RAF Ferry Command
RAF Ferry Command was a Royal Air Force command formed on 20 July 1941 to ferry aircraft from the place of manufacture or other non-operational areas, to the front line operational units, e.g. the squadrons. It was subsumed into the new Transport Command on 25 March 1943 by being reduced to Group status, it had a short life, but it spawned, in part, an organisation that lasted well beyond the war years during which it was formed. The practice of ferrying aircraft from US manufacturers to the UK was begun by the Ministry of Aircraft Production, its minister, Lord Beaverbrook, a Canadian by origin, reached an agreement with Sir Edward Beatty, a friend and chairman of the Canadian Pacific Railway Company, to provide ground facilities and support. MAP would provide civilian management. Former RAF officer Don Bennett, a specialist in long distance flying and Air Vice Marshal and commander of the Pathfinder force, led the first delivery flight in November 1940. In 1941, MAP took the operation off CPR to put the whole operation under the Atlantic Ferry Organization, set up by Morris W. Wilson, a banker in Montreal.
Wilson hired civilian pilots to fly the aircraft to the UK. The pilots were ferried back. "Atfero hired the pilots, planned the routes, selected the airports set up weather and radiocommunication stations."Aircraft were first transported to Dorval Airport near Montreal, flown to RCAF Station Gander in Newfoundland for the trans-Atlantic flight. The organization was passed to Air Ministry administration though retaining civilian pilots, some of which were Americans, alongside RAF pilots and British radio operators; the crews were briefed by local meteorologists including R. E. Munn. After completing delivery, crews were flown back to Canada for the next run. Ferry Command was formed on 20 July 1941, by the raising of the RAF Atlantic Ferry Service to Command status, its commander for its whole existence was Air Chief Marshal Sir Frederick Bowhill. As its name suggests, the main function of Ferry Command was the ferrying of new aircraft from factory to operational unit. Ferry Command did this over only one area of the world, rather than the more general routes that Transport Command developed.
The Command's operational area was the north Atlantic, its responsibility was to bring the larger aircraft that had the range to do the trip over the ocean from American and Canadian factories to the RAF home Commands. This was pioneering work: before Ferry Command, only about a hundred aircraft had attempted a North Atlantic crossing in good weather, only about half had made it. Over the course of the war, more than 9,000 aircraft were ferried across the ocean and, by the end of the war, crossing the Atlantic had become a routine operation, presaging the inauguration of scheduled commercial air transport services after the war. Ferry Command was subsumed into the new Transport Command on 25 March 1943 by being reduced to Group status as No 45 Group. No. 45 Group still retained responsibility for Atlantic aircraft ferrying operations, but Transport Command was a worldwide formation, rather than a single-mission command. Bowhill became the first commander of Transport Command. Above and Beyond, a Canadian Broadcasting Corporation four-hour mini series, was inspired by the true story of the RAF Ferry Command, recounting the daring plan to deliver aircraft across the North Atlantic to the beleaguered Royal Air Force.
The Lockheed Hudson is the primary aircraft portrayed in the mini series in the form of a real life example alongside numerous CGI Hudsons. Marix, R. L. G.. "Some Aspects of the Royal Air Force Transport Command". The Empire Club of Canada Addresses. Toronto, Canada: 96–114
The technical meaning of maintenance involves functional checks, repairing or replacing of necessary devices, machinery, building infrastructure, supporting utilities in industrial, business and residential installations. Over time, this has come to include multiple wordings that describe various cost-effective practices to keep equipment operational. Together, these functions are referred to as Maintenance and overhaul. MRO is used for Maintenance and operations. Over time, the terminology of maintenance and MRO has begun to become standardized; the United States Department of Defense uses the following definitions: Any activity—such as tests, replacements and repairs—intended to retain or restore a functional unit in or to a specified state in which the unit can perform its required functions. All action taken to restore it to serviceability, it includes inspections, servicing, classification as to serviceability, repair and reclamation. All repair action taken to keep a force in condition to carry out its mission.
