Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press is the largest university press in the world, the second oldest after Cambridge University Press. It is a department of the University of Oxford and is governed by a group of 15 academics appointed by the vice-chancellor known as the delegates of the press, they are headed by the secretary to the delegates, who serves as OUP's chief executive and as its major representative on other university bodies. Oxford University has used a similar system to oversee OUP since the 17th century; the Press is located on opposite Somerville College, in the suburb Jericho. The Oxford University Press Museum is located on Oxford. Visits are led by a member of the archive staff. Displays include a 19th-century printing press, the OUP buildings, the printing and history of the Oxford Almanack, Alice in Wonderland and the Oxford English Dictionary; the university became involved in the print trade around 1480, grew into a major printer of Bibles, prayer books, scholarly works. OUP took on the project that became the Oxford English Dictionary in the late 19th century, expanded to meet the ever-rising costs of the work.
As a result, the last hundred years has seen Oxford publish children's books, school text books, journals, the World's Classics series, a range of English language teaching texts. Moves into international markets led to OUP opening its own offices outside the United Kingdom, beginning with New York City in 1896. With the advent of computer technology and harsh trading conditions, the Press's printing house at Oxford was closed in 1989, its former paper mill at Wolvercote was demolished in 2004. By contracting out its printing and binding operations, the modern OUP publishes some 6,000 new titles around the world each year; the first printer associated with Oxford University was Theoderic Rood. A business associate of William Caxton, Rood seems to have brought his own wooden printing press to Oxford from Cologne as a speculative venture, to have worked in the city between around 1480 and 1483; the first book printed in Oxford, in 1478, an edition of Rufinus's Expositio in symbolum apostolorum, was printed by another, printer.
Famously, this was mis-dated in Roman numerals as "1468", thus pre-dating Caxton. Rood's printing included John Ankywyll's Compendium totius grammaticae, which set new standards for teaching of Latin grammar. After Rood, printing connected with the university remained sporadic for over half a century. Records or surviving work are few, Oxford did not put its printing on a firm footing until the 1580s. In response to constraints on printing outside London imposed by the Crown and the Stationers' Company, Oxford petitioned Elizabeth I of England for the formal right to operate a press at the university; the chancellor, Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester, pleaded Oxford's case. Some royal assent was obtained, since the printer Joseph Barnes began work, a decree of Star Chamber noted the legal existence of a press at "the universitie of Oxforde" in 1586. Oxford's chancellor, Archbishop William Laud, consolidated the legal status of the university's printing in the 1630s. Laud envisaged a unified press of world repute.
Oxford would establish it on university property, govern its operations, employ its staff, determine its printed work, benefit from its proceeds. To that end, he petitioned Charles I for rights that would enable Oxford to compete with the Stationers' Company and the King's Printer, obtained a succession of royal grants to aid it; these were brought together in Oxford's "Great Charter" in 1636, which gave the university the right to print "all manner of books". Laud obtained the "privilege" from the Crown of printing the King James or Authorized Version of Scripture at Oxford; this "privilege" created substantial returns in the next 250 years, although it was held in abeyance. The Stationers' Company was alarmed by the threat to its trade and lost little time in establishing a "Covenant of Forbearance" with Oxford. Under this, the Stationers paid an annual rent for the university not to exercise its full printing rights – money Oxford used to purchase new printing equipment for smaller purposes.
Laud made progress with internal organization of the Press. Besides establishing the system of Delegates, he created the wide-ranging supervisory post of "Architypographus": an academic who would have responsibility for every function of the business, from print shop management to proofreading; the post was more an ideal than a workable reality, but it survived in the loosely structured Press until the 18th century. In practice, Oxford's Warehouse-Keeper dealt with sales and the hiring and firing of print shop staff. Laud's plans, hit terrible obstacles, both personal and political. Falling foul of political intrigue, he was executed in 1645, by which time the English Civil War had broken out. Oxford became a Royalist stronghold during the conflict, many printers in the city concentrated on producing political pamphlets or sermons; some outstanding mathematical and Orientalist works emerged at this time—notably, texts edited by Edward Pococke, the Regius Professor of Hebrew—but no university press on Laud's model was possible before the Restoration of the Monarchy in 1660.
