Red Lantern Corps
The Red Lantern Corps is a fictional organization, functioning as supervillains, sometimes anti-heroes throughout much of the DC Universe, appearing in comics published by DC Comics. Their power is derived from the emotional spectrum, they debuted in Green Lantern vol. 4 #25 and were created by Geoff Johns and Ethan Van Sciver. Some of their characteristics were inspired by 28 Days Later, one of Van Sciver's favorite films; the Red Lantern Corps are first mentioned during the "Sinestro Corps War" storyline. Foreshadowing another major crossover event in the DC Universe, former-Guardian Ganthet reveals the Blackest Night prophecy to Hal Jordan, Guy Gardner, John Stewart, Kyle Rayner; the prophecy describes a War of Light among seven Corps powered by the lights of the emotional spectrum. Part of the prophecy reads: "A force of hate will rise as the red lantern is anointed in blood, the bearer's rage unfiltered and unchecked."According to DC continuity, before recruiting sentient beings to the Green Lantern Corps, the Guardians formed a robotic army called the Manhunters to maintain order across the universe.
After eons of service, the renegade Guardian Krona altered their central programming, leading them to believe that the only way of maintaining order was to rid the universe of all known life. Sector 666 falls victim to this new philosophy when the Manhunters slaughter all but five of its inhabitants; the five survivors become known as the Five Inversions: a terrorist cell bent on the destruction of the Guardians of the Universe. They are incarcerated on the planet Ysmault, where one member, Atrocitus, is so consumed by his rage that it results in the formation of the first red power battery. Atrocitus had escaped at times, only to be defeated and returned. On one such occasion, he fatally attacked Green Lantern Abin Sur. Atrocitus uses his power battery to bludgeon the other Inversions to death. Geoff Johns describes the Red Lantern Corps as being "the most violent of the Corps based on violent reaction driven by emotional eruption – rage – instead of any clear-cut plan of war." He describes Atrocitus as "the most coherent and in control of the Red Lanterns," but notes that he will have trouble controlling the other, more feral members.
Sinestro is their primary target. As the power of rage consumes and drowns the intelligence of the users, the average Red Lantern is left in a animalistic mindset, with limited speech abilities and lacking any ability of abstract thought and understanding, of every other form of volition but endless rage, driven by hatred and a dim memory of his past life, focused on the circumstances forcing him to hate in the first place. Atrocitus is able to restore his fellow Red Lanterns to their previous mental acuity with his shamanistic magic; the ritual, employed only once on Bleez, restored her previous mindset and capacity for coherent thought without dimming her rage. As such, like Atrocitus, is still consumed by rage, but loathes her endless suffering. In Final Crisis: Rage of the Red Lanterns, Atrocitus is shown in a flashback as having formed a central power battery by using the blood of the other Inversions in blood magic rituals; the battery stands before a great lake of blood from which he forms his red power ring, as well as other rings and batteries used to form the Red Lantern Corps.
Harnessing the red light of rage, he sends his rings out into the universe. Their blood spoils from within, forcing them to expel the violently flammable and corrosive material from their mouths. Additionally, the Red Lanterns are reduced to an animalistic state, with only Atrocitus appearing to be in full control of himself. Once Atrocitus assembles a sufficient force, he leads them on a mission to capture Sinestro. Coincidentally, the Sinestro Corps have similar plans and they launch an ambush on the Green Lantern escort to rescue their leader. In turn, both groups are ambushed by the Red Lanterns, who are able to take Sinestro captive by slaughtering Green Lanterns and Sinestro Corpsmen alike. Among the many Red Lanterns being seen by readers for the first time is one familiar face: former Green Lantern Laira. After being tried and found guilty for the murder of Amon Sur, she is expelled from the Green Lantern Corps. While being escorted away from Oa, her ship is attacked by a red power ring.
