Carmarthenshire is a unitary authority in southwest Wales, one of the historic counties of Wales. The three largest towns are Llanelli and Ammanford. Carmarthen is administrative centre. Carmarthenshire has been inhabited since prehistoric times; the county town was founded by the Romans, the region was part of the Principality of Deheubarth in the High Middle Ages. After invasion by the Normans in the 12th and 13th centuries it was subjugated, along with other parts of Wales, by Edward I of England. There was further unrest in the early 15th century, when the Welsh rebelled under Owain Glyndŵr, during the English Civil War. Carmarthenshire is an agricultural county, apart from the southeastern part which at one time was industrialised with coal mining, steel-making and tin-plating. In the north of the county the woollen industry was important in the 18th century; the economy depends on agriculture, forestry and tourism. With the decline in its industrial base, the low profitability of the livestock sector, West Wales was identified in 2014 as the worst-performing region in the United Kingdom along with the South Wales Valleys.
Carmarthenshire, as a tourist destination, offers a wide range of outdoor activities. Much of the coast is flat. Further west are the sandy beaches at Llansteffan and Pendine, Dylan Thomas' boathouse at Laugharne. There are a number of medieval castles and standing stones in the county. Stone tools found in Coygan Cave, near Laugharne indicate the presence of hominins neanderthals, at least 40,000 years ago, though, as in the rest of the British Isles, continuous habitation by modern humans is not known before the end of the Younger Dryas, around 11,500 years BP. Before the Romans arrived in Britain, the land now forming the county of Carmarthenshire was part of the kingdom of the Demetae who gave their name to the county of Dyfed; the Romans established two forts in South Wales, one at Caerwent to control the southeast of the country, one at Carmarthen to control the southwest. The fort at Carmarthen dates from around 75 AD, there is a Roman amphitheatre nearby, so this makes Carmarthen the oldest continually occupied town in Wales.
Carmarthenshire has its early roots in the region known as Ystrad Tywi and part of the Kingdom of Deheubarth during the High Middle Ages, with the court at Dinefwr. After the Normans had subjugated England they tried to subdue Wales. Carmarthenshire was disputed between the Normans and the Welsh lords and many of the castles built around this time, first of wood and stone, changed hands several times. Following the Conquest of Wales by Edward I, the region was reorganized by the Statute of Rhuddlan in 1284 into Carmarthenshire. Edward I made Carmarthen the capital of this new county, establishing his courts of chancery and his exchequer there, holding the Court of Great Sessions in Wales in the town; the Normans transformed Carmarthen into an international trading port, the only staple port in Wales. Merchants imported food and French wines and exported wool, leather and tin. In the late medieval period the county's fortunes varied, as good and bad harvests occurred, increased taxes were levied by England, there were episodes of plague, recruitment for wars removed the young men.
Carmarthen was susceptible to plague as it was brought in by flea-infested rats on board ships from southern France. In 1405, Owain Glyndŵr captured Carmarthen Castle and several other strongholds in the neighbourhood. However, when his support dwindled, the principal men of the county returned their allegiance to King Henry V. During the English Civil War, Parliamentary forces under Colonel Roland Laugharne besieged and captured Carmarthen Castle but abandoned the cause, joined the Royalists. In 1648, Carmarthen Castle was recaptured by the Parliamentarians, Oliver Cromwell ordered it to be slighted; the first industrial canal in Wales was built in 1768 to convey coal from the Gwendraeth Valley to the coast, the following year, the earliest tramroad bridge was on the tramroad built alongside the canal. During the Napoleonic Wars there was increased demand for coal and agricultural goods, the county prospered; the landscape changed as much woodland was cleared to make way for more food production, mills, power stations and factories sprang up between Llanelli and Pembrey.
