghini more than a traditional Pininfarina Ferrari, early Daytonas featured fixed headlights behind an acrylic glass cover. A new U. S. safety regulation banning headlights behind covers resulted in retractable pop-up twin headlights in 1971, the generally accepted total number of Daytonas from the Ferrari club historians is 1,406 over the life of the model.
This figure includes 156 UK right-hand-drive coupés,122 factory-made spyders, all bodies except the first Pininfarina prototype were produced by Italian coachbuilder Scaglietti, which at the time already had a reputable record of working with Ferrari. Historically, and especially since the mid-1980s and early 1990s, there has mostly been a market price difference between a real berlinetta and a real spyder. Many berlinettas were turned into spyders by aftermarket mechanics, often to increase the monetary value or simply because of the owners preference for an open car. Differences in value have typically remained, even after the most skillful conversions, no Berlinettas were converted into Spyders by Scaglietti, Ferrari would not allow this, or now. The first racing version of the 365GTB/4 was prepared in 1969, Ferrari did not produce an official competition car until late in 1970. The official cars were built in three batches of five each, in 1970-1,1972 and 1973. They all featured a lightweight body making use of aluminium and fibreglass panels, the engine was unchanged from the road car in the first batch of competition cars, but tuned in the latter two batches.
The cars were not raced by the official Scuderia Ferrari team and they enjoyed particular success in the 24 Hours of Le Mans, with results including a 5th overall in 1971, followed by GT class wins in 1972,1973 and 1974. In 1972 Ferrari 365 GTB/4s took the first 5 places of the GT class, the final major success of the car was in 1979, when a 1973 car achieved a class victory in the 24 Hours of Daytona. In 1971, the Daytona gained fame when one was driven by Dan Gurney and Brock Yates in the inaugural Cannonball Baker Sea-To-Shining-Sea Memorial Trophy Dash. Showcasing the cars potential for sustained high speed travel, the pair won with an speed of 80.1 miles per hour
A catalytic converter is an emissions control device that converts toxic gases and pollutants in exhaust gas to less toxic pollutants by catalyzing a redox reaction. Catalytic converters are used with internal combustion engines fueled by either petrol or diesel—including lean-burn engines as well as kerosene heaters, the first widespread introduction of catalytic converters was in the United States automobile market. These two-way converters combined oxygen with carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons to produce carbon dioxide, in 1981, two-way catalytic converters were rendered obsolete by three-way converters that reduce oxides of nitrogen, two-way converters are still used for lean-burn engines. This is because three-way-converters require either rich or stoichiometric combustion to successfully reduce NOx and they are used on some wood stoves to control emissions. This is usually in response to government regulation, either through direct environmental regulation or through health, the catalytic converter was invented by Eugene Houdry, a French mechanical engineer and expert in catalytic oil refining, who moved to the United States in 1930.
Houdry first developed catalytic converters for smoke stacks called cats for short, in the mid-1950s, he began research to develop catalytic converters for gasoline engines used on cars. He was awarded United States Patent 2,742,437 for his work, widespread adoption of catalytic converters did not occur until more stringent emission control regulations forced the removal of the anti-knock agent tetraethyl lead from most types of gasoline. Lead is a catalyst poison and would disable a catalytic converter by forming a coating on the catalysts surface. Pfefferle developed a catalytic combustor for gas turbines in the early 1970s, allowing combustion without significant formation of nitrogen oxides, the catalytic converters construction is as follows, The catalyst support or substrate. For automotive catalytic converters, the core is usually a ceramic monolith with a honeycomb structure, metallic foil monoliths made of Kanthal are used in applications where particularly high heat resistance is required.