It attaches itself to her, provides her with a vehicle to achieve the vengeance against Sinestro that she seeks. The introduction of the formed Red Lantern Corps continues in the main Green Lantern title, where Atrocitus brings Sinestro to Ysmault and intends to use his blood in another ritual; as Johns promised, Atrocitus strikes at Laira to keep her and the other Red Lanterns from attacking him themselves. With the help of Saint Walker and Brother Warth from the newly formed Blue Lantern Corps, Hal Jordan heads for Ysmault to free Sinestro. Separating from his companions, Jordan is captured by the Red Lantern Corps. Just as Atrocitus orders Laira to kill him, the Sinestro Corps arrives on Ysmault to rescue their leader. Chaos ensues; the two are able to keep the battling factions from destroying one another for a time until Sinestro is released from confinement and kills Laira while Jordan attempts to calm her rage. Furious, Jordan's anger attracts Laira's ring
Blackhawk (DC Comics)
Blackhawk is the eponymous fictional character of the long-running comic book series Blackhawk first published by Quality Comics and by DC Comics. Created by Chuck Cuidera with input from both Bob Powell and Will Eisner, the Blackhawk characters first appeared in Military Comics #1. Led by a mysterious man known as Blackhawk, the Blackhawks are a small team of World War II-era ace pilots of varied nationalities, each known under a single name, either their given name or their surname. Though the membership roster has undergone changes over the years, the team has been portrayed most as having seven core members. In their most well-known incarnation, the Blackhawks operate from a hidden base known only as Blackhawk Island, fly Grumman XF5F Skyrocket planes, shout their battle cry of "Hawk-a-a-a!" as they descend from the skies to fight tyranny and oppression. Clad in matching blue and black uniforms, early stories pitted the team against the Axis powers, but they would come to battle recurring foes such as King Condor and Killer Shark, as well as encounter an array of gorgeous and deadly femme fatales.
They frequently squared off against fantastical war machines ranging from amphibious "shark planes" and flying tanks, to the aptly named War Wheel, a gigantic rolling behemoth adorned with spikes and machine guns. At the height of his popularity in the early 1940s, Blackhawk titles outsold every other comic book but Superman. Blackhawk shares the unique distinction of being just one of four comic book characters to be published continuously in his own title from the 1940s through the 1960s; the comic series has spawned a film serial, a radio series, a novel and a future Steven Spielberg-produced feature film. A grounded version of Blackhawk named Ted Gaynor appeared in the first season of Arrow played by Ben Browder. Like many of his golden age and silver age comic book counterparts, the creation of Blackhawk has been the subject of sometimes-contentious debate. Will Eisner has at times been considered the characters' primary creator, with Eisner himself acknowledging the contributions of Chuck Cuidera and writer Bob Powell.
Over the years, Cuidera became vocal that he did much more work on Blackhawk than Eisner and that he had in fact started creating the characters prior to joining Eisner's studio. According to Cuidera, he and Powell fleshed out the concept, deciding on everything from names and nationalities, to the characters' distinguishing traits and the aircraft they would fly. In 1999, Eisner addressed his view of the matter during a Comic-Con panel: It's not important who created it...it's the guy who kept it going, made something out if it that's more important. Whether or not Chuck Cuidera thought of Blackhawk to begin with is unimportant; the fact that Chuck Cuidera made Blackhawk what it was is the important thing, therefore, he should get the credit. The Blackhawks debuted in August 1941 as the lead feature in the first issue of Quality Comics' anthology series Military Comics, billed as featuring "stories of the Army and Navy." Viewed by Will Eisner as "a modern version of the Robin Hood legend," the team's first appearance was co-written by Chuck Cuidera and Bob Powell, with art by Cuidera.