Carmarthenshire was at the centre of the Rebecca Riots around 1840, when local farmers and agricultural workers dressed as women and rebelled against higher taxes and tolls. On 1 April 1974, under the Local Government Act 1972, Carmarthenshire joined Cardiganshire and Pembrokeshire in the new county of Dyfed. Twenty-two years this amalgamation was reversed when, under the Local Government Act 1994, the original county boundaries were reinstated; the county is bounded to the north by Ceredigion, to the east by Powys, Neath Port Talbot and Swansea, to the south by the Bristol Channel and to the west by Pembrokeshire. The surface is upland and mountainous. Fforest Fawr and the Black Mountain range extend into the east of the county and the Cambrian Mountains into the north; the south coast contains sandy beaches. The highest point is Fan Brycheiniog, 2,631 feet (although
Preseli transmitting station
The Preseli transmitting station is a broadcasting and telecommunications facility, situated close to the village of Crymych, in Pembrokeshire, Wales. It is operated by Arqiva, it has a 235.4-metre high guyed steel lattice mast. It was constructed in 1962 by the IBA to transmit ITV 405-line television with transmissions commencing on Band III channel 8 from antennas at 559 m above sea level; the triangle of antenna arrays aimed beams of signal towards Pembrokeshire, another lobe was directed towards western Carmarthenshire and a northward beam covered south western Cardiganshire. The northward beam from the site fed the transmitter at Arfon in North Wales; the Welsh region ITV programming was provided by Teledu Cymru, taken over by TWW in 1964, HTV Wales who took over from 1968. In 1971, three protesters from Cymdeithas yr Iaith Gymraeg were jailed for "conspiring to trespass" after gaining access to the site compound and climbing the lower section of the mast; this was part of a series of protests in Wales aiming to get a dedicated Welsh-language TV channel established.
The campaign was considered to have been successful with the establishment of S4C eleven years later. The site was uprated in 1973 to transmit UHF 625-line PAL analogue television channels, starting with BBC1, BBC2 and HTV Wales, with S4C being added in late 1982; the VHF channel 8 transmissions were discontinued in January 1985 as 405-line TV in the UK was phased out. Channel 5 started analogue TV transmissions in 1997. Six digital TV multiplexes were added in 1998 and the site kept this configuration until 2009, when all analogue television signals were permanently switched off; the mast carries Classic FM on 100.5 MHz and Heart Wales on 105.7 MHz, transmits national digital radio multiplexes for the BBC and Digital One multiplexes. Colour TV came to West Wales; this was late by UK standards, but the area's M. P. couldn't get. The launch of Channel 4 took the UHF capabilities of the site to its design maximum. Being in Wales, this transmitter radiated the S4C variant; the VHF television transmitter was shut down after 3 months of service.
Channel 5 started broadcasting on UHF channel 37. A fifth analogue TV channel was outside the design specifications of the British UHF transmitter plan and this forced the use of out-of-band channel 37, supposed to be kept clear of transmissions; this was the initial roll-out for digital television using the DVB-T system. The transmitter frequencies and power outputs were chosen not to interfere with the UHF TV channels, but to be received with the same aerial-group; the QAM constellations and number of carriers were changed around 2002 after the collapse of ITV Digital as the service was taken over by the Freeview consortium. BBC Two Wales on channel 40 closed after 36 years of service, HTV Wales was moved from channel 43 to the vacated channel 40 for what would be its final month of service. Multiplex 1 on channel 47+ was renamed BBC A and moved to channel 43+. In addition to the power increase to 20 kW ERP, it was reconfigured to 64QAM and 8k carriers, which resulted in a service area similar to the old analogue transmissions but with much more bandwidth available than Multiplex 1 had.
For the duration of the switchover, all the channels carried on Multiplex B were duplicated on this new PSB1 multiplex. All remaining analogue television was shut down after 36 years of service; the pre-switchover low-power digital transmissions were upgraded to full power and configured to 64QAM and 8k carriers, with some frequency changes and with new names for the multiplexes: As a side-effect of frequency-changes elsewhere in the region to do with clearance of the 800 MHz band for 4G mobile phone use, Preseli's "Arqiva B" multiplex was moved from channel 49- to channel 39+ and the "BBC B" multiplex was moved from channel 50+ to channel 40+. First FM transmissions from Preseli. List of masts List of tallest buildings and structures in Great Britain List of radio stations in the United Kingdom MB21's page on 405 TV to Wales and the West "405 Alive's list of transmitters" More details on 405-line ITV transmitters The Transmission Gallery: Photographs and Information The Transmission Gallery: Television Coverage Map Presely Transmitter at thebigtower.com
DVB-T is an abbreviation for "Digital Video Broadcasting — Terrestrial". This system transmits compressed digital audio, digital video and other data in an MPEG transport stream, using coded orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing modulation, it is the format used worldwide for Electronic News Gathering for transmission of video and audio from a mobile newsgathering vehicle to a central receive point. Rather than carrying one data carrier on a single radio frequency channel, COFDM works by splitting the digital data stream into a large number of slower digital streams, each of which digitally modulates a set of spaced adjacent sub-carrier frequencies. In the case of DVB-T, there are two choices for the number of carriers known as 8K-mode; these are 1,705 or 6,817 sub-carriers that are 4 kHz or 1 kHz apart. DVB-T offers three different modulation schemes. DVB-T has been adopted or proposed for digital television broadcasting by many countries, using VHF 7 MHz and UHF 8 MHz channels whereas Taiwan, Colombia and Trinidad and Tobago use 6 MHz channels.
