The Walt Disney Company
The Walt Disney Company known as Walt Disney or Disney, is an American diversified multinational mass media and entertainment conglomerate headquartered at the Walt Disney Studios in Burbank, California. It is the world's largest media conglomerate in terms of revenue, ahead of NBCUniversal and WarnerMedia. Disney was founded on October 16, 1923 by brothers Walt and Roy O. Disney as the Disney Brothers Cartoon Studio; the company established itself as a leader in the American animation industry before diversifying into live-action film production and theme parks. Since the 1980s, Disney has created and acquired corporate divisions in order to market more mature content than is associated with its flagship family-oriented brands; the company is known for its film studio division, Walt Disney Studios, which includes Walt Disney Pictures, Walt Disney Animation Studios, Marvel Studios, Lucasfilm, 20th Century Fox, Fox Searchlight Pictures, Blue Sky Studios. Disney's other main divisions are Disney Parks and Products, Disney Media Networks, Walt Disney Direct-to-Consumer and International.
Disney owns and operates the ABC broadcast network. The company has been a component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average since 1991. Cartoon character Mickey Mouse, created in 1928 by Walt Disney and Ub Iwerks, is one of the world's most recognizable characters, serves as the company's official mascot. In early 1923, Kansas City, animator Walt Disney created a short film entitled Alice's Wonderland, which featured child actress Virginia Davis interacting with animated characters. After the bankruptcy in 1923 of his previous firm, Laugh-O-Gram Studio, Disney moved to Hollywood to join his brother, Roy O. Disney. Film distributor Margaret J. Winkler of M. J. Winkler Productions contacted Disney with plans to distribute a whole series of Alice Comedies purchased for $1,500 per reel with Disney as a production partner. Walt and Roy Disney formed Disney Brothers Cartoon Studio that same year. More animated films followed after Alice. In January 1926, with the completion of the Disney studio on Hyperion Street, the Disney Brothers Studio's name was changed to the Walt Disney Studio.
After the demise of the Alice comedies, Disney developed an all-cartoon series starring his first original character, Oswald the Lucky Rabbit, distributed by Winkler Pictures through Universal Pictures. The distributor owned Oswald, so Disney only made a few hundred dollars. Disney completed 26 Oswald shorts before losing the contract in February 1928, due to a legal loophole, when Winkler's husband Charles Mintz took over their distribution company. After failing to take over the Disney Studio, Mintz hired away four of Disney's primary animators to start his own animation studio, Snappy Comedies. In 1928, to recover from the loss of Oswald the Lucky Rabbit, Disney came up with the idea of a mouse character named Mortimer while on a train headed to California, drawing up a few simple drawings; the mouse was renamed Mickey Mouse and starred in several Disney produced films. Ub Iwerks refined Disney's initial design of Mickey Mouse. Disney's first sound film Steamboat Willie, a cartoon starring Mickey, was released on November 18, 1928 through Pat Powers' distribution company.
It was the first Mickey Mouse sound cartoon released, but the third to be created, behind Plane Crazy and The Gallopin' Gaucho. Steamboat Willie was an immediate smash hit, its initial success was attributed not just to Mickey's appeal as a character, but to the fact that it was the first cartoon to feature synchronized sound. Disney used Pat Powers' Cinephone system, created by Powers using Lee de Forest's Phonofilm system. Steamboat Willie premiered at B. S. Moss's Colony Theater in New York City, now The Broadway Theatre. Disney's Plane Crazy and The Gallopin' Gaucho were retrofitted with synchronized sound tracks and re-released in 1929. Disney continued to produce cartoons with Mickey Mouse and other characters, began the Silly Symphony series with Columbia Pictures signing on as Symphonies distributor in August 1929. In September 1929, theater manager Harry Woodin requested permission to start a Mickey Mouse Club which Walt approved. In November, test comics strips were sent to King Features, who requested additional samples to show to the publisher, William Randolph Hearst.