It was established by the vice-chancellor, John Fell, Dean of Christ Church, Bishop of Oxford, Secretary to the Delegates. Fell regarded Laud as a martyr, was determined to honour his vision of the Press. Using the provisions of the Great Charter, Fell persuaded Oxford to refuse any further payments from the Stationers and drew
Attilio Ferraris was an Italian footballer who played as a midfielder. Ferraris played 10 seasons in the Serie A, for A. S. Roma, S. S. Lazio and A. S. Bari. With the Italian national team, Ferraris won the bronze medal at the 1928 Olympics, was part of the World Cup winning team of 1934, being named to the tournament's All-Star Team for his performances, he died at only 43 years old during an old-stars game. ItalyOlympic Bronze Medal: 1928 FIFA World Cup: 1934 FIFA World Cup Team of the Tournament: 1934 A. S. Roma Hall of Fame Attilio Ferraris at National-Football-Teams.com
A metalsmith or smith is a craftsman fashioning useful items out of various metals. Smithing is one of the oldest metalworking occupations. Shaping metal with a hammer is the archetypical component of smithing; the hammering is done while the metal is hot, having been heated in a forge. Smithing can involve the other aspects of metalworking, such as refining metals from their ores, casting it into shapes, filing to shape and size; the prevalence of metalworking in the culture of recent centuries has led Smith and its equivalents in various languages to be a common occupational surname. As a suffix, -smith connotes a meaning of a specialized craftsman—for example and tunesmith are nouns synonymous with writer or songwriter, respectively. In pre-industrialized times, smiths held high or special social standing since they supplied the metal tools needed for farming and warfare. A metalsmith is one who works with or has the knowledge and the capacity of working with "all" metals. Types of smiths include: A blacksmith works with iron and steel A bladesmith forges knives and other blades A brownsmith works with brass and copper A coinsmith works with coins and currency A coppersmith works with copper A goldsmith works with gold A glasssmith works with glass A gunsmith builds and repairs firearms A locksmith works with locks A silversmith, or brightsmith, works with silver A swordsmith is a bladesmith who forges only swords A tinsmith, tinner, or tinker works with light metal and can refer to someone who deals in tinware A weapon-smith forges weapons like axes, spears and other weapons A whitesmith works with white metal and can refer to someone who polishes or finishes the metal rather than forging it The ancient traditional tool of the smith is a forge or smithy, a furnace designed to allow compressed air to superheat the inside, allowing for efficient melting and annealing of metals.
Today, this tool is still used by blacksmiths as it was traditionally. The term, metalsmith refers to artisans and craftpersons who practice their craft in many different metals, including gold and silver. Jewelers refer to their craft as metalsmithing, many universities offer degree programs in metalsmithing, jewelry and blacksmithing under the auspices of their fine arts programs. Machinists are metalsmiths who produce high-precision tools; the most advanced of these tools, CNC machines, are computer controlled and automated
Joseph de Ferraris
Joseph Jean François, count de Ferraris was an Austrian general and cartographer. He married to the daughter of Charles, 2nd Duke d'Ursel. Between 1771 and 1778, Ferraris was commissioned by the empress Maria Theresa of Austria and emperor Joseph II to create a detailed Carte-de-Cabinet of the Austrian Netherlands; the maps were made on a scale 1:11,520, formed a collection of 275 hand-colored and hand-drawn maps 0,90 × 1,40 m each. These were accompanied by twelve volumes of handwritten commentaries relating to topics of economic and military interest. Three originals of the maps remain. One is in the Kriegsarchiv in Vienna, one is in the Rijksarchief in The Hague and the third one remains in the Royal Library of Belgium in Brussels; the maps held in Brussels were the maps destined for Prince Charles Alexander of Lorraine, the Governor of the Austrian Netherlands, were transferred to Belgium by Austria in 1922 as part of the World War I reparations. In 1777 and 1778, Ferraris issued a reduced version of the cabinet maps with a scale of 1:86,400 in 25 maps, issued for commercial sale.
The Ferraris maps were used to great extent during the military operations of the French Revolutionary Wars and during the Napoleonic Wars. When the French invaded in 1792–1793 they took 400 copies of the map from a Brussel's printer and seller. In 1794 they took the engraving plates to France so they could produce more maps for their own use and to prevent any enemy from acquiring copies. Louis Capitaine, a French engineer, copied it and produced 2 versions one with 69 sheets and a smaller scale version on six sheets, sold commercially. During the Waterloo Campaign the Duke of Wellington had a copy of the six sheet version as it is probable that Prince Blucher had a copy of the six sheet version. Napoleon carried a copy of the full scale Capitaine map while Gourgaud, an aide-de-camp to Napoleon, carried a copy of the Farraris map. Both versions were similar and about 40 years out of date; the Brussels-based Flemish government building, housing parts of the Flemish ministry of Environment and Energy and the Flemish Ministry of Mobility and Public Works is named Graaf de Ferrarisgebouw after him.