Examples include the UK's Freeview. The DVB-T Standard is published as EN 300 744, Framing structure, channel coding and modulation for digital terrestrial television; this is available from the ETSI website, as is ETSI TS 101 154, Specification for the use of Video and Audio Coding in Broadcasting Applications based on the MPEG-2 Transport Stream, which gives details of the DVB use of source coding methods for MPEG-2 and, more H.264/MPEG-4 AVC as well as audio encoding systems. Many countries that have adopted DVB-T have published standards for their implementation; these include the D-book in the UK, the Italian DGTVi, the ETSI E-Book and the Nordic countries and Ireland NorDig. DVB-T has been further developed into newer standards such as DVB-H, a commercial failure and is no longer in operation, DVB-T2, finalised in August 2011. DVB-T as a digital transmission delivers data in a series of discrete blocks at the symbol rate. DVB-T is a COFDM transmission technique, it allows the receiver to cope with strong multipath situations.
Within a geographical area, DVB-T allows single-frequency network operation, where two or more transmitters carrying the same data operate on the same frequency. In such cases the signals from each transmitter in the SFN needs to be time-aligned, done by sync information in the stream and timing at each transmitter referenced to GPS; the length of the Guard Interval can be chosen. It is a trade-off between SFN capability; the longer the guard interval the larger is the potential SFN area without creating intersymbol interference. It is possible to operate SFNs which do not fulfill the guard interval condition if the self-interference is properly planned and monitored. With reference to the figure, a short description of the signal processing blocks follows. Source coding and MPEG-2 multiplexing: Compressed video, compressed audio, data streams are multiplexed into MPEG program streams. One or more MPEG-PS's are joined together into an MPEG transport stream. Allowed bitrates for the transported data depend on a number of coding and modulation parameters: it can range from about 5 to about 32 Mbit/s.
Splitter: Two different MPEG-TSs can be transmitted at the same time, using a technique called Hierarchical Transmission. It may be used to transmit, for example a standard definition SDTV signal and a high definition HDTV signal on the same carrier; the SDTV signal is more robust than the HDTV one. At the receiver, depending on the quality of the received signal, the STB may be able to decode the HDTV stream or, if signal strength lacks, it can switch to the SDTV one. MUX adaptation and energy dispersal: The MPEG-TS is identified as a sequence of data packets, of fixed length. With a technique called energy dispersal, the byte sequence is decorrelated. External encoder: A first level of error correction is applied to the transmitted data, using a non-binary block code, a Reed-Solomon RS code, allowing the correction of up to a maximum of 8 wrong bytes for each 188-byte packet. External interleaver: Convolutional interleaving is used to rearrange the transmitted data sequence, in such a way that it becomes more rugged to long sequences of errors.
Internal encoder: A second level of error correction is given by a punctured convolutional code, denoted in STBs menus as FEC. There are five valid coding rates: 1/2, 2/3, 3/4, 5/6, 7/8. Internal interleaver: Data sequence is rearranged again, aiming to reduce the influence of burst errors; this time, a block interleaving technique is adopted, with a pseudo-random assignment scheme. Mapper: The digital bit sequence is mapped into a base band modulated sequence of complex symbols. There are three valid modulation schemes: QPSK, 16-QAM, 64-QAM. Frame adaptation: the complex symbols are grouped in blocks of const
Ferryside is a village in the community of St Ishmael, Wales. It is 8.5 miles south of Carmarthen near the mouth of the River Tywi. A ferry crossing becoming a fishing village, it has developed as a holiday and retirement area; the village has its own lifeboat station and was the first village in the UK to switch from analogue to digital television. Originating as a landing-place on the ferry route to Llansteffan, Ferryside developed as a fishing village. In 1844 the population of the parish was 895. Much of the village developed after 1852, when it became linked to Carmarthen and Swansea by Isambard Kingdom Brunel's South Wales Railway. There is a school, there for over 150 years; the parish church is St Ishmael's, built on a rock near the shore. In 2006, the graveyard and grounds were selected for an innovative project aimed at encouraging biodiversity in churchyards. There are two chapels near the centre of the village and another church, St Thomas, in the centre of the village. Ferryside has a post office, a public house, a sports and social club, a general store, restaurant-caterer, antiques shop and caravan park.
