IGN is an American video game and entertainment media website operated by IGN Entertainment Inc. a subsidiary of Ziff Davis, itself wholly owned by j2 Global. The company is located in San Francisco's SOMA district and is headed by its former editor-in-chief, Peer Schneider; the IGN website was the brainchild of media entrepreneur Chris Anderson and launched on September 29, 1996. It focuses on games, television, comics and other media. A network of desktop websites, IGN is now distributed on mobile platforms, console programs on the Xbox and PlayStation, FireTV, via YouTube, Twitch and Snapchat. IGN was the flagship website of IGN Entertainment, a website which owned and operated several other websites oriented towards players' interests and entertainment, such as Rotten Tomatoes, GameSpy, GameStats, VE3D, TeamXbox, Vault Network, FilePlanet, AskMen, among others. IGN was sold to publishing company Ziff Davis in February 2013 and now operates as a j2 Global subsidiary. Created in September 1996 as the Imagine Games Network, the IGN content network was founded by publishing executive Jonathan Simpson-Bint and began as five individual websites within Imagine Media: N64.com, PSXPower, Next-Generation.com and Ultra Game Players Online.
Imagine expanded on its owned-and-operated websites by creating an affiliate network that included a number of independent fansites such as PSX Nation.com, Sega-Saturn.com, Game Sages, GameFAQs. In 1998, the network launched a new homepage that consolidated the individual sites as system channels under the IGN brand; the homepage exposed content from more than 30 different channels. Next-Generation and Ultra Game Players Online were not part of this consolidation. G. P. O. Dissolved with the cancellation of the magazine, Next-Generation was put "on hold" when Imagine decided to concentrate on launching the short-lived Daily Radar brand. In February 1999, PC Magazine named IGN one of the hundred-best websites, alongside competitors GameSpot and CNET Gamecenter; that same month, Imagine Media incorporated a spin-off that included IGN and its affiliate channels as Affiliation Networks, while Simpson-Bint remained at the former company. In September, the newly spun-out standalone internet media company, changed its name to Snowball.com.
At the same time, small entertainment website The Den merged into IGN and added non-gaming content to the growing network. Snowball shed most of its other properties during the dot-com bubble. IGN prevailed with growing audience numbers and a newly established subscription service called IGN Insider, which led to the shedding of the name "Snowball" and adoption of IGN Entertainment on May 10, 2002. In June 2005, IGN reported having 24,000,000 unique visitors per month, with 4.8 million registered users through all departments of the site. IGN is ranked among the top 200 most-visited websites according to Alexa. In September 2005, IGN was acquired by Rupert Murdoch's multi-media business empire, News Corporation, for $650 million. IGN celebrated its 10th anniversary on January 12, 2008. IGN was headquartered in the Marina Point Parkway office park in Brisbane, until it relocated to a smaller office building near AT&T Park in San Francisco on March 29, 2010. On May 25, 2011, IGN sold its Direct2Drive division to Gamefly for an undisclosed amount.
In 2011, IGN Entertainment acquired its rival UGO Entertainment from Hearst Corporation. News Corp. planned to spin off IGN Entertainment as a publicly traded company, continuing a string of divestitures for digital properties it had acquired. On February 4, 2013, after a failed attempt to spin off IGN as a separate company, News Corp. announced that it had sold IGN Entertainment to the publishing company Ziff Davis, acquired by J2 Global. Financial details regarding the purchase were not revealed. Prior to its acquisition by UGO, 1UP.com had been owned by Ziff Davis. Soon after the acquisition, IGN announced that it would be laying off staff and closing GameSpy, 1UP.com, UGO in order to focus on its flagship brands, IGN.com and AskMen. The role-playing video game interest website Vault Network was acquired by IGN in 1999. GameStats, a review aggregation website, was founded by IGN in 2004. GameStats includes a "GPM" rating system which incorporates an average press score and average gamer score, as well as the number of page hits for the game.