De Coene, K.. — The history of the map and a map legend. Clayton, Waterloo: Four Days that Changed Europe’s Destiny, Brown Book Group, p. 58, ISBN 978-0-7481-3412-0 The Austrian Netherlands maps by de Ferraris, Belgian national library
Smith is a surname originating in England. It is the most prevalent surname in the United Kingdom, Canada, New Zealand and the United States, the fifth most common surname in the Republic of Ireland; the surname Smith is prevalent among those of English and Irish descent, but is a common surname among African Americans, which can be attributed either to black slaves being given the surname during slavery and never changing the name upon the end of the era of slavery and after the issuance of the Emancipation Proclamation or to descendants of interracial marriages. 2,376,206 Americans shared the surname Smith during the 2000 census, more than 500,000 people share it in the United Kingdom. At the turn of the 20th century, the surname was sufficiently prevalent in England to have prompted the statement: "Common to every village in England, south and west"; the name refers to a smith deriving from smið or smiþ, the Old English term meaning one who works in metal related to the word smitan, the Old English form of smite, which meant strike.
The Old English word smiþ comes from the Proto-Germanic word smiþaz. Smithy comes from the Old English word smiðē from the Proto-Germanic smiðjon; the use of Smith as an occupational surname dates back to Anglo-Saxon times, when inherited surnames were still unknown: Ecceard Smith of County Durham, North East England, was recorded in 975. Although the name is derived from a common occupation, many Smiths had no connection to that occupation, but adopted or were given the surname because of its commonness. For example: It is common for people in English-speaking countries to adopt the surname Smith in order to maintain a secret identity, when they wish to avoid being found. Smith is an common name among English Gypsies. During the colonisation of North America, some Native Americans took the name for use in dealing with colonists. During the period of slavery in the United States, many other slaves were known by the surname of their masters, or adopted those surnames upon their emancipation. During the world wars, many German Americans anglicised the common and equivalent German surname Schmidt or Schmitz to Smith to avoid discrimination.
A popular misconception holds that at the beginning of the 20th century, when many new immigrants were entering the U. S. civil servants at Ellis Island responsible for cataloging the entry of such persons sometimes arbitrarily assigned new surnames if the immigrants' original surname was lengthy, or difficult for the processor to spell or pronounce. While such claims are vastly exaggerated, many immigrants did choose to begin their American lives with more "American" names with Anglicised versions of their birth names; as of 2014, 64.3% of all known bearers of the surname Smith were residents of the United States, 13.7% of England, 4.2% of Canada, 4.0% of Australia, 3.9% of South Africa, 1.4% of Scotland and 1.0% of Jamaica. In Scotland, the frequency of the surname was higher than average in the following council areas: In England, the frequency of the surname was higher than average in the following counties: In the United States, the frequency of the surname was higher than average in the following states: Variations of the surname Smith remain common.
These include different spellings of the English term, versions in other languages. There is some disagreement about the origins of the numerous variations of the name Smith; the addition of an e at the end of the name is sometimes considered an affectation, but may have arisen either as an attempt to spell smithy or as the Middle English adjectival form of smith, which would have been used in surnames based on location rather than occupation. The replacement of the i with a y in Smyth or Smythe is often considered an affectation but may have occurred because of the difficulty of reading blackletter text, where Smith might look like Snuth or Simth. However, Charles Bardsley wrote in 1901, "The y in Smyth is the invariable spelling in early rolls, so that it cannot be styled a modern affectation." Some variants were adopted by individuals for personal reasons, while others may have arisen independently or as offshoots from the Smith root. Names such as Smither and Smithers may in some cases be variants of Smith but in others independent surnames based on a meaning of light and active attributed to smyther.
Additional derivatives include Smithman and Smithfield. Athersmith may derive from at the Smith. Other variations focus on specialisms within the profession. Sixsmith is variant spelling of a sickle- or scythe-smith. Wildsmith in turn is a corruption of wheelsmithThe patronymic practice of attaching son to the end of a name to indicate that th
McGowan is a surname. It is an Anglicization of the Irish and Scottish surname Mac Gabhann. Belonging to the Uí Echach Cobo, located in modern-day County Down, Northern Ireland, they produced several over-kings of Ulaid. By the late 12th century, the English had expelled the McGowans to Tír Chonaill in modern-day County Donegal, Republic of Ireland; as noted further in source by John O'Hart, though not an occupational surname, MacGowan evolves as an Anglicization of the original Gaelic language personal description or nickname gobha, meaning "blacksmith". For this reason, the surnames of some septs of the MacGowan are alternately anglicised to Smythe or Smith. Mac, which may appear in anglicised contraction as Mc, sometimes written Mc or, abbreviated M', means in English "son", when an element used to form a Gaelic language patronymic in its usage of "They have no share in the promise made to the sons of Adam“, "descended" of a thereafter personal named or nicknamed founding ancestor or sire of a Gaelic clan.