The ferry service across the River Tywi to Llansteffan was discontinued in the 1950s but plans were submitted in March 2017 to resume the service. The new service was launched in 2018 by Carmarthen Bay Ferries using an amphibious ferry. Ferryside railway station has regular rail connections to London Paddington, Pembroke Dock, Milford Haven, Carmarthen and Cardiff. Bus services connect to Llanelli. STISH is a monthly magazine by the St Ishmael's community for the villagers of Ferryside and Llansaint, run by volunteers to bring news of local events and articles of local interest. Ferryside Village Forum is an online source of information. Ferryside is home to the River Towy Yacht Club; the Ferryside Lifeboat was first established in 1835, 11 years after Sir William Hillary founded a national lifeboat service which subsequently became the Royal National Lifeboat Institution. Ferryside lifeboat was run by the RNLI until 1960, was re-established as an independent service in 1966, one of more than 70 such stations around the British Isles.
It is now part of St John Cymru, the ambulance charity, is launched by HM Coastguard in response to ’999′ calls and distress calls on VHF CH16. With the second largest tidal rise and fall in the world making the local waters hostile, the lifeboat is available 24 hours a day throughout the year, it is staffed by local volunteers. The current lifeboat station was opened by HRH The Duchess of Gloucester; the service uses a 6.4 metre Ribcraft semi rigid inflatable with twin 90 hp engines, a smaller craft. Callouts average 28 a year, a number, rising as a result of an increase in leisure craft; the station received a government grant to buy new equipment in 2017. Ferryside developed as a fishing village for shellfish. Along with Laugharne, Ferryside was once at the heart of the cockling industry in Carmarthen Bay. Cocklewomen from Llansaint could collect about 650 tons of cockles a year, did so until around 1900; the cockle industry now experiences intermittent bursts of activity when the Ferryside cocklebeds are opened to commercial pickers: intensive'strip-cockling' occurs and several hundred cockle-pickers work the estuary beds with tractors.
In 1993, Ferryside saw what are known locally as'the cockle wars': fights between rival gangs on the beach, notably between gangs from the Gower Peninsula, the Dee estuary and Glasgow. Because commercial quantities of cockles at Ferryside were rare, there were no licences required to harvest them. In addition to gaining the village rare visibility on the front pages of national newspapers, the cockle wars led to a Parliamentary debate and calls for the beds to be licensed. For further information see Digital switchover in the United Kingdom and Ferryside television relay station. On 30 March 2005, Ferryside and Llanstephan became the first areas in the United Kingdom to lose their analogue television signals. Residents of the Carmarthenshire villages - on either side of the River Tywi - voted to switch to digital after taking part in a pilot scheme. Homes were given digital receivers for each of their televisions. A helpline was set up for residents' teething problems, one-to-one support was made available to the elderly.
After three months, the households were asked if they wanted to keep the digital services or revert to analogue only. More than 85% of households responded and 98% voted to retain the digital services. Hence at the end of March 2005, the analogue channels, BBC One Wales, ITV1 and S4C, radiating from the Ferryside transmitter, were switched off leaving BBC Two Wales as the only analogue channel remaining. Viewers wanted to keep this channel because it provided certain programmes that the digital equivalent, BBC 2W, did not show. Notable ex-residents of the village include the General Sir Thomas Picton of Iscoed Mansion, a former governor of Trinidad who died at the Battle of Waterloo, Hugh Williams, the 19th century Chartist lawyer who played a prominent role in the Rebecca Riots and the portrait and landscape painter Gordon Stuart; the parasitologist J. W. W. Stephens, FRS, was born in Ferryside in 1865. George Parry, a metallurgical engineer and prolific inventor of Ebbw Vale Steelworks retired to Ferryside in 1866 and died on 6 February 1873 at his residence Steel Villa.
