Spivey Hall was built in 1991 on the campus of Clayton State University in Morrow, not far from Atlanta, Georgia. Its seating capacity is 392, it presents jazz and classical music to the metro Atlanta area. Spivey Hall is home to the award-winning Spivey Spivey Hall Young Artists; the Children's Concert Series, sponsored in part by Delta Air Lines, won the prestigious Abby Award for arts education in Atlanta in 1998. The Hall was the inspiration of Emilie Parmalee Spivey and Walter Boone Spivey, wealthy real estate developer couple of the Atlanta Area; the Walter & Emilie Spivey Foundation donated $2.5 million to the construction which began in November 1988. Though intimately involved in the planning, by the time of the groundbreaking, Walter had died, Emilie died soon thereafter; the visual centerpiece of Spivey's design is the Albert Schweitzer Memorial Organ, a 79-rank, 3-manual, 4,413-pipe organ and installed by Fratelli Ruffatti of Padua, Italy. The creation of this organ was the subject of a PBS special.
The majority of Spivey's finishes were designed to be acoustically reflective, in an effort to preserve the sound within and prolong its reverberation. Owing to frequent appearances on National Public Radio's "Performance Today," the hall has earned a national reputation while reaching an international audience through artist word-of-mouth and exposure in such publications as BBC Music Magazine and International Arts Manager. List of concert halls Spivey Hall
Renaissance music is vocal and instrumental music written and performed in Europe during the Renaissance era. Consensus among music historians has been to start the era around 1400, with the end of the medieval era, to close it around 1600, with the beginning of the Baroque period, therefore commencing the musical Renaissance about a hundred years after the beginning of the Renaissance as it is understood in other disciplines; as in the other arts, the music of the period was influenced by the developments which define the Early Modern period: the rise of humanistic thought. From this changing society emerged a common, unifying musical language, in particular, the polyphonic style of the Franco-Flemish school, whose greatest master was Josquin des Prez; the invention of the printing press in 1439 made it cheaper and easier to distribute music and musical theory texts on a wider geographic scale and to more people. Prior to the invention of printing, written music and music-theory texts had to be hand-copied, a time-consuming and expensive process.
Demand for music as entertainment and as a leisure activity for educated amateurs increased with the emergence of a bourgeois class. Dissemination of chansons and masses throughout Europe coincided with the unification of polyphonic practice into the fluid style which culminated in the second half of the sixteenth century in the work of composers such as Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina, Orlande de Lassus, Thomas Tallis and William Byrd. Relative political stability and prosperity in the Low Countries, along with a flourishing system of music education in the area's many churches and cathedrals allowed the training of large numbers of singers and composers; these musicians were sought throughout Europe in Italy, where churches and aristocratic courts hired them as composers and teachers. Since the printing press made it easier to disseminate printed music, by the end of the 16th century, Italy had absorbed the northern musical influences with Venice and other cities becoming centers of musical activity.
This reversed the situation from a hundred years earlier. Opera, a dramatic staged genre in which singers are accompanied by instruments, arose at this time in Florence. Opera was developed as a deliberate attempt to resurrect the music of ancient Greece. Music was freed from medieval constraints, more variety was permitted in range, harmony and notation. On the other hand, rules of counterpoint became more constrained with regard to treatment of dissonances. In the Renaissance, music became a vehicle for personal expression. Composers found ways to make vocal music more expressive of the texts. Secular music absorbed techniques from sacred music, vice versa. Popular secular forms such as the madrigal spread throughout Europe. Courts employed both singers and instrumentalists. Music became more self-sufficient with its availability in printed form, existing for its own sake. Precursor versions of many familiar modern instruments developed into new forms during the Renaissance; these instruments were modified to responding to the evolution of musical ideas, they presented new possibilities for composers and musicians to explore.