The routine recurring work required to keep a facility in such condition that it may be continuously used, at its original or designed capacity and efficiency for its intended purpose. Maintenance is connected to the utilization stage of the product or technical system, in which the concept of maintainability must be included. In this scenario, maintainability is considered as the ability of an item, under stated conditions of use, to be retained in or restored to a state in which it can perform its required functions, using prescribed procedures and resources. In some domains like aircraft maintenance, terms maintenance and overhaul include inspection, rebuilding and the supply of spare parts, raw materials, sealants and consumables for aircraft maintenance at the utilization stage. In international civil aviation maintenance means: The performance of tasks required to ensure the continuing airworthiness of an aircraft, including any one or combination of overhaul, replacement, defect rectification, the embodiment of a modification or a repair.
This definition covers all activities for which aviation regulations require issuance of a maintenance release document. The basic types of maintenance falling under MRO include: Preventive maintenance known as PM Corrective maintenance where equipment is repaired or replaced after wear, malfunction or break down. Predictive maintenance, which uses sensor data to monitor a system continuously evaluates it against historical trends to predict failure before it occurs. ReinforcementArchitectural conservation employs MRO to preserve, restore, or reconstruct historical structures with stone, glass and wood which match the original constituent materials where possible, or with suitable polymer technologies when not. Preventive maintenance is "a routine for periodically inspecting" with the goal of "noticing small problems and fixing them before major ones develop." Ideally, "nothing breaks down."The main goal behind PM is for the equipment to make it from one planned service to the next planned service without any failures caused by fatigue, neglect, or normal wear, which Planned Maintenance and Condition Based Maintenance help to achieve by replacing worn components before they fail.
Maintenance activities include partial or complete overhauls at specified periods, oil changes, minor adjustments, so on. In addition, workers can record equipment deterioration so they know to replace or repair worn parts before they cause system failure; the New York Times gave an example of "machinery, not lubricated on schedule" that functions "until a bearing burns out." Preventive maintenance contracts are a fixed cost, whereas improper maintenance introduces a variable cost: replacement of major equipment. Preventive maintenance or preventative maintenance has the following meanings: The care and servicing by personnel for the purpose of maintaining equipment in satisfactory operating condition by providing for systematic inspection and correction of incipient failures either before they occur or before they develop into major defects; the work carried out on equipment in order to avoid its malfunction. It is a routine action taken on equipment in order to prevent its breakdown. Maintenance, including tests, adjustments, parts replacement, cleaning, performed to prevent faults from occurring.
Other terms and abbreviations related to PM are: scheduled maintenance planned maintenance, which may include scheduled downtime for equipment replacement planned preventive maintenance is another name for PM breakdown maintenance: fixing things only when they break. This is known as "a reactive maintenance strategy" and may involve "consequential damage." Planned preventive maintenance, more referred to as planned maintenance or scheduled maintenance, is any variety of scheduled maintenance to an object or item of equipment. Planned maintenance is a scheduled service visit carried out by a competent and suitable agent, to ensure that an item of equipment is operating and to therefore avoid any unscheduled breakdown and downtime; the key factor as to when and why this work is being done is timing, involves a service, resource or facility being unavailable. By contrast, co
CFB Goose Bay
Canadian Forces Base Goose Bay referred to as CFB Goose Bay, is a Canadian Forces Base located in the municipality of Happy Valley-Goose Bay in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador. It is operated as an air force base by the Royal Canadian Air Force, its primary RCAF lodger unit is 5 Wing referred to as 5 Wing Goose Bay. The airfield at CFB Goose Bay is used by civilian aircraft, with civilian operations at the base referring to the facility as Goose Bay Airport; the airport is classified as an airport of entry by Nav Canada and is staffed by the Canada Border Services Agency. CBSA officers at this airport can handle general aviation aircraft only, with no more than 15 passengers; the mission of 5 Wing is to support the defence of North American airspace, as well as to support the RCAF and allied air forces in training. Two units comprise 5 Wing: 5 Wing Air Reserve Flight. CFB Goose Bay serves as a forward operating location for RCAF CF-18 Hornet aircraft and the base and surrounding area is used to support units of the Canadian Army during training exercises.