The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters are at Broadcasting House in Westminster, it is the world's oldest national broadcasting organisation and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees, it employs over 20,950 staff in total. The total number of staff is 35,402 when part-time and fixed-contract staff are included; the BBC is established under a Royal Charter and operates under its Agreement with the Secretary of State for Digital, Culture and Sport. Its work is funded principally by an annual television licence fee, charged to all British households and organisations using any type of equipment to receive or record live television broadcasts and iPlayer catch-up; the fee is set by the British Government, agreed by Parliament, used to fund the BBC's radio, TV, online services covering the nations and regions of the UK. Since 1 April 2014, it has funded the BBC World Service, which broadcasts in 28 languages and provides comprehensive TV, online services in Arabic and Persian.
Around a quarter of BBC revenues come from its commercial arm BBC Studios Ltd, which sells BBC programmes and services internationally and distributes the BBC's international 24-hour English-language news services BBC World News, from BBC.com, provided by BBC Global News Ltd. From its inception, through the Second World War, to the 21st century, the BBC has played a prominent role in British culture, it is known colloquially as "The Beeb", "Auntie", or a combination of both. Britain's first live public broadcast from the Marconi factory in Chelmsford took place in June 1920, it was sponsored by the Daily Mail's Lord Northcliffe and featured the famous Australian soprano Dame Nellie Melba. The Melba broadcast caught the people's imagination and marked a turning point in the British public's attitude to radio. However, this public enthusiasm was not shared in official circles where such broadcasts were held to interfere with important military and civil communications. By late 1920, pressure from these quarters and uneasiness among the staff of the licensing authority, the General Post Office, was sufficient to lead to a ban on further Chelmsford broadcasts.
But by 1922, the GPO had received nearly 100 broadcast licence requests and moved to rescind its ban in the wake of a petition by 63 wireless societies with over 3,000 members. Anxious to avoid the same chaotic expansion experienced in the United States, the GPO proposed that it would issue a single broadcasting licence to a company jointly owned by a consortium of leading wireless receiver manufactures, to be known as the British Broadcasting Company Ltd. John Reith, a Scottish Calvinist, was appointed its General Manager in December 1922 a few weeks after the company made its first official broadcast; the company was to be financed by a royalty on the sale of BBC wireless receiving sets from approved domestic manufacturers. To this day, the BBC aims to follow the Reithian directive to "inform and entertain"; the financial arrangements soon proved inadequate. Set sales were disappointing as amateurs made their own receivers and listeners bought rival unlicensed sets. By mid-1923, discussions between the GPO and the BBC had become deadlocked and the Postmaster-General commissioned a review of broadcasting by the Sykes Committee.
The Committee recommended a short term reorganisation of licence fees with improved enforcement in order to address the BBC's immediate financial distress, an increased share of the licence revenue split between it and the GPO. This was to be followed by a simple 10 shillings licence fee with no royalty once the wireless manufactures protection expired; the BBC's broadcasting monopoly was made explicit for the duration of its current broadcast licence, as was the prohibition on advertising. The BBC was banned from presenting news bulletins before 19.00 and was required to source all news from external wire services. Mid-1925 found the future of broadcasting under further consideration, this time by the Crawford committee. By now, the BBC, under Reith's leadership, had forged a consensus favouring a continuation of the unified broadcasting service, but more money was still required to finance rapid expansion. Wireless manufacturers were anxious to exit the loss making consortium with Reith keen that the BBC be seen as a public service rather than a commercial enterprise.
