Screen printing is a printing technique whereby a mesh is used to transfer ink onto a substrate, except in areas made impermeable to the ink by a blocking stencil. A blade or squeegee is moved across the screen to fill the open mesh apertures with ink, a reverse stroke causes the screen to touch the substrate momentarily along a line of contact; this causes the ink to wet the substrate and be pulled out of the mesh apertures as the screen springs back after the blade has passed. One color is printed at a time, so several screens can be used to produce a multicoloured image or design. There are various terms used for what is the same technique. Traditionally the process was called screen printing or silkscreen printing because silk was used in the process, it is known as serigraphy, serigraph printing. Synthetic threads are used in the screen printing process; the most popular mesh in general use is made of polyester. There are special-use mesh materials of nylon and stainless steel available to the screen printer.
There are different types of mesh size which will determine the outcome and look of the finished design on the material. Screen printing first appeared in a recognizable form in China during the Song Dynasty, it was adapted by other Asian countries like Japan, was furthered by creating newer methods. Screen printing was introduced to Western Europe from Asia sometime in the late 18th century, but did not gain large acceptance or use in Europe until silk mesh was more available for trade from the east and a profitable outlet for the medium discovered. Early in the 1910s, several printers experimenting with photo-reactive chemicals used the well-known actinic light–activated cross linking or hardening traits of potassium, sodium or ammonium chromate and dichromate chemicals with glues and gelatin compounds. Roy Beck, Charles Peter and Edward Owens studied and experimented with chromic acid salt sensitized emulsions for photo-reactive stencils; this trio of developers would prove to revolutionize the commercial screen printing industry by introducing photo-imaged stencils to the industry, though the acceptance of this method would take many years.
Commercial screen printing now uses sensitizers less toxic than bichromates. There are large selections of pre-sensitized and "user mixed" sensitized emulsion chemicals for creating photo-reactive stencils. A group of artists who formed the National Serigraph Society, including WPA artists Max Arthur Cohn and Anthony Velonis, coined the word Serigraphy in the 1930s to differentiate the artistic application of screen printing from the industrial use of the process."Serigraphy" is a compound word formed from Latin "sēricum" and Greek "graphein". The Printers' National Environmental Assistance Center says "Screenprinting is arguably the most versatile of all printing processes. Since rudimentary screenprinting materials are so affordable and available, it has been used in underground settings and subcultures, the non-professional look of such DIY culture screenprints have become a significant cultural aesthetic seen on movie posters, record album covers, shirts, commercial fonts in advertising, in artwork and elsewhere.
Credit is given to the artist Andy Warhol for popularising screen printing as an artistic technique. Warhol's silk screens include his 1962 Marilyn Diptych, a portrait of the actress Marilyn Monroe printed in bold colours. Warhol was supported in his production by master screen printer Michel Caza, a founding member of Fespa. Sister Mary Corita Kent, gained international fame for her vibrant serigraphs during the 1960s and 1970s, her works were rainbow colored, contained words that were both political and fostered peace and love and caring. American entrepreneur and inventor Michael Vasilantone started to use and sell a rotatable multicolour garment screen printing machine in 1960. Vasilantone filed for patent on his invention in 1967 granted number 3,427,964 on February 18, 1969; the original machine was manufactured to print logos and team information on bowling garments but soon directed to the new fad of printing on T-shirts. The Vasilantone patent was licensed by multiple manufacturers, the resulting production and boom in printed T-shirts made this garment screen printing machine popular.
Screen printing on garments accounts for over half of the screen printing activity in the United States. Graphic screenprinting is used today to create mass or large batch produced graphics, such as posters or display stands. Full colour prints can be created by printing in CMYK. Screen printing lends itself well to printing on canvas. Andy Warhol, Arthur Okamura, Robert Rauschenberg, Roy Lichtenstein, Harry Gottlieb and many other artists have used screen printing as an expression of creativity and artistic vision. Another variation, digital hybrid screen printing is a union between analog screen printing and traditional digital direct to garment printing, two of the most common textile embellishment technologies in use today. Digital hybrid screen printing is an automatic screen-printing press with a CMYK digital enhancement located on one of the screen print stations. Digital hybrid screen printing is capable of variable data options, creating endless customizations, with the added ability of screen print specific techniques.