Early forms of modern woodwind and brass instruments like the bassoon and trombone appeared. During the 15th century, the sound of full triads became common, towards the end of the 16th century the system of church modes began to break down giving way to the functional tonality, which would dominate Western art music for the next three centuries. From the Renaissance era, notated secular and sacred music survives in quantity, including vocal and instrumental works and mixed vocal/instrumental works. An enormous diversity of musical styles and genres flourished during the Renaissance; these can be heard on recordings made in the 20th and 21st century, including masses, madrigals, accompanied songs, instrumental dances, many others. Beginning in the late 20th century, numerous early music ensembles were formed. Early music ensembles specializing in music of the Renaissance era give concert tours and make recordings, using modern reproductions of historical instruments and using singing and performing styles which musicologists believe were used during the era.
One of the most pronounced features of early Renaissance European art music was the increasing reliance on the interval of the third and its inversion, the sixth. Polyphony – the use of multiple, independent melodic lines, performed – became elaborate throughout the 14th century, with independent voices; the beginning of the 15th century showed simplification, with the composers striving for smoothness in the melodic parts. This was possible because of a increased vocal range in music – in the Middle Ages, the narrow range made necessary frequent crossing of parts, thus requirin
The Requiem, Op. 9, is a setting of the Latin Requiem by Maurice Duruflé for a solo voice, mixed choir, organ, or orchestra with organ. The thematic material is taken from the Mass for the Dead in Gregorian chant; the Requiem was first published in 1948 by Durand in an organ version. Maurice Duruflé was among French composers commissioned in May 1941 by the collaborationist Vichy regime to write extended works for a monetary award, such as 10,000 francs for a symphonic poem, 20,000 for a symphony, 30,000 for an opera. Duruflé, commissioned to compose a symphonic poem, decided to compose a Requiem and was still working on it in 1944 when the regime collapsed, he completed it in September 1947. He set the Latin text of the Requiem Mass, omitting certain parts in the tradition of Gabriel Fauré's Requiem and structuring it in nine movements. At the time of the commission, he was working on an organ suite using themes from Gregorian chants, he incorporated his sketches for that work into the Requiem, which uses numerous themes from the Gregorian "Mass for the Dead".
Nearly all the thematic material in the work comes from chant. Duruflé scored the work for a solo voice in the central movement, Pie Jesu, a mixed choir, accompanied by organ or orchestra; the composer dedicated the Requiem to the memory of his father. The Requiem was published in 1948 by the French publishing house Durand, first issued in a version for SATB choir and organ. Duruflé demanded payment for the commissioned work and received 30,000 francs, instead of the 10,000 of his commission, because of the complex nature of his work and inflation during that time. Duruflé structured the work in nine movements: Introit Kyrie eleison Offertory Sanctus and Benedictus Pie Jesu Agnus Dei Communion Libera me In paradisumThe work is for SATB choir with brief mezzo-soprano and baritone solos, it exists in three versions: one for organ alone. Like Fauré in his Requiem, Duruflé's omits most of the liturgical Dies Irae, but sets its part Pie Jesu, he includes Libera me and In Paradisum, from the burial service, again like Fauré, focused on calmness and a meditative character.
The central movement, Pie Jesu, has the only solo for the mezzo-soprano. The full-orchestra version is scored for 3 flutes, 2 oboes, English horn, 2 clarinets, bass clarinet, 2 bassoons, 4 French horns, 3 trumpets, 3 trombones, timpani, bass drum, celesta, harp and strings; the reduced-orchestra version is scored for 3 trumpets, harp and strings. The organ part used in the reduced version is different from the organ part used in the version for choir and organ. Guy Janssens, A history of the Requiem - Part III, Laudantes Consort, Benoît Mernier, Organ - CD: Cypres CYP 1654, 2006 Stetson University Concert Choir, Alan Raines Conducting, Boyd Jones Organ - CD: Clear Note 74390, 2008. Publisher's store. CD: Hyperion Records Limited CDA66191, recorded October 1985 Durufle Requiem * Quatre Motets * Messe Cum Jubilo. Chapter Sixteen: The Vichy Commissions / Chapter Seventeen: The Requiem; the Man and his Music. University of Rochester Press. Pp. 156–180. ISBN 978-1-58-046227-3. Cooksey, Karen Lou. "The Duruflé Requiem: A Guide for Interpretation".