While the flat and weather-favoured area around North West River had for years been under consideration for an airport for the anticipated North Atlantic air routes, it was not until Eric Fry of the Dominion Geodetic Survey investigated the area on 1 July 1941 that the Goose Bay location was selected. Fry beat by three days a similar United States Army Air Forces survey team under Captain Elliott Roosevelt; these surveys used amphibious aircraft. Eric Fry recalled: "The airport is located on the plateau at the west end of Terrington Basin but it is only five miles inland from the narrows between Goose Bay and Terrington Basin. Having a Gander air base in Newfoundland I suggested we call the Labrador site Goose Bay airport and the suggestion was accepted."Under pressure from Britain and the United States the Canadian Air Ministry worked at a record pace, by November, three 2,100-metre gravel runways were ready. The first land aircraft movement was recorded on 9 December 1941. By spring of 1942 the base, now carrying the wartime codename Alkali, was bursting with air traffic destined for the United Kingdom.
In time, the USAAF and the British Royal Air Force each developed sections of the triangular base for their own use, but the airport remained under overall Canadian control despite its location in the Dominion of Newfoundland, not yet a part of Canada. The 99-year lease arrangement with the United Kingdom was not finalized until October 1944. In 1942 the aerodrome was listed as RCAF Aerodrome - Goose Bay, Labrador at 53°20′N 60°24′W with a variation of 35 degrees west and elevation of 45 metres; the field was listed as "All hard-surfaced" and had three runways listed as follows: The northeast side of the facility was built to be a temporary RCAF base, complete with its own hangars and control tower, while the south side of the facility, built for the Americans, was being upgraded with its own aprons, earth-covered magazines, control tower and infrastructure. The Canadian and American bases were built as an RCAF station and a United States Air Force base known as Goose AB, housing units of the Strategic Air Command and Aerospace Defense Command.
It was home to permanent detachments of the RAF, Aeronautica Militare, Royal Netherlands Air Force, in addition to temporary deployments from several other NATO countries. 1950 – The Rivière-du-Loup Incident Goose Air Base was the site of the first US nuclear weapons in Canada, when in 1950 the United States Air Force Strategic Air Command stationed 11 model 1561 Fat Man atomic bombs at the base in the summer, flew them out in December. While returning to Davis–Monthan Air Force Base with one of the bombs on board, a USAF B-50 heavy bomber encountered engine trouble, had to drop, conventionally detonate, the bomb over the St. Lawrence, contaminating the river with uranium-238. 1954 – Construction of the Strategic Air Command Weapons Storage AreaConstruction of Strategic Air Command's Weapons Storage Area at Goose Air Base was completed in 1954. The area was surrounded by two fences, topped with barbed wire, it was the highest security area in Goose Air Base and comprised One guard house One administration building Three warehouses Six guard towers One plant group building Five earth-covered magazines for non-nuclear weapon storage Four earth-covered magazines for "pit" storage The design and layout of the Goose Air Base weapons storage area was identical, with only slight modifications for weather and terrain, to the three Strategic Air Command weapons storage areas in Morocco located at Sidi Slimane Air Base, Ben Guerir Air Base, Nouasseur Air Base, which were constructed between 1951 and 1952 as overseas operational storage sites.
