L'amico Fritz is an opera in three acts by Pietro Mascagni, premiered in 1891 from a libretto by P. Suardon, based on the French novel L'ami Fritz by Émile Erckmann and Pierre-Alexandre Chatrian. While the opera enjoyed some success in its day and is Mascagni's most famous work after Cavalleria rusticana, today it is performed far more than Cavalleria, which remains Mascagni's only enduringly popular work in America; the "Cherry Duet" between Fritz and Suzel in Act 2 is the best known piece in the opera and has never left the duet repertoire. The opera was first performed in Rome at the Teatro Costanzi, on 31 October 1891. Other first performances include those in Hamburg on 16 January 1892 with Gustav Mahler conducting. Time: indefinite. Despite his disdain for marriage Fritz agrees to provide the dowry for a young couple. Fritz’s friends join him to celebrate his birthday, he is presented with a bouquet by the daughter of one of his tenants. She is moved when the gypsy Beppe enters playing his violin.
When Suzel leaves David comments that she will make a good bride and that he will find her a husband. Fritz protests, they argue about Fritz bets David one of his vineyards that he will never marry. The courtyard of a farm Suzel is preparing to pick cherries. Fritz helps her, they sing of the enchantment of the flowers. Fritz’s friends arrive and Fritz leaves to look over the farms. David stays behind to talk to Suzel; when he suggests that she might be a bride, she leaves. Fritz returns and David mentions. Fritz, left alone, realizes that he is in love with the girl; the dining room of Fritz Kobus’ house Fritz cannot banish thoughts of Suzel. Beppe enters and attempts to cheer him up with a song, but Fritz becomes more depressed. David arrives and tells Fritz that Suzel is engaged to a fine young man and her father will soon ask for Fritz’s blessing. Enraged, Fritz leaves. Suzel enters sadly but David insists that everything will be all right, he leaves her alone and she voices her despair and love for Fritz.
Fritz asks about her engagement. He senses that she does not love her intended. Fritz reveals his feelings for her and the two admit their love. David enters and declares that he has won his wager with Fritz, telling him that he is going to give his winnings, Fritz’s vineyard, to Suzel as a wedding present. <Sarasota Opera program notes, 2009>
Buenos Aires is the capital and largest city of Argentina. The city is located on the western shore of the estuary of the Río de la Plata, on the South American continent's southeastern coast. "Buenos Aires" can be translated as "fair winds" or "good airs", but the former was the meaning intended by the founders in the 16th century, by the use of the original name "Real de Nuestra Señora Santa María del Buen Ayre". The Greater Buenos Aires conurbation, which includes several Buenos Aires Province districts, constitutes the fourth-most populous metropolitan area in the Americas, with a population of around 15.6 million. The city of Buenos Aires is the Province's capital. In 1880, after decades of political infighting, Buenos Aires was federalized and removed from Buenos Aires Province; the city limits were enlarged to include the towns of Flores. The 1994 constitutional amendment granted the city autonomy, hence its formal name: Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, its citizens first elected a chief of government in 1996.
Buenos Aires is considered an'alpha city' by the study GaWC5. Buenos Aires' quality of life was ranked 91st in the world, being one of the best in Latin America in 2018, it is the most visited city in South America, the second-most visited city of Latin America. Buenos Aires is a top tourist destination, is known for its preserved Eclectic European architecture and rich cultural life. Buenos Aires held the 1st Pan American Games in 1951 as well as hosting two venues in the 1978 FIFA World Cup. Buenos Aires hosted the 2018 the 2018 G20 summit. Buenos Aires is a multicultural city, being home to multiple religious groups. Several languages are spoken in the city in addition to Spanish, contributing to its culture and the dialect spoken in the city and in some other parts of the country; this is because in the last 150 years the city, the country in general, has been a major recipient of millions of immigrants from all over the world, making it a melting pot where several ethnic groups live together and being considered one of the most diverse cities of the Americas.