Although the exact nature of Eisner and Powell's individual contributions to the creation of the Blackhawks will never be known, it is confirmed that each performed some level of writing duties at different times during the first eleven issues, with Eisner working on early covers with Cuidera and Cuidera providing interior artwork. When Cuidera joined the armed services in 1942, Reed Crandall took over as artist, beginning a long association with the characters that would last until 1953. Jim Steranko has observed, "Where Cuidera made Blackhawk a best-seller, Crandall turned it into a classic, a work of major importance and lasting value." It was during Crandall's run that the series hit popularity zenith. The Blackhawks' success earned them their own title in Winter 1944; that issue, Blackhawk #9, picked up the numbering of Quality's canceled Uncle Sam Quarterly. They meanwhile continued to be featured prominently in Military Comics renamed Modern Comics, until that book's cancellation with #102.
During the Quality years, a whole host of well-respected talent worked on the character, including writers Manly Wade Wellman, Bill Woolfolk, Bill Finger, Dick French, as well as artists Al Bryant, Bill Ward, Dick Dillin. It was French an accomplished songwriter, who infused the team with the quirky desire to sing celebratory songs from their cockpits as they swooped in and out of battle. Quality Comics ceased operations with comics cover-dated December 1956, with Blackhawk #107 being the final issue published by Quality; the character and title trademarks were leased on a royalty basis to National Periodical Publications before being sold in their entirety. Blackhawk was one of the few Quality series. Penciller Dick Dillin and inker Chuck Cuidera remained on the title, ensuring a near-seamless transition; the duo would stay with the title through nearly its entire first run at DC. Steering deeper and deeper into the realm of science fiction, the Blackhawks found themselves confronting a steady stream of unmemorable and one-off supervillain-like adversaries bent on world domination.
The Blackhawks gained a new ally in Blackhawk #133: Lady Blackhawk, a pilot named Zinda Blake, determined to become the first female member of the team. After
Flash (Barry Allen)
The Flash is a superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. The character first appeared in Showcase #4, created by writer Robert Kanigher and penciler Carmine Infantino. Barry Allen is a reinvention of a previous character called the Flash, who appeared in 1940s comic books as the character Jay Garrick, his power consists of superhuman speed. Various other effects are attributed to his ability to control the speed of molecular vibrations, including his ability to vibrate at speed to pass through objects; the Flash wears a distinct red and gold costume treated to resist friction and wind resistance, traditionally storing the costume compressed inside a ring. Barry Allen's classic stories introduced the concept of the Multiverse to DC Comics, this concept played a large part in DC's various continuity reboots over the years; the Flash has traditionally always had a significant role in DC's major company-wide reboot stories, in the crossover Crisis on Infinite Earths #8, Barry Allen died saving the Multiverse, removing the character from the regular DC lineup for 23 years.
His return to regular comics is foreshadowed during the narrative in Grant Morrison's crossover story Final Crisis: Rogues' Revenge #3 actualized in Geoff Johns' accompanying The Flash: Rebirth #1, kicking off a six issue limited series. He has since played a pivotal role in the crossover stories Blackest Night, Convergence, DC Rebirth; the character has appeared in various adaptations in other media. John Wesley Shipp played Barry Allen in the 1990 CBS television series and Grant Gustin plays him in the 2014 The CW television series. Alan Tudyk, George Eads, James Arnold Taylor, Taliesin Jaffe, Dwight Schultz, Michael Rosenbaum, Neil Patrick Harris, Justin Chambers, Christopher Gorham, Josh Keaton, Adam DeVine, others have provided the character's voice in animation adaptations. In feature films, he is played by Ezra Miller in the DC Extended Universe, beginning with Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice and Suicide Squad in 2016, followed by Justice League in 2017 and a solo Flash film in the works.
Barry Allen is a police chemist with a reputation for being slow, late, which frustrates his fiancée, Iris West, as the result of being absent-minded and his devotion to crime-solving. One night, as he is working late, a lightning bolt shatters a case full of chemicals and spills all over Barry; as a result, Allen finds that he can run fast and has matching reflexes and senses. He dons a set of red tights sporting a lightning bolt, dubs himself the Flash, becomes Central City's resident costumed crimefighter. Central City University professor Ira West designed Allen's costume and the ring which stores it while Allen is in his civilian identity; the ring can eject the compressed clothing when Allen needs it and suck it back in with the aid of a special gas that shrinks the suit. In addition, Allen invented the cosmic treadmill, a device that allowed for precise time travel and was used in many stories. Allen was so well liked that nearly all speedsters that come after him are compared to him. Batman once said "Barry is the kind of man that I would've hoped to become if my parents had not been murdered."