However, the site is no longer being updated. The Xbox interest site, TeamXbox, the PC game website VE3D were acquired in 2003. IGN Entertainment merged with GameSpy Industries in 2005; the merger brought the game download site FilePlanet into the IGN group. IGN Entertainment acquired the online male lifestyle magazine AskMen.com in 2005. In 2004, IGN acquired film review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes and in 2010, sold the website to Flixster. In October 2017, Humble Bundle announced that it was being acquired by IGN. A member of the IGN staff writes a review for a game and gives it a score between 0.1 and 10.0, assigned by increments of 0.1 and determines how much the game is recommended. The score is given according to the "individual aspects of a game, like presentation, sound and lasting appeal." Each game is given a score in each of these categories, but the overall score for the game is an independent evaluation, not an average of the scores in each category. On August 3, 2010, IGN announced.
Instead of a 100-point s
Video game genre
A video game genre is a classification assigned to a video game based on its gameplay interaction rather than visual or narrative differences. A video game genre is defined by a set of gameplay challenges and are classified independently of their setting or game-world content, unlike other works of fiction such as films or books. For example, a shooter game is still a shooter game, regardless of when it takes place; as with nearly all varieties of genre classification, the matter of any individual video game's specific genre is open to personal interpretation. Moreover, each individual game may belong to several genres at once; the first attempt to classify different genres of video games was made by Chris Crawford in his book The Art of Computer Game Design in 1984. In this book, Crawford focused on the player's experience and activities required for gameplay. Here, he stated that "the state of computer game design is changing quickly. We would therefore expect the taxonomy presented to become obsolete or inadequate in a short time."
Since among other genres, the platformer and 3D shooter genres, which hardly existed at the time, have gained a lot of popularity. As hardware capabilities have increased, new genres have become possible, with examples being increased memory, the move from 2D to 3D, new peripherals and location. Though genres were just interesting for game studies in the 1980s, the business of video games expanded in the 1990s and both smaller and independent publishers had little chance of surviving; because of this, games settled more into set genres that larger publishers and retailers could use for marketing. Due to "direct and active participation" of the player, video game genres differ from literary and film genres. Though one could state that Space Invaders is a science-fiction video game, such a classification "ignores the differences and similarities which are to be found in the player's experience of the game." In contrast to the visual aesthetics of games, which can vary it is argued that it is interactivity characteristics that are common to all games.
Descriptive names of genres take into account the goals of the game, the protagonist and the perspective offered to the player. For example, a first-person shooter is a game, played from a first-person perspective and involves the practice of shooting; the term "subgenre" may be used to refer to a category within a genre to further specify the genre of the game under discussion. Whereas "shooter game" is a genre name, "first-person shooter" and "third-person shooter" are common subgenres of the shooter genre. Other examples of such prefixes are real-time, turn based, side-scrolling; the target audience, underlying theme or purpose of a game are sometimes used as a genre identifier, such as with "games for girls," games for cats,"Christian game" and "Serious game" respectively. However, because these terms do not indicate anything about the gameplay of a video game, these are not considered genres. Video game genres vary in specificity, with popular video game reviews using genre names varying from "action" to "baseball."
In this practice, basic themes and more fundamental characteristics are used alongside each other. A game may combine aspects of multiple genres in such a way that it becomes hard to classify under existing genres. For example, because Grand Theft Auto III combined shooting and roleplaying in an unusual way, it was hard to classify using existing terms. Since the term Grand Theft Auto clone has been used to describe games mechanically similar to Grand Theft Auto III; the term roguelike has been developed for games that share similarities with Rogue. Elements of the role-playing genre, which focuses on storytelling and character growth, have been implemented in many different genres of video games; this is because the addition of a story and character enhancement to an action, strategy or puzzle video game does not take away from its core gameplay, but adds an incentive other than survival to the experience. According to some analysts, the count of each broad genre in the best selling physical games worldwide is broken down as follows.