A screen is made of a piece of mesh stretched over a frame. The mesh could be made of a synthetic polymer, such as nylon, a finer and smaller aperture for the mesh would be utilized for a design that requires a higher and more delicate degree of detail. For the mesh to be effective, it must be mounted on a frame and it must be unde
Salvador Domingo Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domènech, 1st Marquis of Dalí de Púbol, known professionally as Salvador Dalí, was a prominent Spanish surrealist born in Figueres, Spain. Dalí was a skilled draftsman, best known for the bizarre images in his surrealist work, his painterly skills are attributed to the influence of Renaissance masters. His best-known work, The Persistence of Memory, was completed in August 1931. Dalí's expansive artistic repertoire included film and photography, at times in collaboration with a range of artists in a variety of media. Dalí attributed his "love of everything, gilded and excessive, my passion for luxury and my love of oriental clothes" to an "Arab lineage", claiming that his ancestors were descendants of the Moors. Dalí was imaginative, enjoyed indulging in unusual and grandiose behavior. To the dismay of those who held his work in high regard, to the irritation of his critics, his eccentric manner and attention-grabbing public actions sometimes drew more attention than his artwork.
Salvador Dalí was born on 11 May 1904, at 8:45 am GMT, on the first floor of Carrer Monturiol, 20, in the town of Figueres, in the Empordà region, close to the French border in Catalonia, Spain. Dalí's older brother, named Salvador, had died of gastroenteritis nine months earlier, on 1 August 1903, his father, Salvador Rafael Aniceto Dalí Cusí was a middle-class lawyer and notary, an anti-clerical atheist and Catalan federalist, whose strict disciplinary approach was tempered by his wife, Felipa Domènech Ferrés, who encouraged her son's artistic endeavors. In the summer of 1912, the family moved to the top floor of Carrer Monturiol 24; as a child Dalí was taken to his brother's grave and told by his parents that he was his brother's reincarnation, a concept which he came to believe. Of his brother, Dalí said, " resembled each other like two drops of water, but we had different reflections." He "was a first version of myself but conceived too much in the absolute." Images of his long-dead brother would reappear embedded in his works, including Portrait of My Dead Brother.
Dalí had a sister, Anna Maria, three years younger. In 1949, she published a book about her brother, his childhood friends included Josep Samitier. During holidays at the Catalan resort of Cadaqués, the trio played football together. Dalí attended drawing school. In 1916, he discovered modern painting on a summer vacation trip to Cadaqués with the family of Ramon Pichot, a local artist who made regular trips to Paris; the next year, Dalí's father organized an exhibition of his charcoal drawings in their family home. He had his first public exhibition at the Municipal Theatre in Figueres in 1918, a site he would return to decades later. On 6 February 1921, Dalí's mother died of uterus cancer. Dalí was 16 years old. I worshipped her... I could not resign myself to the loss of a being on whom I counted to make invisible the unavoidable blemishes of my soul." After her death, Dalí's father married his deceased wife's sister. Dalí did not resent this marriage, because he had great respect for his aunt. In 1922, Dalí moved into the Residencia de Estudiantes in Madrid and studied at the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando.
A lean 1.72 metres tall, Dalí drew attention as an eccentric and dandy. He had long hair and sideburns, coat and knee-breeches in the style of English aesthetes of the late 19th century. At the Residencia, he became close friends with Pepín Bello, Luis Buñuel, Federico García Lorca; the friendship with Lorca had a strong element of mutual passion, but Dalí rejected the poet's sexual advances. It was his paintings in which he experimented with Cubism, that earned him the most attention from his fellow students. Since there were no Cubist artists in Madrid at the time, his knowledge of Cubist art had come from magazine articles and a catalog given to him by Pichot. Dalí, still unknown to the public, illustrated a book for the first time in 1924, it was a publication of the Catalan poem Les bruixes de Llers by his friend and schoolmate, poet Carles Fages de Climent. Dalí experimented with Dada, which influenced his work throughout his life. Dalí held his first solo exhibition at Galeries Dalmau in Barcelona, from 14 to 27 November 1925.