As presented in Justice League of America #9, when the Earth is infiltrated by alien warriors sent to conquer the planet, some of the world's greatest heroes join forces, Allen among them. While the superheroes individually defeat most of the invaders, they fall prey to a single alien and only by working together are they able to defeat the warrior. Afterwards, the heroes decide to establish the Justice League. During the years, he is depicted as feeling attracted to Black Canary and Zatanna, but he never pursues a relationship because he feels his real love is Iris West, whom he marries. Allen becomes a good friend with Green Lantern, which would be the subject of the limited series Flash and Green Lantern: The Brave and the Bold. In The Flash # 123—"Flash of Two Worlds"—Allen is transported to Earth-Two where he meets Jay Garrick, the original Flash in DC Continuity; this storyline initiated DC's multiverse and was continued in issues of Flash and in team-ups between the Justice League of America of Earth-One and the Justice Society of America of Earth-Two.
In the classic story from Flash #179—"The Flash – Fact or Fiction?"—Allen is thrown into the universe called Earth Prime, a representation of "our" universe, where he seeks the aid of the Flash comic book's editor Julius Schwartz to build a cosmic treadmill so that he can return home. He gains a sidekick and protégé in Iris' nephew, Wally West, who gains super-speed in an accident similar to that which gave Allen his powers. In time, he married his girlfriend Iris, who learned of his double identity because Allen talked in his sleep, she kept this secret, he revealed his identity to her of his own free will with Moreno's persuasion. Iris was revealed to have been sent as a child from the 30th century and adopted. In the 1980s, Flash's life begins to collapse. Iris is murdered by Professor Zoom, when Allen prepares to marry another woman, Zoom tries the same trick again. Allen stops him. Unf
Green Lantern (film)
Green Lantern is a 2011 American superhero film based on the DC Comics character of the same name. The film stars Ryan Reynolds, Blake Lively, Peter Sarsgaard, Mark Strong, Angela Bassett and Tim Robbins, with Martin Campbell directing a script by Greg Berlanti and comic book writers Michael Green and Marc Guggenheim, subsequently rewritten by Michael Goldenberg; the film tells the story of Hal Jordan, a test pilot, selected to become the first human member of the Green Lantern Corps. Hal is given a ring that grants him superpowers, must confront Parallax, who threatens to upset the balance of power in the universe; the film first entered development in 1997. Martin Campbell was brought on board in February 2009 after Berlanti was forced to vacate the director's position. Most of the live-action actors were cast between July 2009 and February 2010, filming took place from March to August 2010 in Louisiana; the film was converted to 3D during its post-production stage. Green Lantern was released on June 17, 2011, received negative reviews.
Reynolds would voice his dissatisfaction with the film. The film underperformed at the box office, grossing $219 million against a production budget of $200 million. Due to the film's negative reception and disappointing box office performance, Warner Bros. canceled any plans for a sequel, instead opting to reboot the character in the DC Extended Universe line with the film Green Lantern Corps. Billions of years ago, beings called the Guardians of the Universe use the green essence of willpower to create an intergalactic police force called the Green Lantern Corps, they divide the universe with one Green Lantern per sector. One such Green Lantern, Abin Sur of Sector 2814, defeats the malevolent being Parallax and imprisons him in the Lost Sector on the desolate planet Ryut. In the present day, Parallax escapes from his prison after becoming strengthened by an encounter with crash survivors who had accidentally fallen into the dugout where Parallax was imprisoned on the abandoned planet. Parallax feeds on their fear to gain strength before pursuing and nearly killing Abin Sur, who escapes and crash-lands on Earth where he commands his power ring to find a worthy successor.