The last nuclear bomb components that were being stored at the Goose Air Base weapons storage area were removed in June 1971. 1958 – Construction of the Air Defence Command ammunition storage areaConstruction of the Air Defence Command ammunition storage area at Goose Air Base was completed in 1958. This extension to the Strategic Air Command weapons storage area was built directly beside the constructed area, with a separate entrance; the buildings built within the area were: Three storage buildings One guardhouse One missile assembly building. The storage wa
Jadwiga Piłsudska-Jaraczewska was a Polish pilot, who served in the Air Transport Auxiliary during the Second World War. She was one of two daughters of Józef Piłsudski. Piłsudska was born on 28 February 1920 in Warsaw, the younger daughter of Marshal Józef Piłsudski, Poland's Chief of State and dictator, by the woman who would become his second wife, Aleksandra Piłsudska. In 1937 Piłsudska obtained a pilot's licence. In 1939 she graduated from secondary school and decided to study aircraft engineering at the Warsaw Polytechnic. In September 1939, Poland was invaded by Germany, initiating the Second World War, her family realized that under the circumstances it would be prudent to leave the country immediately. Piłsudska fled with her mother and elder sister, Wanda, to Lithuania and arrived in the United Kingdom, she resumed her studies, in 1940, matriculating at Newnham College, Cambridge University in architecture. She acquired her aircraft pilot's license, in July 1942, she joined the Air Transport Auxiliary.
With the rank of Second Officer she flew unarmed military aircraft in the skies of wartime Britain and was, with Anna Leska and the Lithuanian-Pole Barbara Wojtulanis, one of several Polish women who served as wartime ferry pilots in Britain. In 1944, she took a leave of absence to continue her studies by enrolling in the Polish School of Architecture at Liverpool University. In 1946 she graduated with an engineering degree in architecture. In 1944, she married Lieutenant Andrzej Jaraczewski, an officer in the Polish Navy, she had two children: a son, Christopher Joseph and daughter, Jane Mary, who married Polish politician Janusz Onyszkiewicz. Due to the Communist takeover in Poland, she remained in England after the War, as a political émigré. Never accepting British citizenship, she used a Nansen passport, valid for all countries in the world, except Poland. In 1977, she and her husband took part in the Silver Jubilee of Elizabeth II on board the MGB S-3 during the Thames River Pageant. In 1990, with the collapse of the Communist government, she lived in Warsaw.
She died on 16 November 2014, in Warsaw at the age of 94. She has been honoured with a Bronze Cross of Merit with Swords and the Commander's Cross of the Order of Polonia Restituta. Piłsudski family Bronisław Piłsudski
Bristol Aerospace is a Canadian aerospace firm located in Winnipeg, Manitoba and is an operating division of Magellan Aerospace. Today it is surviving subsidiary of Bristol Aeroplane Company. Bristol Aerospace began in 1930 as the MacDonald Brothers Aircraft Company. Brothers Jim and Grant MacDonald moved to Winnipeg from Nova Scotia in 1904 to start a sheet metal business. Brother Edwin joined them and by the late 1920s air travel had become an important means of transportation with Winnipeg becoming a hub for travel to the booming west; the MacDonalds formed MacDonald Brothers Aircraft Company in 1930, producing seaplane floats under licence from EDO Corporation of New York City. The company produced floats into the early 1980s. During World War II the factory built training aircraft and by war's end had grown to 4,500 employees. At the end of the war, MacDonald Bros. became an important repair and overhaul centre for the Royal Canadian Air Force. Their location at the centre of the country lowered the average travel cost for aircraft to the factories, as well as providing aviation jobs in the Canadian west.
Throughout the 1940s and 1950s the company performed depot level inspection and repair for many of Canada's fighter aircraft. In 1954, MacDonald Brothers Aircraft was purchased by the British Bristol Aeroplane Company, becoming their Canadian division; the company was an important supplier of accessories for jet engines, building the exhaust pipes for the Avro CF-100 Canuck and becoming the primary maintenance depot for the aircraft. During the 1950s and 60s Bristol built on their experience in precision sheet metal work to become a major supplier of hot section components for various engine manufacturers. In the second half of the 1950s Bristol was selected to build several test rocket airframes for CARDE's ongoing research into high-power solid fuel propellants. After initial research completed in the early 1960s, Bristol started selling a "lightened" version of the test vehicle as the Black Brant for sounding rocket use and opened the Rockwood Propellant Plant in 1962; the plant is located 25 minutes north of the city in the community of Manitoba.