At the time Dalí was not yet immersed in the Surrealist style for which he would become famous. The exhibition was well received by critics; the following year he exhibited again at Galeries Dalmau, from 31 December 1926 to 14 January 1927, with the support of the art critic Sebastià Gasch. Dalí left the Academy in 1926, shortly before his final exams, his mastery of painting skills at that time was evidenced by his realistic The Basket of Bread, painted in 1926. That same year, he made his first visit to Paris, where he met Pablo Picasso, whom the young Dalí revered. Picasso had heard favorable reports about Dalí from Joan Miró, a fellow Catalan who introduced him to many Surrealist friends; as he developed his own style over the next few years, Dalí made a number of works influenced by Picasso and Miró. Some trends in Dalí's work that would continue throughout his life were evident in the 1920s. Dalí was influenced by many styles of art, ranging from the most academically classic, to the most cutting-edge avant-garde.
His classical influences i
Digital printing refers to methods of printing from a digital-based image directly to a variety of media. It refers to professional printing where small-run jobs from desktop publishing and other digital sources are printed using large-format and/or high-volume laser or inkjet printers. Digital printing has a higher cost per page than more traditional offset printing methods, but this price is offset by avoiding the cost of all the technical steps required to make printing plates, it allows for on-demand printing, short turnaround time, a modification of the image used for each impression. The savings in labor and the ever-increasing capability of digital presses means that digital printing is reaching the point where it can match or supersede offset printing technology's ability to produce larger print runs of several thousand sheets at a low price; the greatest difference between digital printing and traditional methods such as lithography, gravure, or letterpress is that there is no need to replace printing plates in digital printing, whereas in analog printing the plates are replaced.
This results in quicker turnaround time and lower cost when using digital printing, but a loss of some fine-image detail by most commercial digital printing processes. The most popular methods include inkjet or laser printers that deposit pigment or toner onto a wide variety of substrates including paper, photo paper, glass, metal and other substances. In many of the processes, the ink or toner does not permeate the substrate, as does conventional ink, but forms a thin layer on the surface that may be additionally adhered to the substrate by using a fuser fluid with heat process or UV curing process. Fine art digital inkjet printing is printing from a computer image file directly to an inkjet printer as a final output, it evolved from digital proofing technology from Kodak, 3M, other major manufacturers, with artists and other printers trying to adapt these dedicated prepress proofing machines to fine-art printing. There was experimentation with many of these types of printers, the most notable being the IRIS printer adapted to fine-art printing by programmer David Coons, adopted for fine-art work by Graham Nash at his Nash Editions printing company in 1991.
These printers were limited to glossy papers, but the IRIS Graphics printer allowed the use of a variety of papers that included traditional and non-traditional media. The IRIS printer was the standard for fine art digital printmaking for many years, is still in use today, but has been superseded by large-format printers from other manufacturers such as Epson and HP that use fade-resistant, archival inks, archival substrates designed for fine-art printing. Substrates in fine art inkjet printmaking include traditional fine-art papers such as Rives BFK, Arches watercolor paper and untreated canvas, experimental substrates, fabric. For artists making reproductions of their original work, inkjet printing is more expensive on a per-print basis than the traditional four-color offset lithography, but with inkjet printing the artist does not have to pay for the expensive printing-plate setup or the marketing and storage needed for large four-color offset print runs. Inkjet reproductions can be sold individually in accordance with demand.
Inkjet printing has the added advantage of allowing artists to take total control of the production of their images, including the final color correction and the substrates being used, with some artists owning and operating their own printers. Digital inkjet printing allows for the output of digital art of all types as finished pieces or as an element in a further art piece. Experimental artists add texture or other media to the surface of a final print, or use it as part of a mixed-media work. Many terms for the process have been used over the years, including "digigraph" and "giclée". Thousands of print shops and digital printmakers now offer services to painters and digital artists around the world. Digital images are exposed onto true, light sensitive photographic paper with lasers and processed in photographic developers and fixers; these prints are true have continuous tone in the image detail. The archival quality of the print is as high as the manufacturer's rating for any given photo paper used.
In large format prints, the greatest advantage is that, since no lens is used, there is no vignetting or detail distortion in the corners of the image. Digital printing technology has grown over the past few years with substantial developments in quality and sheet sizes. Digital printing has many advantages over traditional methods; some applications of note include: Desktop publishing – inexpensive home and office printing is only possible because of digital processes that bypass the need for printing plates Commercial – Business Stationery - Including business cards, letterheads Variable data printing – uses database-driven print files for the mass personalization of printed materials Fine art – archival digital printing methods include real photo paper exposure prints and giclée prints on watercolor paper using pigment based inks. Print on Demand – digital printing is used for personalized printing for example, children's books customized with a child's name, photo books, or any other books.
