Nativity of Mary
The Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary, the Nativity of Mary, or the Birth of the Virgin Mary, refers to a Christian feast day celebrating the birth of the Blessed Virgin Mary. The modern canon of scripture does not record Marys birth, the earliest known account of Marys birth is found in the Protoevangelium of James, an apocryphal text from the late second century, with her parents known as Saint Anne and Saint Joachim. In the case of saints, the Church commemorates their date of death, with Saint John the Baptist, the reason for this is found in the singular mission each had in salvation history, but traditionally because these alone were holy in their very birth. Devotion to the innocence of Mary under this Marian title is celebrated in many cultures across the globe. The Protoevangelium of James, which was put into its final written form in the early second century. He and his wife Anne were deeply grieved by their childlessness, pious accounts place the birthplace of the Virgin Mary in Tzippori, Israel where a 5th-century basilica is excavated at the site.
Some accounts speak of Nazareth and others say it was in a house near the Sheep Gate in Jerusalem and it is possible that a wealthy man such as Joachim had a home in both Judea and Galilee. The Greek Orthodox likewise celebrate the Nativity of the Theotokos on 8 September, the feast is celebrated by Syrian Christians on 8 September. For churches using the old Julian Calendar for liturgical purposes September 8 falls on September 21 of the Gregorian Calendar, the Coptic Orthodox and Ethiopian Orthodox Christians on 9 May. The feast is included in the Tridentine Calendar for 8 September, the earliest document commemorating this feast comes from a hymn written in the sixth century. The first liturgical commemoration is connected with the sixth century dedication of the Basilica Sanctae Mariae ubi nata est, now called the Church of St. Anne in Jerusalem. The original church built, in the century, was a Marian basilica erected on the spot known as the shepherds pool. In the seventh century, the feast was celebrated by the Byzantines as the feast of the Birth of the Blessed Virgin Mary, since the story of Marys Nativity is known only from apocryphal sources, the Latin Church was slower in adopting this festival.
At Rome the Feast began to be kept toward the end of the 7th century, the church of Angers in France claims that St. Maurilius instituted this feast at Angers in consequence of a revelation about 430. The winegrowers in France called this feast Our Lady of the Grape Harvest, the best grapes are brought to the local church to be blessed and some bunches are attached to the hands of the statue of Mary. A festive meal that includes the new grapes is part of this day, in Mangalore it is the feast of Marys Nativity, called the Monthi Fest, on this day every Mangaloreans eat pulses and vegetables. The priest bless a branch of grain which is added to food. Before the feast on 8 September there is 9 days of novena followed by throwing of flowers on baby Marys statue The scene was depicted in art
Minister of the Interior (France)
The Ministry of the Interior in France is one of the most important French government cabinet positions. The Minister of Interior take on the role of former Ministre des cultes and is consulted in the process of appointment of Catholic diocesan bishops. The Minister of Cults used to be a minister. While the ministry of the Interior supervises police forces, it does not supervise criminal enquiries, the Ministrys headquarters are located on the place Beauvau, facing the Élysée Palace. Place Beauvau is often used as a metonym for the ministry, the current Minister of the Interior is Matthias Fekl. List of Interior Ministers of France Official website
Place des Terreaux
The Place des Terreaux is a square located in the center of Lyon, France on the Presquîle between the Rhône and the Saône, at the foot of the hill of La Croix-Rousse in the 1st arrondissement of Lyon. The square belongs to the classified as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. However, Renaud de Forez and his successors continued the works undertaken by the bourgeois of Lyon, a two-metre-thick and ten-metre-high new wall was built between the Saône and Rhône. Approximately 500 metres long, this enclosure was pierced by two gates defended by drawbridges and protected by ten towers, a crenelated walk and five stone booths allowed soldiers to watch at the top. The main wall was separated by a 22-metre ditch from another two-metre wall located to the north, in case of siege, the ditch, which was called Terralia nova or Fossés de la Lanterne, could be filled with water. This one entered when needed in a succession of basins, called the Neyron channel, under normal circumstances, the crossbowmen, culverin men used ditches as a training location, first on the Saône side, from 1533 on the Rhône side.