Hal Jordan, a cocky test pilot working at Ferris Aircraft, is chosen by the ring and transported to the crash site, where the dying Abin Sur appoints him a Green Lantern, telling him to take the lantern and speak the oath. Jordan says the oath and is whisked away to the Green Lantern Corps home planet of Oa, where he meets and trains with veteran Corps members Tomar-Re, Corps leader Sinestro, who believes he is unfit and fearful. Jordan, disheartened by his extreme training sessions and Sinestro's doubts and returns to Earth, keeping the power ring and lantern. Scientist Hector Hammond is summoned by his father, Senator Robert Hammond, to a secret government facility to perform an autopsy on Abin Sur's body under the watchful eye of Amanda Waller. A piece of Parallax inside the corpse enters Hammond, giving him telepathic and telekinetic powers at the cost of his sanity. After discovering that he was chosen for the secret work only due to his father's influence and not for his own abilities, Hammond attempts to kill his father by telekinetically sabotaging his helicopter at a massive party.
Jordan saves the party guests, including his childhood sweetheart Carol Ferris. At the government facility, Hammond uses telekenisis to kill his father by burning him alive. Hammond elevates Waller high above the floor; as she's falling, Jordan arrives and saves the injured Waller by creating a pool of water which whisks her away out of further danger. During the encounter Jordan learns of Parallax coming to Earth. On Oa, the Guardians tell Sinestro that Parallax was one of their own until he desired to control the yellow essence of fear, only to become corrupted. Arguing that the way to fight fear is with fear itself, Sinestro requests that the Guardians forge a ring of the same yellow power, preparing to concede Earth's destruction to Parallax in order to protect Oa. Jordan appears and tries to convince the Guardians that fear will turn the users evil if its power is used, but they reject his pleas, he returns to Earth to try to defeat Parallax on his own. Jordan saves Ferris from Hammond after a brief showdown.
Parallax arrives, consumes Hammond's entire life force, wreaks havoc on Coast City. After a fierce battle, Jordan lures Parallax away toward the sun. Parallax is inadvertently caught in the sun's gravitational pull and is destroyed, while Jordan escapes. Jordan loses consciousness after the battle and falls toward the sun, but is saved by Sinestro and Tomar-Re; the entire Green Lantern Corps congratulates Jordan for his bravery. Sinestro tells Jordan. In a mid-credits scene, Sinestro takes the yellow ring and places it on his finger causing his green suit and eyes to turn yellow. Ryan Reynolds as Harold "Hal" Jordan / Green Lantern:A test pilot for the Ferris Aircraft Company whose will to act qualifies him to become the first earthman inducted into an intergalactic peacekeeping force fueled by green energy of will. Reynolds said, "I've known about'Green Lantern' my whole life, but I've never followed it before. I fell in love with the character when I met with Martin Campbell". Reynolds called the film "an origin story to a certain degree, but it's not a labored origin story, where the movie b
The Zamarons are a fictional extraterrestrial race published by DC Comics. They were first introduced in Green Lantern #16, were created by John Broome and Gil Kane; the Zamarons were the female members of the race known as the Maltusians. When the renegade Maltusian scientist Krona performed a forbidden experiment that had terrible effects on the whole universe, the male Maltusians argued about how to deal with the situation. One group of Maltusians decided to dedicate their eternal existences to contain evil; the females, saw no need to involve themselves and, since the Oans were by immortal and had no more need to reproduce, left their mates and became known as the Zamarons. After billions of years, the Zamarons and Controllers evolved into different forms. While the Maltusians were human-like but blue-skinned, the Zamarons became something else entirely. In their first appearance, they appeared identical to Caucasian Earth women; the Zamarons developed a warrior-like culture, unlike the Guardians, preferred to focus on developing their physical abilities over their mental ones.