The most popular genres are Shooter, Role-playing and Sports, with Platformer and Racing having both declined in the last decade. Puzzle games have declined when measured by sales, however, on mobile, where the majority of games are free-to-play, this genre remains the most popular worldwide. List of video game genres
In sport, racing is a competition of speed, against an objective criterion a clock or to a specific point. The competitors in a race try to complete a given task in the shortest amount of time; this involves traversing some distance, but it can be any other task involving speed to reach a specific goal. A race may be run continuously to finish or may be made of several segments called heats, stages or legs. A heat is run over the same course at different times. A stage is a shorter section of a time trial. Early records of races are evident on pottery from ancient Greece, which depicted running men vying for first place. A chariot race is described in Homer's Iliad; the word race comes from a Norse word. This Norse word arrived in France during the invading of Normandy and gave the word raz which means "swift water" in Brittany, as in a mill race; the word race to mean a "contest of speed" was first recorded in the 1510s. A race and its name are associated with the place of origin, the means of transport and the distance of the race.
As a couple of examples, see the Dakar Rally or the Athens Marathon. Running a distance is the most basic form of racing, but races may be conducted in vehicles, such as boats, cars and aircraft. Races may be conducted with other modes of transport such as skis, skates or wheelchair. In a relay race members of a team take turns in racing parts of a circuit or performing a certain racing form. Orienteering races add an additional task of using a map and compass to navigate from point to point in diverse and unfamiliar terrain. A race can involve any other type of goal like eating. A common race involving eating is a hot dog eating race, where contestants try to eat more hot dogs than the other racers. Racing can be done in more humoristic and entertaining ways such as the Sausage Race, the Red Bull Trolley Grand Prix and wok racing. Racing can be entertained from around the world. One form of racing is through swimming. There are numerous ways to perform a good swim stroke: breaststroke, freestyle and backstroke.
In the racing form of swimming there are many rules that one must follow to perform in a competition. Freestyle- In freestyle the racers start off on a block start and can perform either an open turn or a flip turn (when a swimmer flips over underwater and pushes off the wall with their feet. While they do a flip turn they can only touch the wall with their feet, at the finish with only one hand. Breaststroke- For breaststroke, all limbs must move in a similar motion at the same time, remaining underwater most of the race with the racers heads bobbing up and down for air. For every arm stroke they are only allowed one leg kick. Butterfly- Butterfly racing begins with a forward dive and after each lap, the racer must touch the wall with both hands at the same time. After the turn they must do dolphin kicks and allow their head to break the surface of the water within the first 15 meters. Backstroke- Backstroking in a race is thought of an upside-down freestyle; these races start with the swimmers in the water and they must maintain being on their back throughout the duration of the race.
If they move their shoulders more than 90 degrees they will become disqualified from the race. There are many different types of racing in the automotive field such as NASCAR, endurance racing, drag racing, Formula One. While these all are races, the specific rules and themes are unique to each series.--NASCAR is the most recognizable form of racing in the United States. The cars used are analogue and have little downforce; the race tracks take the general form of an oval such as the Indianapolis Motor Speedway and are raced counter-clockwise such that every turn is leftwards.--Formula One is a series of open-wheel formula cars. Formula 1 cars are the fastest regulated cars to drive race tracks due to the high amount of downforce and mechanical grip. --Drag racing is a variable form of racing in which two cars or motorcycles attempt to cross a set finish line before the other. The most common form is the quarter-mile race, it can be done in anything from an everyday commuter to a Top Fuel dragster capable of accelerating to 300 mph in as little as 4.5 seconds.
Speed skating is performed on an ice rink and is done through the Olympics or other large organizations that perform in winter sports such as this. There are a lot of factors that go into having a fair and safe ice race.--The Draw happens before any race and take place there needs to be a qualifying round, or the draw, to determine the place in which the racers will start in for their desired heat.--Before the Start of the race, the racers’ names are called and they must appear to the starting line within the given time or they will not be allowed to race. Once at the starting line, they must approach the line saying “ready” but at no point touch the line with their skate or with any other body part until the gun is shot.--False Starting for the race happens If the racer takes the starting line before saying ready or if they leave the starting line before the gun has been fired, they will receive a false start. They are given a warning at first and if they false start again the racer whose fault it was will be disqualified from the race.