It is recorded under the archives of Aragonese that Catalan missionaries and Jesuits arriving in Cagliari under the Crown of Aragon, after its capture from the Pisans in 1324 established their headquarters on top of a hill that overlooked the city. The hill was known to them as Bonaira, as it was free of the foul smell prevalent in the old city, adjacent to swampland. During the siege of Cagliari, the Catalans built a sanctuary to the Virgin Mary on top of the hill. In 1335, King Alfonso the Gentle donated the church to the Mercedarians, who built an abbey that stands to this day. In the years after that, a story circulated, claiming that a statue of the Virgin Mary was retrieved from the sea after it miraculously helped to calm a storm in the Mediterranean Sea; the statue was placed in the abbey. Spanish sailors Andalusians, venerated this image and invoked the "Fair Winds" to aid them in their navigation and prevent shipwrecks. A sanctuary to the Virgin of Buen Ayre would be erected in Seville.
In the first foundation of Buenos Aires, Spanish sailors arrived thankfully in the Río de la Plata by the blessings of the "Santa Maria de los Buenos Aires", the "Holy Virgin Mary of the Good Winds", said to have given them the good winds to reach the coast of what is today the modern city of Buenos Aires. Pedro de Mendoza called the city "Holy Mary of the Fair Winds", a name suggested by the chaplain of Mendoza's expedition – a devotee of the Virgin of Buen Ayre – after the Sardinian Madonna de Bonaria. Mendoza's settlement soon came under attack by indigenous people, was abandoned in 1541. For many years, the name was attributed to a Sancho del Campo, said to have exclaimed: How fair are the winds of this land!, as he arrived. But Eduardo Madero, in 1882 after conducting extensive research in Spanish archives concluded that the name was indeed linked with the devotion of the sailors to Our Lady of Buen Ayre. A second settlement was established in 1580 by Juan de Garay, who sailed down the Paraná River from Asunción.
Garay preserved the name chosen by Mendoza, calling the city Ciudad de la Santísima Trinidad y Puerto de Santa María del Buen Aire. The short form "Buenos Aires" became the common usage during the 17th century; the usual abbreviation for Buenos Aires in Spanish is Bs. As, it is common as well to refer to it as "B. A." or "BA". While "BA" is used more by expats residing in the city, the locals more use the abbreviation "Baires", in one word. Seaman Juan Díaz de Solís, navigating in the name of Spain, was the first European to reach the Río de la Plata in 1516, his expedition was cut short when he was killed during an attack by the native Charrúa tribe in what is now Uruguay. The city of Buenos Aires was first established as Ciudad de Nuestra Señora Santa María del Buen Ayre after Our Lady of Bonaria on 2 February 1536 by a Spanish expedition led by Pedro de Mendoza; the settlement founded by Mendoza was located in what is today the San Telmo district of Buenos Aires, south of the city centre. More attacks by the indigenous
Wilhelm Richard Wagner was a German composer, theatre director and conductor, chiefly known for his operas. Unlike most opera composers, Wagner wrote both the libretto and the music for each of his stage works. Establishing his reputation as a composer of works in the romantic vein of Carl Maria von Weber and Giacomo Meyerbeer, Wagner revolutionised opera through his concept of the Gesamtkunstwerk, by which he sought to synthesise the poetic, visual and dramatic arts, with music subsidiary to drama, he described this vision in a series of essays published between 1849 and 1852. Wagner realised these ideas most in the first half of the four-opera cycle Der Ring des Nibelungen, his compositions those of his period, are notable for their complex textures, rich harmonies and orchestration, the elaborate use of leitmotifs—musical phrases associated with individual characters, ideas, or plot elements. His advances in musical language, such as extreme chromaticism and shifting tonal centres influenced the development of classical music.
His Tristan und Isolde is sometimes described as marking the start of modern music. Wagner had his own opera house built, the Bayreuth Festspielhaus, which embodied many novel design features; the Ring and Parsifal were premiered here and his most important stage works continue to be performed at the annual Bayreuth Festival, run by his descendants. His thoughts on the relative contributions of music and drama in opera were to change again, he reintroduced some traditional forms into his last few stage works, including Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg; until his final years, Wagner's life was characterised by political exile, turbulent love affairs and repeated flight from his creditors. His controversial writings on music and politics have attracted extensive comment, since the late 20th century, where they express antisemitic sentiments; the effect of his ideas can be traced in many of the arts throughout the 20th century. Richard Wagner was born to an ethnic German family in Leipzig, who lived at No 3, the Brühl in the Jewish quarter.