Either material is designed to provide a surface area. A washcoat is a carrier for the materials and is used to disperse the materials over a large surface area. Aluminum oxide, titanium dioxide, silicon dioxide, or a mixture of silica, the catalytic materials are suspended in the washcoat prior to applying to the core. Washcoat materials are selected to form a rough, irregular surface and this in turn maximizes the catalytically active surface available to react with the engine exhaust. The coat must retain its surface area and prevent sintering of the metal particles even at high temperatures. These oxides are added as oxygen storage promoters. The catalyst itself is most often a mix of precious metal, platinum is the most active catalyst and is widely used, but is not suitable for all applications because of unwanted additional reactions and high cost. Palladium and rhodium are two precious metals used
Ferrari 312 PB
The Ferrari 312 PB was a Group 6 Prototype-Sports Car introduced in 1971 by Italian carmaker Ferrari. It was officially designated the 312 P, but often known as the 312 PB to avoid confusion with a car of the same name. It was part of the Ferrari P series of Prototype-Sports Cars but was redesignated as a Group 5 Sports Car for 1972, in 1970, a change in the regulations for sportscar racing for 1972 was announced. The loophole for the big 5-litre sports cars was closed, Porsche considered this too heavy as their Porsche 908/03 were 100 kg lighter, and this advantage would have been lost. On the other hand, their air-cooled two-valve engine was low on power with 370 hp, Porsche did not enter world championship sports car races after 1971 and sold the 908s to customers who would have to add weight to them. Matra and Alfa Romeo were willing and able to compete, Fords successful Formula 1 Cosworth-V8 engine was available for independent chassis builders, but vibrations made it unreliable for endurance racing.
Penske, probably not very happy about the lack of support from the factory, instead, in 1971, Ferrari focused on a new 3. 0L prototype based on the 180° flat-12 boxer from the 312B F1 car. Officially this design was known as 312P, the motorsports press appending the B to avoid confusion with the earlier 312P V12 cars and this design was similar to the traditional Porsche engine layout with its low center of gravity, but Ferrari used water-cooling and 4-valve heads. The car was promising, but did not win, while the similar Alfa Romeo 33 scored two wins against Porsches dominance, whereas the engine bears many similarities in design to the F1 engine, in practice, nearly every part is different and non-interchangeable with the F1 flat 12. This has led to problems for users of these cars in racing, as spare parts for these quite fragile engines, are, in comparison to the F1 flat 12 engine. The car first appeared at the 19711000 km of Buenos Aires in Argentina at the hands of Italians Ignazio Giunti and Arturo Merzario.
Its history started off tragically when Giunti was killed in this race after he hit Jean-Pierre Beltoises Matra head-on while the Frenchman was pushing the car back to the pits. The car did not win a race that season, in 1972, with only Alfa answering the challenge, the 312 PB was very successful and won all World Sportscar Championship races in which it was entered. Ferrari skipped Le Mans, though, as the F1-based engine had not lasted 24 hours in testing, in 1973, Matra which had previously focused on Le Mans challenged for the championship while Alfa was absent. As Matra won several races, Ferrari needed to enter in the 197324 Hours of Le Mans, one car was used as a hare which supposed to lure the Matras into driving faster laps than they intended, to test their reliability. Ironically it was only the hare Ferrari which survived the 24 hours, the championship saw the same order, with only two Italian wins compared to five French. In addition, despite the absence of the Matras, the 312 PB could not defend the 1972 win of the Targa Florio as the prototypes of Ferrari and Alfas failed and a Porsche 911 collected a surprise win.
At the end of the 1973 season, Ferrari abandoned sports car racing to focus on F1 again, motor Sport, LXXXII/11, p.431972 Ferrari 312 PB. conceptcarz. com
Internal combustion engine cooling
Internal combustion engine cooling uses either air or a liquid to remove the waste heat from an internal combustion engine. For small or special purpose engines, air cooling makes for a lightweight, the more complex circulating liquid-cooled engines ultimately reject waste heat to the air, but circulating liquid improves heat transfer from internal parts of the engine. Engines for watercraft may use open-loop cooling, but air and surface vehicles must recirculate a fixed volume of liquid, heat engines generate mechanical power by extracting energy from heat flows, much as a water wheel extracts mechanical power from a flow of mass falling through a distance. Engines are inefficient, so more heat energy enters the engine comes out as mechanical power. Internal combustion engines remove waste heat through cool intake air, hot exhaust gases, Engines with higher efficiency have more energy leave as mechanical motion and less as waste heat. Some waste heat is essential, it guides heat through the engine, much as a water wheel works only if there is some exit velocity in the water to carry it away.