On December 16, the Walt Disney Studios partnership was reorganized as a corporation with the name of Walt Disney Productions, Limited with a merchandising division, Walt Disney Enterprises, two subsidiaries, Disney Film Recording Company and Liled Realty and Investment Company for real estate holdings. Walt and his wife held Roy owned 40 % of WD Productions. On December 30, King Features signed its first newspaper, New York Mirror, to publish the Mickey Mouse comic strip with Walt's permission. In 1932, Disney signed an exclusive contract with Technicolor to produce cartoons in color, beginning with Flowers and Trees. Disney released cartoons through Powers' Celebrity Pictures, Columbia Pictures, United Artists; the popularity of the Mickey Mouse series allowed Disney to plan for his first feature-length animation. The feature film Walt
Setanta Sports was a sports television company based in Dublin, Ireland. The company was formed in 1990 to facilitate the broadcasting of Irish sporting events to international audiences; the company operated channels in the UK, Australia, the United States and Canada. Setanta Sports operated a number of channels which closed. In December 2015, Eir purchased Setanta Sports Ireland Ltd. On 5 July 2016 Setanta Sports was rebranded Eir Sport. Setanta operated Setanta Sports and Setanta Action until October 2013 when the channels were acquired by 21st Century Fox. In July 2014, Fox announced that from August 2014 the channels would be rebranded Fox Sports and Fox Sports 2; as of August 2014 both Setanta Sports Australia and Setanta Sports Plus were sold to Al Jazeera Media Network with approval sought from regulators in Australia. The channel became BeIN Sports Australia in November 2014. Setanta Sports operated a version of the channel in Canada as a joint venture with Canadian media company Rogers Communications.
However, its minority stake was acquired by Rogers in July 2011 and the channel was re-aligned as part of its Sportsnet networks, become Sportsnet World on 3 October 2011. The re-launch would come alongside an overall re-branding of the Sportsnet networks. Setanta operated services in the UK, following a period of administration its UK services ceased operating. Within the Great Britain, Setanta GB operated Setanta Sports 1 and 2, Setanta Golf, it operated Setanta Sports News under a joint venture with Virgin Media. Setanta GB operated Arsenal TV, Celtic TV, LFC TV and Rangers TV with their respective clubs. Reports on 7 June 2009 suggested that Setanta could be forced into administration that week, after failing to make payments due on TV rights; because of late payment and renegotiation over fees by Setanta to football clubs, several British football clubs were put into financial difficulties as money promised had been spent in annual budgets. On 4 June 2009, the Scottish Premier League announced they would be paying the sums that some of the clubs were owed to avoid causing them financial problems.
On 19 June 2009, Setanta Sports failed to pay the latest instalment of £30 million it owed the English Premier League. The Premier League had to sell the rights to the 46 live matches. A Premier League spokesman said, "It is with considerable regret that we announce that Setanta has been unable to meet their obligations; as such the existing licence agreement between us has been terminated with immediate effect."On 21 June 2009, BT Vision stopped selling Setanta Sports channels to customers. On 22 June 2009, it was reported by RTÉ News that the original Setanta Sports channel, Setanta Ireland, might be bought out by an existing consortium who hold interests in Setanta Sport Holdings Ltd. the Irish arm of Setanta Sports. Setanta Sports Ireland and Setanta Sports North America were the only brands which made a profit in 2008; the same day, Setanta lost all their SPL TV rights because they were unable to pay the £3m owed to the league. Following this, it was announced that ESPN had bought the rights to show the 46 Premier League games bought by Setanta for the 2009/10 season.
Setanta GB went into administration 22 June 2009, following failure to make payments to a number of sporting organisations. 430 jobs, 200 of which were in Ireland, were expected to be lost as a result of its going into administration. The administration was handled by Deloitte. At 18:00 that day, most of its channels ceased operations within Great Britain. According to the final report published by Setanta's administrator Deloitte, released in July 2010, the broadcaster had outstanding bank loans of UK£261m and unsecured debt of UK£288m. Deloitte said that unsecured lenders received just 2p for every pound that they have claimed back from the defunct operator. Arsenal TV continued until August 2009. Liverpool FC decided to continue broadcasting as normal. Just as when Sky Sports, in the 1990s, first obtained the exclusive rights to screen live coverage of the England national football team's away qualifying matches for the World Cup, so Setanta attracted similar criticism as a result of it having obtained the same contract.
Whereas Sky sold on a highlights package to a terrestrial broadcaster, Setanta indicated that the sums offered by terrestrial broadcasters, reported to be £100,000 to £200,000, were five to ten times lower than their perceived market value. Thus, no highlights package was agreed, Setanta themselves showed highlights of both England and Scotland qualifiers free-to-air after the live games had concluded; this was announced at 18:00 on the day the matches took place, received 220,000 viewers. Setanta accepted "a low, six-figure deal" with ITV to show delayed "extended highlights" a few days later. Setanta's GB subscriber numbers were lower than those of Sky Sports, the number of households watching the match live was estimated at around 1.5 million. Because of the availability of Setanta on both digital satellite and digital terrestrial television, the theoretical possible subscriber base surpassed that of Sky Sports but fans who were unwilling to subscribe could not see the match live. British Prime Minister at the time Gordon Brown indicated he felt it "unfortunate" more fans could not see the match live for free.