As a result of this work, Bristol entered into a partnership with Aerojet General and became Bristol Aerojet the same year. This experience was applied in the early 1970s to a new 2.75" motor for use in US-standard rocket launchers, leading to the CRV7, which has since become the standard NATO 2.75" rocket. Since the incorporation of'smart' weapons for the CF-18, Bristol no longer makes CRV-7 motors for the Canadian military. Production has dropped over the years although several smaller contracts to allied air forces have kept the plant active. A purchase by the Royal Air Force for rocket motors was completed along with the sale of 200 redundant launchers that were in long term storage; as of January 2010, the company has lost contracts with several countries and militaries around the world, thus causing layoffs at the Rockwood plant. In the early 1960s Bristol won the maintenance contract for the CF-100's replacement, the CF-101 Voodoo; this plane had been plagued with afterburner problems and Bristol started a research project to correct the issues.
Their resulting proposal was accepted and both the Canadian and USAF F-101s were modified by Bristol, doubling the lifetime of the engines. Bristol retained the maintenance contract for the Canadian CF-101s until the last one was retired in 1987. In 1967 the parent Bristol Aeroplane, whose UK aircraft construction division had been incorporated into the British Aircraft Corporation in 1960, was purchased for its Bristol-Siddeley engine business by Rolls-Royce, renamed Bristol Aerospace, it remained part of Rolls Royce though nationalization and subsequent privatization again. In the late 1960s, the early 1970s under the joint U. S.-Canadian project known as the Meteorological Data Sounding System the company developed meteorological sounding rockets for the U. S. Army and other user agencies, such as U. S. Air Force, U. S. Navy, National Aeronautics and Space Administration; the MDSS rockets were lighter, more reliable, less expensive than those being in use by the Army. During the 1970s the company continued to be involved in overhaul and maintenance work, the CRV7 became a major product line.
The concept for the Wire Strike Protection System evolved from a tragic helicopter crash in Italy in April 1976 where 444 Squadron CH-136 Kiowa helicopters were conducting rescue missions following the earthquake in northern Italy. Maj Andre Seguin a flight commander with 444 Tactical Helicopter Squadron out of Lahr, West Germany conceived the wire protection system following a fatal wirestrike; the Unit CO tried to get formal recognition for Seguin for the concept during late 1976, but there was no meaningful support from the Canadian headquarters. Bristol shortly developed it, they subsequently patented the WSPS for helicopters. These devices can be found on many helicopters today, in the form of angular "blades" projecting from the top and bottom of the cabin area. In January 1987, Bristol was awarded the maintenance contract for the Canadian Forces Canadair CF-5 fleet, as a consolation contract for losing the more lucrative and longer-term CF-18 maintenance and overhaul contract to Canadair.
The CF-5 effort lasted until 1995. Afterward Bristol was contracted to sell off the redundant aircraft to other interested air forces and offered to include a major upgrade to the avionics system. Bristol brokered a deal in 1996 for the purchase of ten single-seat and three dual-seat CF-5s by the Botswana Defence Force, but this was the only sale to be made; the compa
Airworthiness is the measure of an aircraft's suitability for safe flight. Certification of airworthiness is conferred by a certificate of airworthiness from the state of aircraft registry national aviation authority, is maintained by performing the required maintenance actions. In the U. S. Title 14, Code of Federal Regulations, Subchapter F, Part 91.7 states: "a) No person may operate an aircraft unless it is in an airworthy condition. B) The pilot in command of a civil aircraft is responsible for determining whether that aircraft is in condition for safe flight; the pilot in command shall discontinue the flight when unairworthy mechanical, electrical, or structural conditions occur which compromise the airworthiness." One airworthiness regulation is found in ICAO international standard of Annex 8 to Chicago Convention on International Civil Aviation which defines "airworthy" - in respect of an aircraft, propeller or part there of - as "The status of an aircraft, propeller or part when it conforms to its approved design and is in a condition for safe operation".