They stored their psionic energies in violet crystals. They chose a female that resembled their leader and gave her a violet crystal, turning her into Star Sapphire, with a namesake gem that grants her enormous mental powers, but takes over her mind. One of the women chosen was lover of the human Green Lantern Hal Jordan, she ended up becoming one of his greatest foes. When she was first transformed the Zamarons commanded her to attack him, as she felt attracted to him and they wanted to prove that men were inferior, he beat her and they removed her memory of the incident, though the persona would resurface many times. The Zamarons chose to take males from the planet Korugar as mates; this led the Guardians to enact a secret decision: should they or any of their agents kill a Korugarian male, the main Power Battery on Oa would self-destruct. They meant this as a measure to keep themselves from acting against them out of jealousy; however this backfired when, after the Guardians had left our universe temporarily, the Green Lantern Corps decided to execute the Korugarian criminal Sinestro, unaware of the special provision.
This led to the temporary dissolution of the Corps. The Zamarons decided to rejoin their Guardian mates in order to parent a foretold new generation of Oans, they left this dimension in order to mate. Although the Guardians returned, the Zamarons continued to wait to give birth. One Zamaron did return to our universe, along with her Guardian mate, to use their powers to accelerate the evolution of several humans from Earth specially chosen to become the new Guardians of the Universe in an event known as "the Millennium." Despite the interference of the Manhunters, they achieved their ends, although they died in the process. The humans formed a group of heroes called the New Guardians, were involved in a battle with Krona—now an agent of Entropy. After that they faded into obscurity; when the Guardians were restored as mixed-sex infants, Ganthet asked the Zamarons to come to Oa and help him take care of them. Their own children have not been referenced since. Though, in the 2006 Omega Men mini-series, Lianna was erroneously speculated to be one of them.
The Zamarons have resurfaced, conducting an underground war against the Guardians. Their origins have been retconned/clarified somewhat, it has been revealed that the Zamarons left Oa due to the Guardians' decision to suppress their emotions, while the Zamarons decided to embrace them. After settling on the planet Zamaron, the Zamarons discovered a parasitic violet crystal sprouting from the remains of two corpses, they used these crystals to create several Star Sapphire gemstones and gave these to women, loved and spurned, thus giving them the opportunity to gain revenge. A new Star Sapphire appeared and first takes possession of a girl named Krystal, sought out Carol Ferris. Ferris is released once the gem discovers that Hal Jordan is in love with Jillian "Cowgirl" Pearlman, whom the gem possesses; however and Carol manage to free Cowgirl from the gem after a battle. When the Zamarons reappear, Hal gives a false affectionate kiss to one of the Zamarons, leading the gem to possess her and kill her after the other Zamarons attempt to remove it, which forces them to retreat.
Realizing that the Star Sapphire is too powerful to control in its current state, the Zamarons create a violet Power Battery and violet power ring from the gem. It is revealed in Green Lantern #25 that the Zamarons have been experimenting with the emotional energy of love in preparation for an upcoming war, the prophesied "War of Light". Since it has been revealed, during a Guardian diplomatic mission to Zamaron, that the Zamarons have begun experimenting on captive Sinestro Corps members, hoping to "amplify the love within their hearts", thus making them less violent. Guy Gardner, feels that whatever they do will not change the fact that the captives are psychotic and cruel, while other Green Lanterns were appalled at the thought of the prisoners' hearts and souls being subverted to the Zamarons' will; the Guardians argued with the Zamarons over their attempts at power gathering which the Zamarons refused to cease. They allowed the Guardians to leave, making i
Aerospace is the human effort in science and business to fly in the atmosphere of Earth and surrounding space. Aerospace organizations research, manufacture, operate, or maintain aircraft or spacecraft. Aerospace activity is diverse, with a multitude of commercial and military applications. Aerospace is not the same as airspace, the physical air space directly above a location on the ground; the beginning of space and the ending of the air is considered as 100km above the ground according to the physical explanation that the air pressure is too low for a lifting body to generate meaningful lift force without exceeding orbital velocity. In most industrial countries, the aerospace industry is a cooperation of public and private industries. For example, several countries have a civilian space program funded by the government through tax collection, such as National Aeronautics and Space Administration in the United States, European Space Agency in Europe, the Canadian Space Agency in Canada, Indian Space Research Organisation in India, Japanese Aeronautics Exploration Agency in Japan, RKA in Russia, China National Space Administration in China, SUPARCO in Pakistan, Iranian Space Agency in Iran, Korea Aerospace Research Institute in South Korea.