He was baptized at St. Thomas Church, he was the ninth child of Carl Friedrich Wagner, a clerk in the Leipzig police service, his wife, Johanna Rosine, the daughter of a baker. Wagner's father Carl died of typhus six months after Richard's birth. Afterwards his mother Johanna lived with the actor and playwright Ludwig Geyer. In August 1814 Johanna and Geyer married—although no documentation of this has been found in the Leipzig church registers, she and her family moved to Geyer's residence in Dresden. Until he was fourteen, Wagner was known as Wilhelm Richard Geyer, he certainly thought that Geyer was his biological father. Geyer's love of the theatre came to be shared by his stepson, Wagner took part in his performances. In his autobiography Mein Leben Wagner recalled once playing the part of an angel. In late 1820, Wagner was enrolled at Pastor Wetzel's school at Possendorf, near Dresden, where he received some piano instruction from his Latin teacher, he struggled to play a proper scale at preferred playing theatre overtures by ear.
Following Geyer's death in 1821, Richard was sent to the Kreuzschule, the boarding school of the Dresdner Kreuzchor, at the expense of Geyer's brother. At the age of nine he was hugely impressed by the Gothic elements of Carl Maria von Weber's opera Der Freischütz, which he saw Weber conduct. At this period Wagner entertained ambitions as a playwright, his first creative effort, listed in the Wagner-Werk-Verzeichnis as WWV 1, was a tragedy called Leubald. Begun when he was in school in 1826, the play was influenced by Shakespeare and Goethe. Wagner was determined to set it to music, persuaded his family to allow him music lessons. By 1827, the family had returned to Leipzig. Wagner's first lessons in harmony were taken during 1828–31 with Christian Gottlieb Müller. In January 1828 he first heard Beethoven's 7th Symphony and in March, the same composer's 9th Symphony. Beethoven became a major inspiration, Wagner wrote a piano transcription of the 9th Symphony, he was greatly impressed by a performance of Mozart's Requiem.
Wagner's early piano sonatas and his first attempts at orchestral overtures date from this period. In 1829 he saw a performance by dramatic soprano Wilhelmine Schröder-Devrient, she became his ideal of the fusion of drama and music in opera. In Mein Leben, Wagner wrote, "When I look back across my entire life I find no event to place beside this in the impression it produced on me," and claimed that the "profoundly human and ecstatic performance of this incomparable artist" kindled in him an "almost demonic fire."In 1831, Wagner enrolled at the Leipzig University, where he became a member of the Saxon student fraternity. He took composition lessons with the Thomaskantor Theodor Weinlig. Weinlig was so impressed with Wagner's musical ability, he arranged for his pupil's Piano Sonata in B-flat major to be published as Wagner's Op. 1. A year Wagner composed his Symphony in C major, a Beethovenesque work performed in Prague in 1832 and at the Leipzig Gewandhaus in 1833, he began to work on an opera, Die Hochzeit, which he never
La bohème is an opera in four acts, composed by Giacomo Puccini to an Italian libretto by Luigi Illica and Giuseppe Giacosa, based on Scènes de la vie de bohème by Henri Murger. The world premiere of La bohème was in Turin on 1 February 1896 at the Teatro Regio, conducted by the 28-year-old Arturo Toscanini. Since La bohème has become part of the standard Italian opera repertory and is one of the most performed operas worldwide. In 1946, fifty years after the opera's premiere, Toscanini conducted a commemorative performance of it on radio with the NBC Symphony Orchestra. A recording of the performance was released by RCA Victor on vinyl record and compact disc, it is the only recording made of a Puccini opera by its original conductor. According to its title page, the libretto of La bohème is based on Henri Murger's novel, Scènes de la vie de bohème, a collection of vignettes portraying young bohemians living in the Latin Quarter of Paris in the 1840s. Although called a novel, it has no unified plot.
Like the 1849 play by Murger and Théodore Barrière, the opera's libretto focuses on the relationship between Rodolfo and Mimì, ending with her death. Like the play, the libretto combines two characters from the novel, Mimì and Francine, into the single character of Mimì. Early in the composition stage Puccini was in dispute with the composer Leoncavallo, who said that he had offered Puccini a completed libretto and felt that Puccini should defer to him. Puccini responded that he had had no idea of Leoncavallo's interest and that having been working on his own version for some time, he felt that he could not oblige him by discontinuing with the opera. Leoncavallo completed his own version in which Marcello was sung by a tenor and Rodolfo by a baritone, it was unsuccessful and is now performed. Much of the libretto is original; the main plots of acts two and three are the librettists' invention, with only a few passing references to incidents and characters in Murger. Most of acts one and four follow the novel.