Undergraduate Honors Thesis Collection. Butler University. Retrieved 1 March 2007. Dellal, Pamela. "Miscellaneous Translations / Requiem / Maurice Duruflé". Emmanuel Music. Retrieved 1 March 2007. Oestreich, James R.. "Review/Music. The New York Times. Retrieved 1 March 2007. Platt, Russell. "Elegant Theft: Maurice Duruflé's Requiem". The New Yorker. Retrieved 3 August 2017. Kaye, Nicholas.. "Duruflé, Maurice." Grove Music Online. Ed. Retrieved 13 September 2018. "Maurice Gustave Duruflé / 1902 - 1986 / France". Requiemsurvey.org. 2017. Retrieved 3 August 2017
Atlanta is the capital of, the most populous city in, the U. S. state of Georgia. With an estimated 2017 population of 486,290, it is the 38th most-populous city in the United States; the city serves as the cultural and economic center of the Atlanta metropolitan area, home to 5.8 million people and the ninth-largest metropolitan area in the nation. Atlanta is the seat of the most populous county in Georgia. A small portion of the city extends eastward into neighboring DeKalb County. Atlanta was founded as the terminating stop of a major state-sponsored railroad. With rapid expansion, however, it soon became the convergence point between multiple railroads, spurring its rapid growth; the city's name derives from that of the Western and Atlantic Railroad's local depot, signifying the town's growing reputation as a transportation hub. During the American Civil War, the city was entirely burned to the ground in General William T. Sherman's famous March to the Sea. However, the city rose from its ashes and became a national center of commerce and the unofficial capital of the "New South".
During the 1950s and 1960s, Atlanta became a major organizing center of the civil rights movement, with Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Ralph David Abernathy, many other locals playing major roles in the movement's leadership. During the modern era, Atlanta has attained international prominence as a major air transportation hub, with Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport being the world's busiest airport by passenger traffic since 1998. Atlanta is rated as a "beta" world city that exerts a moderate impact on global commerce, research, education, media and entertainment, it ranks in the top twenty among world cities and 10th in the nation with a gross domestic product of $385 billion. Atlanta's economy is considered diverse, with dominant sectors that include transportation, logistics and business services, media operations, medical services, information technology. Atlanta has topographic features that include rolling hills and dense tree coverage, earning it the nickname of "the city in a forest."
Revitalization of Atlanta's neighborhoods spurred by the 1996 Summer Olympics, has intensified in the 21st century, altering the city's demographics, politics and culture. Prior to the arrival of European settlers in north Georgia, Creek Indians inhabited the area. Standing Peachtree, a Creek village where Peachtree Creek flows into the Chattahoochee River, was the closest Indian settlement to what is now Atlanta; as part of the systematic removal of Native Americans from northern Georgia from 1802 to 1825, the Creek were forced to leave the area in 1821, white settlers arrived the following year. In 1836, the Georgia General Assembly voted to build the Western and Atlantic Railroad in order to provide a link between the port of Savannah and the Midwest; the initial route was to run southward from Chattanooga to a terminus east of the Chattahoochee River, which would be linked to Savannah. After engineers surveyed various possible locations for the terminus, the "zero milepost" was driven into the ground in what is now Five Points.
A year the area around the milepost had developed into a settlement, first known as "Terminus", as "Thrasherville" after a local merchant who built homes and a general store in the area. By 1842, the town had six buildings and 30 residents and was renamed "Marthasville" to honor the Governor's daughter. J. Edgar Thomson, Chief Engineer of the Georgia Railroad, suggested the town be renamed Atlanta; the residents approved, the town was incorporated as Atlanta on December 29, 1847. By 1860, Atlanta's population had grown to 9,554. During the American Civil War, the nexus of multiple railroads in Atlanta made the city a hub for the distribution of military supplies. In 1864, the Union Army moved southward following the capture of Chattanooga and began its invasion of north Georgia; the region surrounding Atlanta was the location of several major army battles, culminating with the Battle of Atlanta and a four-month-long siege of the city by the Union Army under the command of General William Tecumseh Sherman.