Crossovers- During the race, each racer must switch lanes one time during each lap. This is due to the inner lop being shorter than the outer loop so it is only fair to have the
The ferret is the domesticated form of the European polecat, a mammal belonging to the same genus as the weasel, Mustela, in the family Mustelidae. Their fur is brown, white, or mixed, they have an average length of 51 cm, including a 13 cm tail, weigh about 1.5–4 pounds, have a natural lifespan of 7 to 10 years. Ferrets are sexually dimorphic predators, with males being larger than females; the history of the ferret's domestication is uncertain, like that of most other domestic animals, but it is that they have been domesticated for at least 2,500 years. They are still used for hunting rabbits in some parts of the world, but they are kept only as pets. Being so related to polecats, ferrets hybridize with them, this has resulted in feral colonies of polecat–ferret hybrids that have caused damage to native fauna in New Zealand; as a result, New Zealand and some other parts of the world have imposed restrictions on the keeping of ferrets. Several other mustelids have the word ferret in their common names, including the black-footed ferret, an endangered species.
The name "ferret" is derived from the Latin furittus, meaning "little thief", a reference to the common ferret penchant for secreting away small items. The Greek word ictis occurs in a play written by Aristophanes, The Acharnians, in 425 BC. Whether this was a reference to ferrets, polecats, or the similar Egyptian mongoose is uncertain. A male ferret is called a hob. A spayed female is a sprite, a neutered male is a gib, a vasectomised male is known as a hoblet. Ferrets under one year old are known as kits. A group of ferrets is known as a "business", or as a "busyness". Other purported collective nouns, including "besyness", "fesynes", "fesnyng", "feamyng", appear in some dictionaries, but are certainly ghost words. Ferrets have a typical mustelid body-shape, being slender, their average length is about 50 cm including a 13 cm tail. Their pelage has various colorations including brown, white or mixed, they weigh between 0.7 and 2.0 kg and are sexually dimorphic as the males are larger than females.
The average gestation period is 42 days and females may have two or three litters each year. The litter size is between three and seven kits which are weaned after three to six weeks and become independent at three months, they become sexually mature at six months and the average life span is seven to 10 years. Ferrets are induced ovulators. Ferrets spend 14–18 hours a day asleep and are most active around the hours of dawn and dusk, meaning they are crepuscular. Unlike their polecat ancestors, which are solitary animals, most ferrets will live in social groups. A group of ferrets is referred to as a "business", they are territorial, like to burrow, prefer to sleep in an enclosed area. Like many other mustelids, ferrets have scent glands near their anus, the secretions from which are used in scent marking. Ferrets can recognize individuals from these anal gland secretions, as well as the sex of unfamiliar individuals. Ferrets may use urine marking for sex and individual recognition; as with skunks, ferrets can release their anal gland secretions when startled or scared, but the smell is much less potent and dissipates rapidly.
Most pet ferrets in the US are sold descented. In many other parts of the world, including the UK and other European countries, de-scenting is considered an unnecessary mutilation. If excited, they may perform a behavior called the "weasel war dance", characterized by frenzied sideways hops and bumping into nearby objects. Despite its common name, it is a joyful invitation to play, it is accompanied by a unique soft clucking noise referred to as "dooking". When scared, ferrets will hiss. Ferrets are obligate carnivores; the natural diet of their wild ancestors consisted of whole small prey, including meat, bones, skin and fur. Ferrets have short digestive systems and quick metabolism, so they need to eat frequently. Prepared dry foods consisting entirely of meat provide the most nutritional value and are the most convenient, though some ferret owners feed pre-killed or live prey to their ferrets to more mimic their natural diet. Ferret digestive tracts lack a cecum and the animal is unable to digest plant matter.