Along with these public space programs, many companies produce technical tools and components such as spaceships and satellites. Some known companies involved in space programs include Boeing, Airbus, SpaceX, Lockheed Martin, United Technologies, MacDonald Dettwiler and Northrop Grumman; these companies are involved in other areas of aerospace such as the construction of aircraft. Modern aerospace began with Engineer George Cayley in 1799. Cayley proposed an aircraft with a "fixed wing and a horizontal and vertical tail," defining characteristics of the modern airplane; the 19th century saw the creation of the Aeronautical Society of Great Britain, the American Rocketry Society, the Institute of Aeronautical Sciences, all of which made aeronautics a more serious scientific discipline. Airmen like Otto Lilienthal, who introduced cambered airfoils in 1891, used gliders to analyze aerodynamic forces; the Wright brothers read several of his publications. They found inspiration in Octave Chanute, an airman and the author of Progress in Flying Machines.
It was the preliminary work of Cayley, Lilienthal and other early aerospace engineers that brought about the first powered sustained flight at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina on December 17, 1903, by the Wright brothers. War and science fiction inspired great minds like Konstantin Tsiolkovsky and Wernher von Braun to achieve flight beyond the atmosphere; the launch of Sputnik 1 in October 1957 started the Space Age, on July 20, 1969 Apollo 11 achieved the first manned moon landing. In April 1981, the Space Shuttle Columbia launched, the start of regular manned access to orbital space. A sustained human presence in orbital space started with "Mir" in 1986 and is continued by the "International Space Station". Space commercialization and space tourism are more recent features of aerospace. Aerospace manufacturing is a high-technology industry that produces "aircraft, guided missiles, space vehicles, aircraft engines, propulsion units, related parts". Most of the industry is geared toward governmental work.
For each original equipment manufacturer, the US government has assigned a Commercial and Government Entity code. These codes help to identify each manufacturer, repair facilities, other critical aftermarket vendors in the aerospace industry. In the United States, the Department of Defense and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration are the two largest consumers of aerospace technology and products. Others include the large airline industry; the aerospace industry employed 472,000 wage and salary workers in 2006. Most of those jobs were in Washington state and in California, with Missouri, New York and Texas being important; the leading aerospace manufacturers in the U. S. are United Technologies Corporation, SpaceX, Northrop Grumman and Lockheed Martin. These manufacturers are facing an increasing labor shortage as skilled U. S. workers retire. Apprenticeship programs such as the Aerospace Joint Apprenticeship Council work in collaboration with Washington state aerospace employers and community colleges to train new manufacturing employees to keep the industry supplied.
Important locations of the civilian aerospace industry worldwide include Washington state, California. In the European Union, aerospace companies such as EADS, BAE Systems, Dassault, Saab AB and Leonardo S.p. A. account for a large share of the global aerospace industry and research effort, with the European Space Agency as one of the largest consumers of aerospace technology and products. In India, Bangalore is a major center of the aerospace industry, where Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, the National Aerospace Laboratories and the Indian Space Research Organisation are headquartered; the Indian Space Research Organisation launched India's first Moon orbiter, Chandrayaan-1, in October 2008. In Russia, large aerospace companies like Oboronprom and the United Aircraft Building Corporation are among the major global players
Martin Nodell was an American cartoonist and commercial artist, best known as the creator of the Golden Age superhero Green Lantern. Some of his work appeared under the pen name "Mart Dellon." Born in Philadelphia, Nodell was the son of Jewish immigrants. He attended the Art Institute of Chicago, he moved to New York City in the 1930s. Nodell began his illustrating career in 1938. In 1940 he provided some work for Sheldon Mayer, an editor at All-American Publications, one of three companies that merged to form National Comics Publications. Interested in gaining more steady employment, Nodell created designs for a new character that would become the Golden Age Green Lantern; the inspiration came in January 1940 at the 34th Street subway station in Manhattan. Nodell noticed a trainman waving a lantern along the darkened tracks, he coupled the imagery with elements from Richard Wagner's operatic Ring cycle as well as Chinese folklore and Greek mythology to create the hero. As Nodell himself described in 2000: I picked out the name from the train man on the tracks, waving a lantern, going from red to green....