The final scenes in acts one and four—the scenes with Rodolfo and Mimì—resemble both the play and the novel. The story of their meeting follows chapter 18 of the novel, in which the two lovers living in the garret are not Rodolphe and Mimì at all, but rather Jacques and Francine; the story of Mimì's death in the opera draws from two different chapters in the novel, one relating Francine's death and the other relating Mimì's. The published libretto includes a note from the librettists discussing their adaptation. Without mentioning the play directly, they defend their conflation of Francine and Mimì into a single character: "Chi può non confondere nel delicato profilo di una sola donna quelli di Mimì e di Francine?". At the time, the novel was in the public domain, Murger having died without heirs, but rights to the play were still controlled by Barrière's heirs; the world première performance of La bohème took place in Turin on 1 February 1896 at the Teatro Regio and was conducted by the young Arturo Toscanini.
The initial response of the audience at the first performance was subdued and critical responses were polarized. Despite this varied introductory response, the opera became popular throughout Italy and productions were soon mounted by the following companies: The Teatro di San Carlo; the first performance of La bohème outside Italy was at the Teatro Colón in Buenos Aires, Argentina, on 16 June 1896. The opera was given in Alexandria and Moscow in early 1897; the United Kingdom premiere took place at the Theatre Royal in Manchester, on 22 April 1897, in a presentation by the Carl Rosa Opera Company supervised by Puccini. This performance was given in English and starred Alice Esty as Mimì, Bessie McDonald as Musetta, Robert Cunningham as Rodolfo, William Paull as Marcello. On 2 October 1897 the same company gave the opera's first staging at the Royal Opera House in London and on 14 October 1897 in Los Angeles for the opera's United States premiere; the opera reached New York City on 16 May 1898 when it was performed at Wallack's Theatre with Giuseppe Agostini as Rodolfo.
The first production of the opera produced by the Royal Opera House itself premiered on 1 July 1899 with Nellie Melba as Mimì, Zélie de Lussan as Musetta, Fernando De Lucia as Rodolfo, Mario Ancona as Marcello. La bohème premiered in Germany at the Kroll Opera House in Berlin on 22 June 1897; the French premiere of the opera was presented by the Opéra-Comique on 13 June 1898 at the Théâtre des Nations. The production used a French translation by Paul Ferrier and
L'arlesiana is an opera in three acts by Francesco Cilea to an Italian libretto by Leopoldo Marenco. It was written in four acts, was first performed on 27 November 1897 at the Teatro Lirico in Milan, it was revised as a three-act opera in 1898, a prelude was added in 1937. The opera is based on the play L'Arlésienne by Alphonse Daudet, itself inspired by a short story from his collection Letters From My Windmill and is best known for the incidental music composed by Georges Bizet. Three famous arias from this opera are the Lamento di Federico: È la solita storia del pastore written for a tenor, Come due tizzi accesi for a baritone, for a mezzo-soprano, Esser madre è un inferno. Additionally in 2011, the aria "Una mattina" from the 4-act version was added to the present score by the publisher. In 2007, research at the Università degli Studi di Pavia placed the aria "Alba novella" in the first version of L’Arlesiana; the aria had been cut from the work after the premiere. Cilea did not want to reinsert it in the ensuing years, it was subsequently forgotten.
The Italian tenor Giuseppe Filianoti brought this aria to the attention of Casa Sonzogno and urged them to reinstate it. They commissioned the Italian composer Mario Guido Scappucci to re-orchestrate the aria, it was performed for the first time since the opera's premiere in concerts and recordings with the Philharmonisches Orchester Freiburg in July 2012; the original Act III, scene 4 aria was included in its first staged performance with the Wexford Festival Opera in October 2012. An old shepherd Baldassarre, tells a story to L'Innocente about a little goat fighting with a hungry wolf all night long. At the break of dawn the goat dies. L'Innocente is retarded and rumour has it that the child brings good fortune to the household. L'Innocente is neglected by everyone in the family except Baldassarre. Rosa Mamai is worried about her older son Federico, madly in love with a woman from Arles, she asks her brother. Vivetta arrives at the farmhouse, she has always loved Federico but she feels hurt knowing of Federico’s obsession for L'Arlesiana.