Thus, all heat engines need cooling to operate, Cooling is needed because high temperatures damage engine materials and lubricants. Cooling becomes more important in when the climate very hot. Internal-combustion engines burn fuel hotter than the temperature of engine materials. Engine cooling removes energy fast enough to keep temperatures low so the engine can survive, some high-efficiency engines run without explicit cooling and with only incidental heat loss, a design called adiabatic. Such engines can achieve high efficiency but compromise power output, duty cycle, engine weight, most internal combustion engines are fluid cooled using either air or a liquid coolant run through a heat exchanger cooled by air. Marine engines and some engines have ready access to a large volume of water at a suitable temperature. The water may be used directly to cool the engine, but often has sediment, which can clog coolant passages, or chemicals, such as salt, engine coolant may be run through a heat exchanger that is cooled by the body of water.
Most liquid-cooled engines use a mixture of water and chemicals such as antifreeze, the industry term for the antifreeze mixture is engine coolant. Some antifreezes use no water at all, instead using a liquid with different properties, such as propylene glycol or a combination of propylene glycol, most air-cooled engines use some liquid oil cooling, to maintain acceptable temperatures for both critical engine parts and the oil itself. Most liquid-cooled engines use air cooling, with the intake stroke of air cooling the combustion chamber. An exception is Wankel engines, where parts of the combustion chamber are never cooled by intake. There are many demands on a cooling system, one key requirement is to adequately serve the entire engine, as the whole engine fails if just one part overheats
LaFerrari is a limited production hybrid sports car built by Ferrari. LaFerrari literally means The Ferrari in most Romance languages, in the sense that it is the definitive Ferrari, on December 3,2016, a LaFerrari auctioned off for $7 million making this car the most valuable 21st century automobile ever sold at auction. LaFerrari Concept Manta, LaFerrari Concept Tensostruttura were unveiled in Ferrari Museum Maranello, the LaFerrari is based on findings from testing of the FXX and on research being conducted by the Millechili Project at the University of Modena. Association with the Millechili Project led to speculation during development that the car would weigh under 1,000 kg, only 499 units have been built, and each cost more than 1 million US dollars. An additional 500th car was made to be sold at an auction. The vehicle was unveiled at the 2013 Geneva Auto Show, followed by Auto Shanghai 2013,2013 Tour Auto Optic 2000,2013 Supercar Chronicle, the LaFerrari Aperta is a limited version of the LaFerrari.
200 cars will be sold, the additional nine Ferrari LaFerrari are reserved for selected distribution during the 70th anniversary celebrations of Ferrari, the LaFerrari Aperta comes with a removable carbon-fibre hard top and a removable soft top. The vehicle was unveiled in 2016 Paris Auto Show, like past convertible Ferrari models, it may use the Aperta label to denote its retractable roof. According to Ferrari, all units have already sold to customers via invitation. LaFerrari is the first mild hybrid from Ferrari, providing the highest power output of any Ferrari whilst decreasing fuel consumption by 40 percent, the KERS system adds extra power to the combustion engines output level for a total of 963 PS and a combined torque of 900 N·m. Ferrari claims CO2 emissions of 330 g/km, the engines bore and stroke is 94×75.2 mm with a compression ratio of 13.5,1 and a specific power output of 94 kW per litre. It is connected to a 7-speed dual-clutch transmission and the car is rear-wheel drive, Ferrari LaFerrari has a power to weight ratio of 1.3 kg per horsepower.
The car is equipped with carbon-ceramic Brembo discs on the front and rear, with the car sitting on Pirelli P Zero Corsa tires measuring 265/30 R19 and it has a double wishbone suspension in the front and a multi-link suspension in the rear. Ferrari claims that the car has lapped its Fiorano Test Circuit in 1,19.70 which is faster than any other road-legal car Ferrari has ever produced. LaFerrari received no input from Pininfarina, making it the first Ferrari since the Bertone-styled 1973 Dino 308 GT4 not to have Pininfarina bodywork or other styling and this decision is a rare exception to the collaboration between Ferrari and Pininfarina that began in 1951. However, Ferrari has stated that two new models designed jointly with Pininfarina have yet to be unveiled and that there are no plans to end relations with Pininfarina. The cockpit stands out for its essentiality and the sportiness of the shapes, there is a steering wheel with integrated controls and gear levers directly fixed to the steering column, a solution that allows better use in all conditions.
The bridge which exists between the two seats, designed like a wing, is home to other instruments linked to the dual-clutch gearbox