On September 1, 1864, Confederate General John Bell Hood made the decision to retreat from Atlanta, he ordered the destruction of all public buildings and possible assets that could be of use to the Union Army. On the next day, Mayor James Calhoun surrendered Atlanta to the Union Army, on September 7, Sherman ordered the city's civilian population to evacuate. On November 11, 1864, Sherman prepared for the Union Army's March to the Sea by ordering the destruction of Atlanta's remaining military assets. After the Civil War ended in 1865, Atlanta was rebuilt. Due to the city's superior rail transportation network, the state capital was moved from Milledgeville to Atlanta in 1868. In the 1880 Census, Atlanta surpassed Savannah as Georgia's largest city. Beginning in the 1880s, Henry W. Grady, the editor of the Atlanta Constitution newspaper, promoted Atlanta to potential investors as a city of the "New South" that would be based upon a modern economy and less reliant on agriculture. By 1885, the founding of the Georgia School of Technology and the Atlanta University Center had established Atlanta as a center for higher education.
In 1895, Atlanta hosted the Cotton States and International Exposition, which attracted nearly 800,000 attendees and promoted the New South's development to the world. During the first decades of the 20th century, Atlanta experienced a period of unprecedented growth. In three decades' time, Atlanta's population tripled as the city limits expanded to include nearby streetcar suburbs; the city's skyline emerged with the construction of the
Baroque music is a period or style of Western art music composed from 1600 to 1750. This era followed the Renaissance music era, was followed in turn by the Classical era. Baroque music forms a major portion of the "classical music" canon, is now studied and listened to. Key composers of the Baroque era include Johann Sebastian Bach, Antonio Vivaldi, George Frideric Handel, Claudio Monteverdi, Domenico Scarlatti, Alessandro Scarlatti, Henry Purcell, Georg Philipp Telemann, Jean-Baptiste Lully, Jean-Philippe Rameau, Marc-Antoine Charpentier, Arcangelo Corelli, Tomaso Albinoni, François Couperin, Giuseppe Tartini, Heinrich Schütz, Giovanni Battista Pergolesi, Dieterich Buxtehude, Johann Pachelbel; the Baroque period saw the creation of common-practice tonality, an approach to writing music in which a song or piece is written in a particular key. During the Baroque era, professional musicians were expected to be accomplished improvisers of both solo melodic lines and accompaniment parts. Baroque concerts were accompanied by a basso continuo group while a group of bass instruments—viol, double bass—played the bassline.
A characteristic Baroque form was the dance suite. While the pieces in a dance suite were inspired by actual dance music, dance suites were designed purely for listening, not for accompanying dancers. During the period and performers used more elaborate musical ornamentation, made changes in musical notation, developed new instrumental playing techniques. Baroque music expanded the size and complexity of instrumental performance, established the mixed vocal/instrumental forms of opera and oratorio and the instrumental forms of the solo concerto and sonata as musical genres. Many musical terms and concepts from this era, such as toccata and concerto grosso are still in use in the 2010s. Dense, complex polyphonic music, in which multiple independent melody lines were performed was an important part of many Baroque choral and instrumental works; the term "baroque" comes from the Portuguese word barroco, meaning "misshapen pearl". Negative connotations of the term first occurred in 1734, in a criticism of an opera by Jean-Philippe Rameau, in a description by Charles de Brosses of the ornate and ornamented architecture of the Pamphili Palace in Rome.