The recommendations of the Crawford Committee were published in March the following year and were still under consideration by the GPO when the 1926 general strike broke out in May. The strike temporarily interrupted newspaper production, with restrictions on news bulletins waived, the BBC became the primary source of news for the duration of the crisis; the crisis placed the BBC in a delicate position. On one hand Reith was acutely aware that the Government might exercise its right to commandeer the BBC at any time as a mouthpiece of the Government if the BBC were to step out of line, but on the other he was anxious to maintain public trust by appearing to be acting independently; the Government was divided on how to handle the BBC but ended up trusting Reith, whose opposition to the strike mirrored the PM's own. Thus the BBC was granted sufficient leeway to pursue the Government's objectives in a manner of its own choosing; the resulting coverage of both striker and government viewpoints impressed millions of listeners who were unaware that the PM had broadcast to the nation from Reith's home, using one of Reith's sound bites inserted at the last moment
The Office of Communications known as Ofcom, is the UK government-approved regulatory and competition authority for the broadcasting, telecommunications and postal industries of the United Kingdom. Ofcom has wide-ranging powers across the television, radio and postal sectors, it has a statutory duty to represent the interests of citizens and consumers by promoting competition and protecting the public from harmful or offensive material. Some of the main areas Ofcom presides over are licensing, research and policies, complaints and protecting the radio spectrum from abuse; the regulator was established by the Office of Communications Act 2002 and received its full authority from the Communications Act 2003. The creation of Ofcom was announced in the Queen's Speech to the UK Parliament, in June 2001; the new body, which would replace several existing authorities, was conceived as a "super-regulator" to oversee media channels that were converging through digital transmission. Ofcom launched on 29 December 2003, formally inheriting the duties, the responsibility of five different regulators: the Broadcasting Standards Commission the Independent Television Commission the Office of Telecommunications the Radio Authority the Radiocommunications Agency In July 2009, Conservative party opposition leader David Cameron said in a speech against the proliferation of quangos that:With a Conservative government, Ofcom as we know it will cease to exist… Its remit will be restricted to its narrow technical and enforcement roles.
It will no longer play a role in making policy. And the policy-making functions it has today will be transferred back to the Department for Culture and Sport. Under Cameron's subsequent premiership of the 2010 UK coalition government, the Public Bodies Act 2011 did remove or modify several of Ofcom's duties, although it did not reduce Ofcom's remit. On 1 October 2011, Ofcom took over responsibility for regulating the postal services industry from the Postal Services Commission. In April 2015, Ofcom announced that telephone companies would have to provide customers with a set charge for the cost of calling numbers starting 084, 087 and 09; the streamlining of these charges must be printed in monthly bills. The change came into force on 1 July 2015 and affected over 175 million phone numbers, making it the biggest overhaul of telephoning in over a decade. On 1 January 2016, the regulation of video on demand was transferred to Ofcom from ATVOD, the Authority for Television on Demand; the Digital Economy Act 2017 extended Ofcom's remit and powers.
Ofcom were given powers concerning the minimum broadband speed provided by Internet service providers, the ability to financially penalise communications providers for failing to comply with licence commitments and the power to require public service broadcasters to include a minimum quantity of children's programming made in the United Kingdom. The act transferred to Ofcom the regulation of the BBC, a duty undertaken by the BBC Trust, updated the Ofcom Electronic Communications Code to make it easier for telecommunications companies to erect and extend mobile masts. News International phone hacking scandal In July 2011, in the wake of the News International phone hacking scandal, Ofcom came under pressure to launch an inquiry into whether the parent company of News International, News Corporation, was still the "fit and proper" owner of a controlling stake in the satellite broadcasting company British Sky Broadcasting. On 13 July former Prime Minister Gordon Brown urged Ofcom to launch an investigation.
On 15 July the Deputy Prime Minister Nick Clegg stated that the Government would launch a review of laws on what constituted a "fit and proper" owner for broadcasting companies in the United Kingdom, that anyone found not to meet that standard can be forced to give up their current holdings in a company. On 22 July 2011, it was reported that Ofcom had begun an investigation into whether the phone-hacking scandal may have changed BSkyB's status as the "fit and proper" holder of a UK broadcasting licence. On the same day Ed Richards, the chief executive of Ofcom, replied to Simon Hughes MP, Don Foster MP and Tim Farron MP following a letter which they had written to him on 8 July concerning News Corporation's shareholding in BSkyB. In the letter Richards confirmed that Ofcom considers that News Corporation's current shareholding of 39.14% in BSkyB does give it a material influence over the company. In April 2012, Ofcom's probe moved from a monitoring phase to an "evidence gathering" phase. * Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications Ofcom licenses all UK commercial television and radio services in the UK.
Broadcasters must risk having it revoked. Ofcom publishes the Broadcasting Code, a series of rules which all broadcast content on television and radio must follow; the Broadcasting Code requires that content inappropriate for children should not be broadcast between the hours of 5:30 a.m. and 9:00 p.m. Premium-rate film services may broadcast content equivalent to a BBFC 15 certificate at any time of day provided a PIN-protected system is in place to restrict access to those authorised to view it; the broadcasting of pornography with a BBFC R18 certificate is not permitted. In 2010 Ofcom revoked the licences of four free-to-air television channels for promoting adult chat services during daytime hours and transmitting content, too sexually explicit; the companies involved were fined £157,2