As Rosa and Vivetta were talking, she sees L'Innocente up on the edge of the window. Baldassarre pulls the child back, Rosa shudders, If anyone should fall from that height!. Federico enters, shortly afterwards, Marco returns with a news from Arles. Marco says. While Baldassarre is at the farmyard, he is approached Metifio. Metifio tells Rosa that he is L'Arlesiana’s lover and the girl's parents are aware of their relationship but rejected him when the prospect of marriage with Federico arose, he shows Baldassarre two letters to prove his statements. When Metfio leaves, Federico enters, his mother asks him read them. Federico feels devastated over the treachery of the woman. Rosa and Vivetta search for Federico in the countryside, he has disappeared from home since the previous day. Rosa convinces Vivetta to behave more seductively with Federico and to distract him from thoughts of L'Arlesiana. Baldassarre and L'Innocente enter. L'Innocente discovers Federico has been hiding in the sheepfold. Baldassarre urges Federico to forget his sorrow by helping him with work.
After Baldassarre has gone, Federico contemplates them bitterly. L'Innocente falls asleep while repeating a line from the old shepherd's story about the goat, that leads into Federico's lament. Vivetta enters and awkwardly tries to follow Rosa's advice as to, she tells him that she loves him but Federico cannot accept it and rejects her. Vivetta draws Rosa into the scene. Rosa offers her consent to his marriage with L'Arlesiana. Federico is moved by his mother's offer but he refuses, swearing that he will only give his name to a woman worthy of it, he asks her to help him to forget about the woman he loves. With preparations for Federico and Vivetta's wedding beginning, Federico affirms that he now only thinks of Vivetta. Metifio runs into Baldassarre, he asks him to return his letters, but Baldassarre says he had delivered the letters to Metifio's father. However, Metifio had not yet received them. Metifio reveals his plans to kidnap L'Arlesiana. Federico is overcome with his old jealousy. Vivetta pleads with him to go with her.
Baldassarre advises Metifio not to ruin his life for the unworthy woman. In a rage, Federico attempts to assault Metifio with a sledgehammer but they are separated by Baldassarre and Rosa; when the situation has calmed down, Rosa laments the trials of motherhood. L'Innocente tells his mother that she can go along to bed, he says. Rosa kisses him and caresses him as she never has before. Federico is half-delirious, repeating the last lines of the shepherd's story about the goat fighting with the wolf all night and falling dead at the break of dawn, he pictures. Rosa runs to him, he believes he hears L'Arlesiana's cries and, as his mother tries to stop him, he climbs up to the hayloft and jumps out of the window. L'arlesiana - Ferruccio Tagliavini, Pia Tassinari, Paolo Silveri, Gianna Galli - Coro e Orchestra della RAI Torino, Arturo Basile - Cetra Membran reissue L'arlesiana - Giuseppe Filianoti, Iano Tam
Pia Tassinari was an Italian soprano and mezzo-soprano associated with the Italian and French repertories. Born Domenica Tassinari, she studied with Vezzani and Marcantoni, made her debut in 1929, as Mimi, in Casale Monferrato, she sang in Italy before making her debut at La Scala in Milan in 1932. She appeared in Russia and South America, made her debut at the Metropolitan Opera in New York City in 1947, as Tosca, she appeared in Naples in a notable revival of Saverio Mercadante's Il giuramento in 1955. She sang a wide range of roles, including: Marguerite, Elisabeth, Fedora, etc, she was much admired in contemporary works by Zandonai, Wolf-Ferrari, Respighi. In the 1950s, as her voice darkened, she tackled mezzo-soprano roles, notably Carmen, Charlotte and Ulrica, she was married to tenor Ferruccio Tagliavini with whom she appeared on stage and on disc. They can be heard together in a number of complete opera recordings: Un ballo in maschera, Werther, L'arlesiana, most notably L'amico Fritz, conducted by Pietro Mascagni himself.
Tassinari had a beautiful voice of great range, she brought considerable warmth and refinement to whatever she was singing. Le guide de l'opéra, les indispensables de la musique, R. Mancini & J-J. Rouvereux, ISBN 2-213-01563-5 Pia Tassinari's biography at Opera Vivrà