The application of airworthiness defines the condition of an aircraft and its suitability for flight, in that it has been designed with engineering rigor, maintained and is expected to be operated to approved standards and limitations, by competent and approved individuals, who are acting as members of an approved organization and whose work is both certified as correct and accepted on behalf of the state of aircraft registry. Apart from this organization, there are other ones like Federal Aviation Administration or European Aviation Safety Agency that establish their own rules. In the case of the FAA, the regulation of airworthiness is found in Title 14 in the collected Code of Federal Regulations; the EASA specifications are found in several regulations: as nº 216/2008, nº 748/2012, nº 2015/640 and nº 1321/2014. In the regulation nº216/2008, is established common rules in the aviation sector and is created the European Aviation Safety Agency. At the article 5 of this regulation appear the first specifications about airworthiness and at the article 20 is about airworthy certification.
The main objective of this rules is to establish and to maintain a high and uniform security level at the civil aviation in Europe. For that reason, It lays down different rules according to the airworthiness: The jets will accomplish the essential established requirements in annex I in airworthy section, it will be proved. Moreover, it is necessary to include modifications certificate of the same jet,it should be included in supplementary type certificate. Both of them it could be sold when the applicant would have proved that his product achieve the regulations' basis. No airplane can be operated without a valid certificate of airworthiness The certificate of airworthiness will be issued when the applicant has demonstrated that the aircraft is conformed to the design of the model approved in its type certificate and that the pertinents documentation and tests confirm that the aircraft is in a condition for safe use; the certificate of airworthiness shall be valid as long as it is not canceled, or annulled, or is left without effect and provided that the aircraft is kept in accordance with the essential requirements for maintenance of airworthiness.
The Commission will ensure, in particular, because the current state of the art and best practices in airworthiness are reflected. The Regulation No. 748/2012 establishes the dispositions of application on the airworthiness and environmental certification of aircraft and related products and equipment, as well as the certification of design and production organizations. Besides of the technical requirements and common administratives procedures by the airworthiness and environmental certification, the following aspects can be found too in regulation nº 748/2012: The dispatch of type certificates, of restricted type certificates, of supplementary type certificates, as well as the modifications of said certificates; the dispatch of repairs design approvals. The demonstration that environmental protection requirements are achieved; the dispatch of noise level certificates. The identification and certification of products and equipment; the certification of the design and production organizations.
The dispatch of airworthiness directivesThis regulation contains an annex, Part-21, which specifies the requirements and procedures for the certification of aircraft and related products and equipment, design and production organizations. Apart from this annex, there are several certification specifications, including CS-25 for large aircraft, CS-23, for medium and small aircraft; the Regulation nº 2015/640 establishes additional airworthiness specifications for operations and contains two annexes. The Annex I, Subpart A, is devoted to general provisions on the appropriate authority, temporarily inoperative equipment and demonstration of conformity. Subpart B of the aforementioned annex focuses on large aircraft and contains specifications related to seats, seat belts and harnesses.
Air Transport Auxiliary
The Air Transport Auxiliary was a British civilian organisation set up during the Second World War and headquartered at White Waltham Airfield that ferried new and damaged military aircraft between factories, assembly plants, transatlantic delivery points, maintenance units, scrap yards, active service squadrons and airfields, but not to naval aircraft carriers. It flew service personnel on urgent duty from one place to another and performed some air ambulance work. Notably, some of its pilots were women, from 1943 they received equal pay to their male co-workers, a first for the British government; the initial plan was that the ATA would carry personnel and medical supplies, but the pilots were needed to work with the Royal Air Force ferry pools transporting aircraft. By 1 May 1940 the ATA had taken over transporting all military aircraft from factories to maintenance units to have guns and accessories installed. On 1 August 1941 the ATA took over all ferrying jobs; this freed the much-needed combat pilots for combat duty.