Advertising – used for outdoor banner advertising and event signage, in trade shows, in the retail sector at point of sale or point of purchase, in personalized direct mail campaigns. Photos – digital printing has revolutionized photo printing in terms of the ability to
An exhibition, in the most general sense, is an organised presentation and display of a selection of items. In practice, exhibitions occur within a cultural or educational setting such as a museum, art gallery, library, exhibition hall, or World's fairs. Exhibitions can include many things such as art in both major museums and smaller galleries, interpretive exhibitions, natural history museums and history museums, varieties such as more commercially focused exhibitions and trade fairs. In British English the word "exhibition" is used for a collection of items placed on display, the event as a whole, which in American English is an "exhibit". In both varieties of English each object being shown within an exhibition is an "exhibit". In common usage, "exhibitions" are considered temporary and scheduled to open and close on specific dates. While many exhibitions are shown in just one venue, some exhibitions are shown in multiple locations and are called travelling exhibitions, some are online exhibitions.
Exhibitions featuring fragile or valuable objects, or live animals—may be shown only during a formal presentation, under the close supervision of attendant or educator. Temporary exhibits that are transported from institution to institution are traveling exhibits. Though exhibitions are common events, the concept of an exhibition is quite wide and encompasses many variables. Exhibitions range from an extraordinarily large event such as a World's fair exposition to small one-artist solo shows or a display of just one item. Curators are sometimes involved as the people. Writers and editors are sometimes needed to write text and accompanying printed material such as catalogs and books. Architects, exhibition designers, graphic designers and other designers may be needed to shape the exhibition space and give form to the editorial content. Organizing and holding exhibitions requires effective event planning and logistics; the exhibition came into its own in the 19th century, but various temporary exhibitions had been held before that the regular displays of new art in major cities.
The Paris Salon of the Académie des Beaux-Arts was the most famous of these, beginning in 1667, open to the public from 1737. By the mid-18th century this and its equivalents in other countries had become crucial for developing and maintaining the reputation of contemporary artists. In London the Royal Academy Summer Exhibition has been held annually since 1769, the British Institution ran temporary exhibitions from 1805 to 1867 twice a year, with one of new British painting and one of loans of old masters from the Royal Collection and the aristocratic collections of English country houses. By the mid-19th century many of the new national museums of Europe were in place, holding exhibitions of their own collections, or loaned collections, or a mixture of objects from both sourcers, which remains a typical mix today; the "Chronology of Temporary Exhibitions at the British Museum" goes back to 1838. The tradition of the Universal exposition "world Expo" or "World's Fair" began with the Great Exhibition of 1851 in London.
The Eiffel Tower in Paris was served as an entrance arch. Modern exhibitions may be concerned with preservation and demonstration, early exhibitions were designed to attract public interest and curiosity. Before the widespread adoption of photography, the exhibition of a single object could attract large crowds. Visitors might be overcome with Stendhal syndrome, feeling dizzy or overwhelmed by the intense sensory experience of an exhibit. Today, there is still tension between the design of exhibits for educational purposes or for the purpose of attracting and entertaining an audience, as a tourist attraction. Art exhibitions include an array of artifacts from countless forms of human making: paintings, crafts, video installations, sound installations, interactive art, etc. Art exhibitions may focus on one group, one genre, one theme or one collection. Fine arts exhibitions highlight works of art with generous space and lighting, supplying information through labels or audioguides designed to be unobtrusive to the art itself.
Exhibitions may occur in series or periodically, as in the case with Biennales and quadrennials. The first art exhibition to be called a blockbuster was the 1960 Picasso show at Tate in London. Interpretive exhibitions are exhibitions that require more context to explain the items being displayed; this is true of exhibitions devoted to scientific and historical themes, where text, charts and interactive displays may provide necessary explanation of background and concepts. Interpretive exhibitions require more text and more graphics than fine art exhibitions do; the topics of interpretive graphics cover a wide range including archaeology, ethnology, science and natural history. Commercial exhibitions called trade fairs, trade shows or expos, are organized so that organizations in a specific interest or industry can showcase and demonstrate their latest products, study activities of rivals and examine recent trends and opportunities; some trade fairs are open to the public, while others can only be attended by company representatives and members of the press.