Although the term continued to be applied to architecture and art criticism through the 19th century, it was not until the 20th century that the term "baroque" was adopted from Heinrich Wölfflin's art-history vocabulary to designate a historical period in music. The term "baroque" is used by music historians to describe a broad range of styles from a wide geographic region in Europe, composed over a period of 150 years. Although it was long thought that the word as a critical term was first applied to architecture, in fact it appears earlier in reference to music, in an anonymous, satirical review of the première in October 1733 of Rameau's Hippolyte et Aricie, printed in the Mercure de France in May 1734; the critic implied that the novelty in this opera was "du barocque", complaining that the music lacked coherent melody, was filled with unremitting dissonances changed key and meter, speedily ran through every compositional device. Jean-Jacques Rousseau, a musician and composer as well as philosopher, wrote in 1768 in the Encyclopédie: "Baroque music is that in which the harmony is confused, loaded with modulations and dissonances.
The singing is harsh and unnatural, the intonation difficult, the movement limited. It appears that term comes from the word'baroco' used by logicians." Rousseau was referring to the philosophical term baroco, in use since the 13th century to describe a type of elaborate and, for some, unnecessarily complicated academic argument. The systematic application by historians of the term "baroque" to music of this period is a recent development. In 1919, Curt Sachs became the first to apply the five characteristics of Heinrich Wölfflin's theory of the Baroque systematically to music. Critics were quick to question the attempt to transpose Wölfflin's categories to music, in the second quarter of the 20th century independent attempts were made by Manfred Bukofzer and by Suzanne Clercx-Lejeune to use autonomous, technical analysis rather than comparative abstractions, in order to avoid the adaptation of theories based on the plastic arts and literature to music. All of these efforts resulted in appreciable disagreement about time boundaries of the period concerning when it began.
In English the term acquired currency only in the 1940s, in the writings of Bukofzer and Paul Henry Lang. As late as 1960, there was still considerable dispute in academic circles in France and Britain, whether it was meaningful to lump together music as diverse as that of Jacopo Peri, Domenico Scarlatti, Johann Sebastian Bach under a single rubric; the term has become used and accepted for this broad range of music. It may be helpful to distinguish the Baroque from both the preceding and following periods of musical history; the Baroque perio
Morrow is a city in Clayton County, United States. The population was 6,445 at the 2010 census, up from 4,882 in 2000, it is the home of Clayton State University. The community was named after the original owner of the town site. Morrow was founded in 1846 with the advent of the railroad into the area, it was incorporated as a city in 1943. Morrow is located north of the center of Clayton County at 33°34′43″N 84°20′24″W, it is bordered to the northwest by Forest Park. Downtown Atlanta is 13 miles to the north. Interstate 75 passes through the southern part of the city, with access from Exit 233; the Southlake Mall is in the southwest part of the city near I-75. According to the United States Census Bureau, Morrow has a total area of 3.4 square miles, of which 0.012 square miles, or 0.31%, is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 4,882 people, 1,731 households, 1,166 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,656.9 people per square mile. There were 1,823 housing units at an average density of 618.7 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the city was 44.1% African American, 36.4% White, 0.3% Native American, 12.9% Asian, 4% from other races, 2.3% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6% of the population. There were 1,731 households out of which 31.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.4% were married couples living together, 17.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.6% were non-families. 22.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.82 and the average family size was 3.26. In the city, the population was spread out with 24.4% under the age of 18, 15.5% from 18 to 24, 29.5% from 25 to 44, 19.7% from 45 to 64, 10.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.9 males. The median income for a household in the city was $46,569, the median income for a family was $50,686.
Males had a median income of $31,210 versus $24,886 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,544. About 3.1% of families and 8.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.2% of those under age 18 and 8.6% of those age 65 or over. These are roads with more than four lanes. Interstate 75 passes through the southern part of the city, with access from Exit 233. In addition to a police precinct, three MARTA bus routes serve the city, including: Route 193 - Justice Center/SR 54/East Point Route 194 - Justice Center/Mt. Zion/SR 42-Morel Route 196 - Church/Upper Riverdale/Mt. ZionRoutes 193 and 194 connect the city to the East Point Station. Route 196 connects to the College Park Station. Clayton County Public Schools operates public schools. National Archives at Atlanta is located in Morrow. City of Morrow official website Morrow historical marker