Before much was known about ferret physiology, many breeders and pet stores recommended food like fruit in the ferret diet, but it is now known that such foods are inappropriate, may in fact have negative ramifications on ferret health. Ferrets imprint on their food at around six months old; this can make introducing new foods to an older ferret a challenge, simply changing brands of kibble may meet with resistance from a ferret that has never eaten the food as a kit. It is therefore advisable to expose young ferrets to as many different types and flavors of appropriate food as possible. Ferrets have four types of teeth with a dental formula of 220.127.116.11.1.4.2: Twelve small incisor teeth located between the canines in the front of the mouth. These are used for grooming. Four canines used for killing prey. Twelve premolar teeth that the ferret uses to chew food—located at the sides of the mouth, directly behind the canines; the ferret uses these teeth to cut through flesh, using them in a scissors actio
A computing platform or digital platform is the environment in which a piece of software is executed. It may be the hardware or the operating system a web browser and associated application programming interfaces, or other underlying software, as long as the program code is executed with it. Computing platforms have different abstraction levels, including a computer architecture, an OS, or runtime libraries. A computing platform is the stage. A platform can be seen both as a constraint on the software development process, in that different platforms provide different functionality and restrictions. For example, an OS may be a platform that abstracts the underlying differences in hardware and provides a generic command for saving files or accessing the network. Platforms may include: Hardware alone, in the case of small embedded systems. Embedded systems can access hardware directly, without an OS. A browser in the case of web-based software; the browser itself runs on a hardware+OS platform, but this is not relevant to software running within the browser.
An application, such as a spreadsheet or word processor, which hosts software written in an application-specific scripting language, such as an Excel macro. This can be extended to writing fully-fledged applications with the Microsoft Office suite as a platform. Software frameworks. Cloud computing and Platform as a Service. Extending the idea of a software framework, these allow application developers to build software out of components that are hosted not by the developer, but by the provider, with internet communication linking them together; the social networking sites Twitter and Facebook are considered development platforms. A virtual machine such as the Java virtual machine or. NET CLR. Applications are compiled into a format similar to machine code, known as bytecode, executed by the VM. A virtualized version of a complete system, including virtualized hardware, OS, storage; these allow, for instance, a typical Windows program to run on. Some architectures have multiple layers, with each layer acting as a platform to the one above it.
In general, a component only has to be adapted to the layer beneath it. For instance, a Java program has to be written to use the Java virtual machine and associated libraries as a platform but does not have to be adapted to run for the Windows, Linux or Macintosh OS platforms. However, the JVM, the layer beneath the application, does have to be built separately for each OS. AmigaOS, AmigaOS 4 FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD IBM i Linux Microsoft Windows OpenVMS Classic Mac OS macOS OS/2 Solaris Tru64 UNIX VM QNX z/OS Android Bada BlackBerry OS Firefox OS iOS Embedded Linux Palm OS Symbian Tizen WebOS LuneOS Windows Mobile Windows Phone Binary Runtime Environment for Wireless Cocoa Cocoa Touch Common Language Infrastructure Mono. NET Framework Silverlight Flash AIR GNU Java platform Java ME Java SE Java EE JavaFX JavaFX Mobile LiveCode Microsoft XNA Mozilla Prism, XUL and XULRunner Open Web Platform Oracle Database Qt SAP NetWeaver Shockwave Smartface Universal Windows Platform Windows Runtime Vexi Ordered from more common types to less common types: Commodity computing platforms Wintel, that is, Intel x86 or compatible personal computer hardware with Windows operating system Macintosh, custom Apple Inc. hardware and Classic Mac OS and macOS operating systems 68k-based PowerPC-based, now migrated to x86 ARM architecture based mobile devices iPhone smartphones and iPad tablet computers devices running iOS from Apple Gumstix or Raspberry Pi full function miniature computers with Linux Newton devices running the Newton OS from Apple x86 with Unix-like systems such as Linux or BSD variants CP/M computers based on the S-100 bus, maybe the earliest microcomputer platform Video game consoles, any variety 3DO Interactive Multiplayer, licensed to manufacturers Apple Pippin, a multimedia player platform for video game console development RISC processor based machines running Unix variants SPARC architecture computers running Solaris or illumos operating systems DEC Alpha cluster running OpenVMS or Tru64 UNIX Midrange computers with their custom operating systems, such as IBM OS/400 Mainframe computers with their custom operating systems, such as IBM z/OS Supercomputer architectures Cross-platform Platform virtualization Third platform Ryan Sarver: What is a platform