Changes in scholarly communication and the rise of the Internet have led to the creation of online exhibition
Andy Warhol was an American artist and producer, a leading figure in the visual art movement known as pop art. His works explore the relationship between artistic expression, celebrity culture, advertising that flourished by the 1960s, span a variety of media, including painting, photography and sculpture; some of his best known works include the silkscreen paintings Campbell's Soup Cans and Marilyn Diptych, the experimental film Chelsea Girls, the multimedia events known as the Exploding Plastic Inevitable. Born and raised in Pittsburgh, Warhol pursued a successful career as a commercial illustrator. After exhibiting his work in several galleries in the late 1950s, he began to receive recognition as an influential and controversial artist, his New York studio, The Factory, became a well-known gathering place that brought together distinguished intellectuals, drag queens, Bohemian street people, Hollywood celebrities, wealthy patrons. He promoted a collection of personalities known as Warhol superstars, is credited with coining the used expression "15 minutes of fame."
In the late 1960s, he managed and produced the experimental rock band The Velvet Underground and founded Interview magazine. He authored numerous books, including The Philosophy of Andy Popism: The Warhol Sixties, he lived as a gay man before the gay liberation movement. After gallbladder surgery, Warhol died of cardiac arrhythmia in February 1987 at the age of 58. Warhol has been the subject of numerous retrospective exhibitions and feature and documentary films; the Andy Warhol Museum in his native city of Pittsburgh, which holds an extensive permanent collection of art and archives, is the largest museum in the United States dedicated to a single artist. Many of his creations are collectible and valuable; the highest price paid for a Warhol painting is US$105 million for a 1963 canvas titled Silver Car Crash. A 2009 article in The Economist described Warhol as the "bellwether of the art market". Warhol was born on August 1928, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, he was the fourth child of Ondrej Warhola and Julia, whose first child was born in their homeland and died before their move to the U.
S. His parents were working-class Lemko emigrants from Austria-Hungary. Warhol's father emigrated to the United States in 1914, his mother joined him in 1921, after the death of Warhol's grandparents. Warhol's father worked in a coal mine; the family lived at 55 Beelen Street and at 3252 Dawson Street in the Oakland neighborhood of Pittsburgh. The family was attended St. John Chrysostom Byzantine Catholic Church. Andy Warhol had two older brothers—Pavol, the oldest, was born before the family emigrated. Pavol's son, James Warhola, became a successful children's book illustrator. In third grade, Warhol had Sydenham's chorea, the nervous system disease that causes involuntary movements of the extremities, believed to be a complication of scarlet fever which causes skin pigmentation blotchiness. At times when he was confined to bed, he drew, listened to the radio and collected pictures of movie stars around his bed. Warhol described this period as important in the development of his personality, skill-set and preferences.
When Warhol was 13, his father died in an accident. As a teenager, Warhol graduated from Schenley High School in 1945; as a teen, Warhol won a Scholastic Art and Writing Award. After graduating from high school, his intentions were to study art education at the University of Pittsburgh in the hope of becoming an art teacher, but his plans changed and he enrolled in the Carnegie Institute of Technology, now Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, where he studied commercial art. During his time there, Warhol joined the campus Beaux Arts Society, he served as art director of the student art magazine, illustrating a cover in 1948 and a full-page interior illustration in 1949. These are believed to be his first two published artworks. Warhol earned a Bachelor of Fine Arts in pictorial design in 1949; that year, he moved to New York City and began a career in magazine illustration and advertising. Warhol's early career was dedicated to commercial and advertising art, where his first commission had been to draw shoes for Glamour magazine in the late 1940s.
In the 1950s, Warhol worked as a designer for shoe manufacturer Israel Miller. American photographer John Coplans recalled, he somehow gave each shoe a temperament of its own, a sort of sly, Toulouse-Lautrec kind of sophistication, but the shape and the style came through and the buckle was always in the right place. The kids in the apartment noticed that the vamps on Andy's shoe drawings kept getting longer and longer but Miller didn't mind. Miller loved them. Warhol's "whimsical" ink drawings of shoe advertisements figured in some of his earliest showings at the Bodley Gallery in New York. Warhol was an early adopter of the silk screen printmaking process as a technique for making paintings. A young Warhol was taught silk screen printmaking techniques by Max Arthur Cohn at his graphic arts business in Manhattan. While working in the shoe industry, Warhol developed his "blotted line" technique, applying ink to paper and blotting the ink while still wet