In the 16th century, the walls crumbled, in 1538, the demolition of the enclosure was initiated. The ditch located on the Saône side was filled to build the Boucherie de la Lanterne, in 1555, the nuns of the convent Saint-Pierre were allowed to use the stones of the wall to repair the monastery. In 1578, the lands of the current Place des Terreaux were filled, and in 1617, between 1646 and 1651, Simon Maupin built on the eastern side of the square the Hôtel de ville de Lyon, rebuilt by Jules Hardouin-Mansart, after the fire of 1674. In the 17th century, the nuns of Saint-Pierre rebuilt their convent, on this square was beheaded the Henri Coiffier de Ruzé, Marquis of Cinq-Mars, who was a conspirator against Richelieu. During the French Revolution, the guillotine was installed and running at speed during the tenure of Marie Joseph Chalier. After the siege of Lyon,79 people were beheaded, in the second half of the 19th century, access to the site was expanded to accommodate the restructuring plan of the peninsula led by Claude-Marius Vaïsse.
In 1855, the passage of Terreaux was opened between the square and the Lanterne street, the prefect planned to drill a new street in the north axis of the Palais Saint-Pierre, but this project was never realized. At the center of the square, the municipal officials inaugurated on 22 September 1891 an allegorical fountain of the Saône, made by Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi. The sculpted group called Char triomphant de la Garonne represents the Garonne and its four tributaries jumping into the ocean, after the 1889 Exposition Universelle, the monument became too expensive for the city of Bordeaux and was bought in 1890 by the Mayor of Lyon, Antoine Gailleton. The square was redeveloped in 1994 by architect and urban planner Christian Drevet and artist Daniel Buren, to build the underground parking of the square, the fountain was originally located in front of city hall, moved to its current location in the axis of the palace Saint-Pierre. On 29 September 1995, the square was classified as a monument historique, during the cold winter of 2012, the fountain situated in Place des Terreaux froze.
List of streets and squares in Lyon History of the place
Lyon or Lyons is a city in east-central France, in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region, about 470 km from Paris and 320 km from Marseille. Inhabitants of the city are called Lyonnais, Lyon had a population of 506,615 in 2014 and is Frances third-largest city after Paris and Marseille. Lyon is the capital of the Metropolis of Lyon and the region of Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes, the metropolitan area of Lyon had a population of 2,237,676 in 2013, the second-largest in France after Paris. The city is known for its cuisine and gastronomy and historical and architectural landmarks and is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, Lyon was historically an important area for the production and weaving of silk. It played a significant role in the history of cinema, the city is known for its famous light festival, Fête des Lumières, which occurs every 8 December and lasts for four days, earning Lyon the title of Capital of Lights. Economically, Lyon is a centre for banking, as well as for the chemical, pharmaceutical. The city contains a significant software industry with a focus on video games.
Lyon hosts the headquarters of Interpol and International Agency for Research on Cancer. Lyon was ranked 19th globally and second in France for innovation in 2014 and it ranked second in France and 39th globally in Mercers 2015 liveability rankings. These refugees had been expelled from Vienne by the Allobroges and were now encamped at the confluence of the Saône and Rhône rivers, dio Cassius says this task was to keep the two men from joining Mark Antony and bringing their armies into the developing conflict. The Roman foundation was at Fourvière hill and was officially called Colonia Copia Felix Munatia, a name invoking prosperity, the city became increasingly referred to as Lugdunum. The earliest translation of this Gaulish place-name as Desired Mountain is offered by the 9th-century Endlicher Glossary, in contrast, some modern scholars have proposed a Gaulish hill-fort named Lugdunon, after the Celtic god Lugus, and dúnon. It became the capital of Gaul, partly due to its convenient location at the convergence of two rivers, and quickly became the main city of Gaul.