Green meant go and I decided, it. I needed a colorful and interesting costume. I so the costume took on elements of that, it just all fell into place. When I sent it in, I waited into the second week. I was ushered into Mr. Gaines office and after sitting a long time and flipping through the pages of my presentation, he announced,'We like it!' And then,'Get to work!' I did the first five pages of an eight page story, they called in Bill Finger to help. We worked on it for seven years; the first adventure, drawn by Nodell and written by Bill Finger, appeared in All-American Comics #16. Nodell continued to use the pseudonym through at least All Star Comics #2, he said in 2000 he had used the pen name since, "Comics were a forbidden literature, culturally unacceptable. It wasn't something you were proud of". Nodell penciled and always self-inked Green Lantern stories in All-American and All Star until the character got his own title, the premiere issue cover-dated July 1941, he would continue with it through to #25 rarely drawing the covers, before being succeeded by a variety of artists including Howard Purcell, Irwin Hasen, Alex Toth.
Nodell left All-American in 1947 and joined Timely Comics, the 1930s–40s forerunner of Marvel Comics), where he drew postwar stories of Captain America, the Human Torch and the Sub-Mariner. His work there was signed, making idenfication difficult, though comics historians have confirmed that Nodell drew two well-known covers: The first issue of Marvel Tales, Timely's horror-comics revamp of the company's flagship series Marvel Mystery Comics. In 1950, Nodell left comics to work in advertising and joined the Leo Burnett Agency in Chicago as an art director. In 1965, his design team there developed the long-running flour-company mascot the Pillsbury Doughboy, his only known comics work in the interim are penciling the story "The Glistening Death" in the Avon Comics one-shot City of the Living Dead, reprinted two decades in the Skywald horror-comics magazine Psycho #1. In the 1980s, Nodell submitted new work to DC, his first pieces included a 13-page puzzle-and-activity section in Super Friends Special #1, drawing the Golden Age Harlequin in Who's Who: The Definitive Directory of the DC Universe #10.
His final two published pieces of Green Lantern art were a one-page illustration of Golden Age Alan Scott Green Lantern in the 50th-anniversary issue Green Lantern vol. 3, #19 and a one-page illustration of the Alan Scott Green Lantern and Superman in the one-shot Superman: The Man of Steel Gallery #1. At 80, Nodell penciled his final comic-book work, the whimsical, 10-page Harlan Ellison adaptation "Gnomebody", scripted by John Ostrander and Ellison and inked by Jed Hotchkiss, in Dark Horse Comics' Harlan Ellison's Dream Corridor Quarterly #1. Nodell met his future wife, Carrie, at Coney Island in Brooklyn, New York, in September 1940, they were married December 1, 1941, afterward moved to Huntington, Long Island, to move in with Nodell's brother Simon, an engineer at Republic Aviation. They lived there two years before moving back to New York City; the couple were living in West Palm Beach, Florida, by 2000. Nodell died December 9, 2006, in a nursing home in Muskego, Wisconsin, of natural causes one month past his 91st birthday.
They had two sons: Spencer, who lived in Waukesha, Wisconsin at the time of his father's death, Mitchell. In 2011, Nodell was nominated as a Judges' Choice for The Will Eisner Award Hall of Fame. Evanier, Mark. "Martin Nodell, R. I. P." NewsFromMe.com. Evanier, Mark. "Carrie Nodell, R. I. P." NewsFromMe.com