At one time there were fourteen ATA ferry pools as far apart as Hamble, between Southampton and Portsmouth, Lossiemouth near Inverness in Scotland. A special ATA Air Pageant was held at White Waltham on 29 September 1945 to raise money for the ATA Benevolent Fund, supported by the aircraft companies, served by the ATA, it included comprehensive static displays of Allied and German aircraft, including a V1, aero engines, an AA gun and searchlight complete with crew. Pilots taking part included Alex Henshaw in a Supermarine Seafire. Lord Beaverbrook, a World War II Minister of Aircraft Production, gave an appropriate tribute at the closing ceremony disbanding the ATA at White Waltham on 30 November 1945: During the war the ATA flew 415,000 hours and delivered more than 309,000 aircraft of 147 types, including Spitfires, Hawker Hurricanes, Mustangs, Halifaxes, Fairey Swordfish, Fairey Barracudas and Fortresses; the average aircraft strength of the ATA training schools was 78. A total of 133,247 hours were flown by school aircraft and 6,013 conversion courses were put through.
The total flying hours of the Air Movement Flight were 17,059, of which 8,570 were on domestic flights and 8,489 on overseas flights. About 883 tons of freight were carried and 3,430 passengers were transported without any casualties. Total taxi hours amounted excluding Air Movements. To comply with the Geneva Convention, as many of the ferry pilots were nominally civilians and/or women, aircraft were ferried with guns or other armament unloaded. However, after encounters with German aircraft in which the ferried aircraft were unable to fight back, RAF aircraft were ferried with guns armed; the administration of the ATA fell to Gerard d'Erlanger, a director of British Airways Ltd, merged into the British Overseas Airways Corporation in 1940. He had suggested a similar organisation in a letter dated 24 May 1938. In late August 1939 the ATA was placed under British Airways Ltd for initial administration and finance, but on 10 October 1939 Air Member for Supply and Organisation took over; the first pilots were assigned to RAF Reserve Command and attached to RAF flights to ferry trainers and bombers from factory and storage to Royal Air Force stations.
The ATA's Central Ferry Control, which allocated the required flights to all Ferry Pools, was based at RAF Andover. Late in 1939 it was decided that a third and civilian ferry pool should be set up at White Waltham, near Maidenhead in Berkshire; the operations of this pool began on 15 February 1940. On 16 May 1940 RAF Maintenance Command took control through its No. 41 Group. On 22 July 1941, the ATA was placed under the control of Lord Beaverbrook's Ministry of Aircraft Production. Although control shifted between organisations, administration was always carried out by staff led by Commander Gerard d’Erlanger CBE, first at British Airways Ltd after the merger in 1940, at BOAC; the ATA recruited pilots who were considered to be unsuitable for either the Royal Air Force or the Fleet Air Arm by reason of age, fitness or gender. A unique feature of the ATA was that physical handicaps were ignored if the pilot could do the job, thus there were one-armed, one-legged, short-sighted and one-eyed pilots, humorously referred to as "Ancient and Tattered Airmen".
The ATA took pilots from neutral countries. Representatives of 28 countries flew with the ATA. Most notably, the ATA allowed women pilots to ferry aircraft; the female pilots had a high profile in the press. On 14 November 1939 Commander Pauline Gower MBE was given the task of organising the women's section of the ATA; the first eight women pilots were accepted into service on 1 January 1940 only cleared to fly Tiger Moths from their base in Hatfield. They were: Joan Hughes, Margaret Cunnison, Mona Friedlander, Rosemary Rees, Marion Wilberforce, Margaret Fairweather, Gabrielle Patterson, Winifred Crossley Fair. Overall during World War II there were 166 women pilots, one in eight of all ATA pilots, they volunteered from Britain, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, the United States, the Netherlands and Poland. From Argentina and Chile came Maureen Dunlop and Margot Duhalde. Fifteen of these women lost their lives in the air, including the British pioneer aviator Amy Johnson. Two of the women pilots received commendations.
A notable American member of the ATA was legendary aviatrix Jacqueline Cochran who returned to the United States and started a similar all female organization known as the Women Airforce Service Pilots. These w