Two emperors were born in city, whose speech is preserved in the Lyon Tablet in which he justifies the nomination of Gallic senators. Today, the archbishop of Lyon is still referred to as Primat des Gaules, the Christians in Lyon were martyred for their beliefs under the reigns of various Roman emperors, most notably Marcus Aurelius and Septimus Severus. Local saints from this period include Blandina and Epipodius, in the second century AD, the great Christian bishop of Lyon was the Easterner, Irenaeus. Burgundian refugees fleeing the destruction of Worms by the Huns in 437 were re-settled by the commander of the west, Aëtius. This became the capital of the new Burgundian kingdom in 461, in 843, by the Treaty of Verdun, with the country beyond the Saône, went to Lothair I
The Catholic Church teaches that Mary was conceived by normal biological means in the womb of her mother, Saint Anne, but God acted upon her soul, keeping it immaculate. The Immaculate Conception is commonly confused with the Virgin Birth of Jesus, jesuss birth is covered by the Doctrine of Incarnation, while the Immaculate Conception deals with the conception of Mary, not that of her son. The defined dogma of the Immaculate Conception regards original sin only, being always free from original sin, the doctrine teaches that from her conception Mary received the sanctifying grace that would normally come with baptism after birth. The definition makes no declaration about the Churchs belief that the Blessed Virgin was sinless in the sense of freedom from actual or personal sin, the Church holds that Mary was sinless personally, free from all sin, original or personal. The doctrine of the conception is not to be confused with the virginal conception of her son Jesus. This misunderstanding of the immaculate conception is frequently met in the mass media.
Catholics believe that Mary was not the product of a virginal conception herself but was the daughter of a father and mother, traditionally known by the names of Saint Joachim. In 1677, the Holy See condemned the belief that Mary was virginally conceived, the Church celebrates the Feast of the Immaculate Conception on 8 December, exactly nine months before celebrating the Nativity of Mary. The feast of the Annunciation is celebrated on 25 March, nine months before Christmas Day, another misunderstanding is that, by her immaculate conception, Mary did not need a saviour. When defining the dogma in Ineffabilis Deus, Pope Pius IX explicitly affirmed that Mary was redeemed in a more sublime. He stated that Mary, rather than being cleansed after sin, was prevented from contracting Original Sin in view of the foreseen merits of Jesus Christ. In Luke 1,47, Mary proclaims, My spirit has rejoiced in God my Saviour and this is referred to as Marys pre-redemption by Christ. A feast of the Conception of the Most Holy and All Pure Mother of God was celebrated in Syria on 8 December perhaps as early as the 5th century, note that the title of achrantos refers to the holiness of Mary, not specifically to the holiness of her conception.
Marys complete sinlessness and concomitant exemption from any taint from the first moment of her existence was a familiar to Greek theologians of Byzantium. Beginning with St. St. Gregory Nazianzen designated Mary as prokathartheisa, gregorys doctrines surrounding Marys purification were likely related to the burgeoning commemoration of the Mother of God in and around Constantinople very close to the date of Christmas. Nazianzens title of Mary at the Annunciation as prepurified was subsequently adopted by all interested in his Mariology to justify the Byzantine equivalent of the Immaculate Conception. This is especially apparent in the Fathers St. Sophronios of Jerusalem and St. John Damascene, about the time of Damascene, the public celebration of the Conception of St. Ann was becoming popular. It is admitted that the doctrine as defined by Pius IX was not explicitly mooted before the 12th century and it is agreed that no direct or categorical and stringent proof of the dogma can be brought forward from Scripture
Joseph-Hugues Fabisch was a French sculptor. He was professor at the École des Beaux-Arts de Lyon, in 1840, he set himself up at Saint-Étienne, where he was professor at the towns university. He left the town for Lyon in 1845 where he became a professor at the École des Beaux-Arts de Lyon, becoming its director in 1874 and teaching artists including Léon-Alexandre Delhomme. In 1852 he produced the Virgin on top of the chapel of the Basilica of Notre-Dame de Fourvière in his studio on the quays of the Saône. When his studio was flooded, the unveiling was put back to 8 December. From 15 to 19 September 1863, he was in Lourdes to visit Bernadette Soubirous and he made a statue of the Virgin, commissioned by the Lacour sisters and under the control of Abbot Blanc, who above all wanted a statue faithful to the young womans description. It was intended for the grotto of Massabielle near Lourdes and dedicated on 4 April 1864 in front of 20,000 people. This was the artists masterwork, copied on all over the world, but caused a polemic on its adequacy to the peasant girls visions.