A simulation is an approximate imitation of the operation of a process or system. This model is a well-defined description of the simulated subject, represents its key characteristics, such as its behaviour and abstract or physical properties; the model represents the system itself. Simulation is used in many contexts, such as simulation of technology for performance optimization, safety engineering, training and video games. Computer experiments are used to study simulation models. Simulation is used with scientific modelling of natural systems or human systems to gain insight into their functioning, as in economics. Simulation can be used to show the eventual real effects of alternative conditions and courses of action. Simulation is used when the real system cannot be engaged, because it may not be accessible, or it may be dangerous or unacceptable to engage, or it is being designed but not yet built, or it may not exist. Key issues in simulation include the acquisition of valid source information about the relevant selection of key characteristics and behaviours, the use of simplifying approximations and assumptions within the simulation, fidelity and validity of the simulation outcomes.
Procedures and protocols for model verification and validation are an ongoing field of academic study, refinement and development in simulations technology or practice in the field of computer simulation. Simulations used in different fields developed independently, but 20th-century studies of systems theory and cybernetics combined with spreading use of computers across all those fields have led to some unification and a more systematic view of the concept. Physical simulation refers to simulation in which physical objects are substituted for the real thing; these physical objects are chosen because they are smaller or cheaper than the actual object or system. Interactive simulation is a special kind of physical simulation referred to as a human in the loop simulation, in which physical simulations include human operators, such as in a flight simulator, sailing simulator, or a driving simulator. Continuous simulation is a simulation where time evolves continuously based on numerical integration of Differential Equations.
Discrete Event Simulation is a simulation where time evolves along events that represent critical moments, while the values of the variables are not relevant between two of them or result trivial to be computed in case of necessityStochastic Simulation is a simulation where some variable or process is regulated by stochastic factors and estimated based on Monte Carlo techniques using pseudo-random numbers, so replicated runs from same boundary conditions are expected to produce different results within a specific confidence band Deterministic Simulation is a simulation where the variable is regulated by deterministic algorithms, so replicated runs from same boundary conditions produce always identical results. Hybrid Simulation corresponds to a mix between Continuous and Discrete Event Simulation and results in integrating numerically the differential equations between two sequential events to reduce the number of discontinuities Stand Alone Simulation is a Simulation running on a single workstation by itself.
Distributed Simulation is operating over distributed computers in order to guarantee access from/to different resources. Modeling & Simulation as a Service where Simulation is accessed as a Service over the web. Modeling, interoperable Simulation and Serious Games where Serious Games Approaches are integrated with Interoperable Simulation. Simulation Fidelity is used to describe the accuracy of a simulation and how it imitates the real-life counterpart. Fidelity is broadly classified as 1 of 3 categories: low and high. Specific descriptions of fidelity levels are subject to interpretation but the following generalization can be made: Low – the minimum simulation required for a system to respond to accept inputs and provide outputs Medium – responds automatically to stimuli, with limited accuracy High – nearly indistinguishable or as close as possible to the real systemHuman in the loop simulations can include a computer simulation as a so-called synthetic environment. Simulation in failure analysis refers to simulation in which we create environment/conditions to identify the cause of equipment failure.