The surname Mac Gowan, translates from Gaelic language to English language as "descended of the smith". Alistair McGowan, British impressionist Angela McGowan, Australian archeologist Archibald C. McGowan, New York politician Baron McGowan, the title of four Scottish barons Bill McGowan, American baseball umpire Brandon McGowan, American football player Brian McGowan, Australian politician Charles M. McGowan, American businessman and politician Donald W. McGowan, U. S. Army Major General Dustin McGowan, North American baseball player Gavin McGowan, English footballer Gerald S. McGowan, United States Ambassador to Portugal, 1998–2001 J. P. McGowan, Australian-American actor and director James McGowen, Premier of New South Wales. Jewel McGowan, American dancer Joe McGowan, Irish historian John McGowan, several people Jonas H. McGowan, US Representative from Michigan Kathleen McGowan, American novelist Keith McGowan, Australian radio presenter Margaret M. McGowan, scholar Mark McGowan, several people Martin McGowan, several people Ned McGowan, North American Gold rush pioneer Pat McGowan, American golfer Patrick K. McGowan, American politician Richard McGowan, American explorer and entrepreneur Robert A. McGowan, American screenwriter and director Robert F. McGowan, American film director and producer Robert Barrington-Ward Robert McGowan Barrington-Ward, journalist Robert McGowan Coventry, Scottish painter Robert McGowan Dickie, Nova Scotia legislator Robert McGowan Littlejohn, American major general Rose McGowan, American actress Ross McGowan, English golfer Samuel McGowan, Confederate General during the American Civil War Samuel McGowan, Admiral in the United States Navy Samuel Henry McGowan, gold mining entrepreneur in Bendigo, Australia Steve McGowan, several people Tom McGowan, American actor Thomas F. McGowan, New York politician and judge Zach McGowan, Producer, Voice Over ArtistMacGowan: Alice MacGowan, American writer Shane MacGowan, Irish musician Foster MacGowan Voorhees, American politician, governor of New JerseyGowan: Franklin B.
Gowen, president of Reading Railroad Hunter Gowan, Irish Protestant politician and militiaman Lawrence Gowan, a Canadian musician who used the stage name Gowan Ogle Robert Gowan, Canadian-Irish politician, son of Hunter Gowan Peter Gowan, academic USS McGowan, a US Navy destroyer McGowan Lakes, a series of seven small alpine glacial lakes in Custer County, United States McGowan v. Maryland, a US Supreme Court case involving trading on Sunday McGowan's Pass, a topographical feature of Central Park in New York City, New York McGowan Station, an island platformed METRORail light rail station in Houston, United States McGowan's War, a bloodless war that took place in Yale, British Columbia in the fall of 1858 and, threatened the newly established British authority on the mainland McGowan, Washington, a community in Washington state McGoohan Recipients of the Legion of Merit, awarded to 3 McGowan Distinguished Service Medal, one McGowan General officer recipient
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with "networks", organizations that provided training and marketing services. By 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on the OCLC Members Council. During 2008, OCLC commissioned two studies to look at distribution channels. In early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world. WorldCat has holding records from private libraries worldwide; the Open WorldCat program, launched in late 2003, exposed a subset of WorldCat records to Web users via popular Internet search and bookselling sites.
In October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. WikiD was phased out; the Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988. A browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013; until August 2009, when it was sold to Backstage Library Works, OCLC owned a preservation microfilm and digitization operation called the OCLC Preservation Service Center, with its principal office in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users; this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. Starting in 1971, OCLC produced catalog cards for members alongside its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, such as CONTENTdm for managing digital collections.
It offers the bibliographic discovery system WorldCat Discovery, which allows for library patrons to use a single search interface to access an institution's catalog, database subscriptions and more. OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years. In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications; these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organization's website. OCLC Publications – Research articles from various journals including Code4Lib Journal, OCLC Research, Reference & User Services Quarterly, College & Research Libraries News, Art Libraries Journal, National Education Association Newsletter; the most recent publications are displayed first, all archived resources, starting in 1970, are available. Membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding. Newsletters – Current and archived newsletters for the library and archive community.
Presentations – Presentations from both guest speakers and OCLC research from conferences and other events. The presentations are organized into five categories: Conference presentations, Dewey presentations, Distinguished Seminar Series, Guest presentations, Research staff