In 1868, Fabisch created another Madonna, this one with the Child,1852, Golden virgin consecrated on 8 December 1852 on top of the chapel of the Basilica of Notre-Dame de Fourvière in Lyon 5th arrondissement. 1852, apsidal altar of Saint Benedict, Basilica of Saint-Martin dAinay,1864, Virgin Mary, according to the description of Bernadette Soubirous, grotto Massabielle, Carrara marble,1. 83m high. 1866, Saint Catherine of Alexandria, place des Terreaux, corner of rue d’Algérie and rue Sainte Marie des Terreaux, Lyon 1st arrondissement. J. H. Fabisch designed the pediment, one of whose corners the statue occupies 1868, Virgin and Child, Basilica of the Immaculate Conception. Joseph-Hugues Fabisch in American public collections, on the French Sculpture Census website
Mary, mother of Jesus
Mary, known by various titles and honorifics, was a 1st-century Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth and the mother of Jesus, according to the New Testament and the Quran. The gospels of Matthew and Luke in the New Testament and the Quran describe Mary as a virgin, the miraculous birth took place when she was already betrothed to Joseph and was awaiting the concluding rite of marriage, the formal home-taking ceremony. She married Joseph and accompanied him to Bethlehem, where Jesus was born, the Gospel of Luke begins its account of Marys life with the Annunciation, when the angel Gabriel appeared to her and announced her divine selection to be the mother of Jesus. According to canonical gospel accounts, Mary was present at the crucifixion and is depicted as a member of the early Christian community in Jerusalem. According to the Catholic and Orthodox teaching, at the end of her life her body was assumed directly into Heaven. Mary has been venerated since Early Christianity, and is considered by millions to be the most meritorious saint of the religion and she is claimed to have miraculously appeared to believers many times over the centuries.
The Eastern and Oriental Orthodox, Roman Catholic and Lutheran churches believe that Mary, there is significant diversity in the Marian beliefs and devotional practices of major Christian traditions. The Roman Catholic Church holds distinctive Marian dogmas, namely her status as the Mother of God, her Immaculate Conception, her perpetual virginity, many Protestants minimize Marys role within Christianity, based on the argued brevity of biblical references. Mary has a position in Islam, where one of the longer chapters of the Quran is devoted to her. Marys name in the manuscripts of the New Testament was based on her original Aramaic name ܡܪܝܡ. The English name Mary comes from the Greek Μαρία, which is a form of Μαριάμ. Both Μαρία and Μαριάμ appear in the New Testament, in Christianity, Mary is commonly referred to as the Virgin Mary, in accordance with the belief that she conceived Jesus miraculously through the Holy Spirit without her husbands involvement. The three main titles for Mary used by the Orthodox are Theotokos, Aeiparthenos as confirmed in the Second Council of Constantinople in 553, Catholics use a wide variety of titles for Mary, and these titles have in turn given rise to many artistic depictions.
For example, the title Our Lady of Sorrows has inspired such masterpieces as Michelangelos Pietà, the title Theotokos was recognized at the Council of Ephesus in 431. However, this phrase in Greek, in the abbreviated form ΜΡ ΘΥ, is an indication commonly attached to her image in Byzantine icons. The Council stated that the Church Fathers did not hesitate to speak of the holy Virgin as the Mother of God, some Marian titles have a direct scriptural basis. For instance, the title Queen Mother has been given to Mary since she was the mother of Jesus, the scriptural basis for the term Queen can be seen in Luke 1,32 and the Isaiah 9,6. Queen Mother can be found in 1 Kings 2, 19-20 and Jeremiah 13, other titles have arisen from reported miracles, special appeals or occasions for calling on Mary