This was the fastest method to identify the failure cause. A computer simulation is an attempt to model a real-life or hypothetical situation on a computer so that it can be studied to see how the system works. By changing variables in the simulation, predictions may be made about the behaviour of the system, it is a tool to investigate the behaviour of the system under study. Computer simulation has become a useful part of modeling many natural systems in physics and biology, human systems in economics and social science as well as in engineering to gain insight into the operation of those systems
A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a two- or three-dimensional video display device such as a TV screen, virtual reality headset or computer monitor. Since the 1980s, video games have become an important part of the entertainment industry, whether they are a form of art is a matter of dispute; the electronic systems used to play video games are called platforms. Video games are developed and released for one or several platforms and may not be available on others. Specialized platforms such as arcade games, which present the game in a large coin-operated chassis, were common in the 1980s in video arcades, but declined in popularity as other, more affordable platforms became available; these include dedicated devices such as video game consoles, as well as general-purpose computers like a laptop, desktop or handheld computing devices. The input device used for games, the game controller, varies across platforms. Common controllers include gamepads, mouse devices, the touchscreens of mobile devices, or a person's body, using a Kinect sensor.
Players view the game on a display device such as a television or computer monitor or sometimes on virtual reality head-mounted display goggles. There are game sound effects and voice actor lines which come from loudspeakers or headphones; some games in the 2000s include haptic, vibration-creating effects, force feedback peripherals and virtual reality headsets. In the 2010s, the commercial importance of the video game industry is increasing; the emerging Asian markets and mobile games on smartphones in particular are driving the growth of the industry. As of 2015, video games generated sales of US$74 billion annually worldwide, were the third-largest segment in the U. S. entertainment market, behind broadcast and cable TV. Early games used interactive electronic devices with various display formats; the earliest example is from 1947—a "Cathode ray tube Amusement Device" was filed for a patent on 25 January 1947, by Thomas T. Goldsmith Jr. and Estle Ray Mann, issued on 14 December 1948, as U. S.
Patent 2455992. Inspired by radar display technology, it consisted of an analog device that allowed a user to control a vector-drawn dot on the screen to simulate a missile being fired at targets, which were drawings fixed to the screen. Other early examples include: The Nimrod computer at the 1951 Festival of Britain; each game used different means of display: NIMROD used a panel of lights to play the game of Nim, OXO used a graphical display to play tic-tac-toe Tennis for Two used an oscilloscope to display a side view of a tennis court, Spacewar! used the DEC PDP-1's vector display to have two spaceships battle each other. In 1971, Computer Space, created by Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney, was the first commercially sold, coin-operated video game, it used a black-and-white television for its display, the computer system was made of 74 series TTL chips. The game was featured in the 1973 science fiction film Soylent Green. Computer Space was followed in 1972 by the first home console. Modeled after a late 1960s prototype console developed by Ralph H. Baer called the "Brown Box", it used a standard television.
These were followed by two versions of Atari's Pong. The commercial success of Pong led numerous other companies to develop Pong clones and their own systems, spawning the video game industry. A flood of Pong clones led to the video game crash of 1977, which came to an end with the mainstream success of Taito's 1978 shooter game Space Invaders, marking the beginning of the golden age of arcade video games and inspiring dozens of manufacturers to enter the market; the game inspired arcade machines to become prevalent in mainstream locations such as shopping malls, traditional storefronts and convenience stores. The game became the subject of numerous articles and stories on television and in newspapers and magazines, establishing video gaming as a growing mainstream hobby. Space Invaders was soon licensed for the Atari VCS, becoming the first "killer app" and quadrupling the console's sales; this helped Atari recover from their earlier losses, in turn the Atari VCS revived the home video game market during the second generation of consoles, up until the North American video game crash of 1983.
The home video game industry was revitalized shortly afterwards by the widespread success of the Nintendo Entertainment System, which marked a shift in the dominance of the video game industry from the United States to Japan during the third generation of consoles. A number of video game developers emerged in Britain in the early 1980s; the term "platform" refers to the specific combination of electronic components or computer hardware which, in conjunction with software, allows a video game to operate. The term "system" is commonly used; the distinctions below are not always clear and there may be games that bridge one or more platforms. In addition to laptop/desktop computers and mobile devices, there are other devices which have the ability to play games but are not video game machines, such as PDAs and graphing calculators. In common use a "PC game" refers to a form of media that involves a player interacting with a personal computer conne