Setanta GB received significant criticism of its cancellation policy, with the issue in
A set-top box or set-top unit is an information appliance device that contains a TV-tuner input and displays output to a television set and an external source of signal, turning the source signal into content in a form that be displayed on the television screen or other display device. They are used in cable television, satellite television, over-the-air television systems, as well as other uses. According to the Los Angeles Times, the cost to a cable provider for a set-top box is between $150 for a basic box to $250 for a more sophisticated box in the United States. In 2016, the average pay-TV subscriber paid $231 per year to lease their set-top box from a cable service provider; the signal source might be an Ethernet cable, a satellite dish, a coaxial cable, a telephone line, broadband over power lines, or an ordinary VHF or UHF antenna. Content, in this context, could mean any or all of video, Internet web pages, interactive video games, or other possibilities. Satellite and microwave-based services require specific external receiver hardware, so the use of set-top boxes of various formats has never disappeared.
Set-top boxes can enhance source signal quality. Before the All-Channel Receiver Act of 1962 required US television receivers to be able to tune the entire VHF and UHF range, a set-top box known as a UHF converter would be installed at the receiver to shift a portion of the UHF-TV spectrum onto low-VHF channels for viewing; as some 1960s-era 12-channel TV sets remained in use for many years, Canada and Mexico were slower than the US to require UHF tuners to be factory-installed in new TVs, a market for these converters continued to exist for much of the 1970s. Cable television represented a possible alternative to deployment of UHF converters as broadcasts could be frequency-shifted to VHF channels at the cable head-end instead of the final viewing location. However, most cable systems could not accommodate the full 54-890 MHz VHF/UHF frequency range and the twelve channels of VHF space were exhausted on most systems. Adding any additional channels therefore needed to be done by inserting the extra signals into cable systems on nonstandard frequencies either below VHF channel 7 or directly above VHF channel 13.
These frequencies corresponded to non-television services over-the-air and were therefore not on standard TV receivers. Before cable-ready TV sets became common in the late 1980s, an electronic tuning device called a cable converter box was needed to receive the additional analog cable TV channels and transpose or convert the selected channel to analog radio frequency for viewing on a regular TV set on a single channel VHF channel 3 or 4; the box allowed an analog non-cable-ready television set to receive analog encrypted cable channels and was a prototype topology for date digital encryption devices. Newer televisions were converted to be analog cypher cable-ready, with the standard converter built-in for selling premium television. Several years and marketed, the advent of digital cable continued and increased the need for various forms of these devices. Block conversion of the entire affected frequency band onto UHF, while less common, was used by some models to provide full VCR compatibility and the ability to drive multiple TV sets, albeit with a somewhat nonstandard channel numbering scheme.
Newer television receivers reduced the need for external set-top boxes, although cable converter boxes continue to be used to descramble premium cable channels according to carrier-controlled access restrictions, to receive digital cable channels, along with using interactive services like video on demand, pay per view, home shopping through television. Set-top boxes were made to enable closed captioning on older sets in North America, before this became a mandated inclusion in new TV sets; some have been produced to mute the audio when profanity is detected in the captioning, where the offensive word is blocked. Some include a V-chip that allows only programs of some television content ratings. A function that limits children's time watching TV or playing video games may be built in, though some of these work on main electricity rather than the video signal; the transition to digital terrestrial television after the turn of the millennium left many existing television receivers unable to tune and display the new signal directly.
In the United States, where analog shutdown was completed in 2009 for full-service broadcasters, a federal subsidy was offered for coupon-eligible converter boxes with deliberately limited capability which would restore signals lost to digital transition. Professional set-top boxes are referred to as IRDs or integrated receiver/decoders in the professional broadcast audio/video industry, they are designed for rack mounting environments. IRDs are capable of outputting uncompressed serial digital interface signals, unlike consumer STBs which don't because of copyright reasons. Hybrid set-top boxes, such as those used for Smart TV programming, enable viewers to access multiple TV delivery methods. By integrating varying delivery streams, hybrids enable pay-TV operators more flexible application depl
High Efficiency Video Coding
High Efficiency Video Coding known as H.265 and MPEG-H Part 2, is a video compression standard, designed as a successor to the used AVC. In comparison to AVC, HEVC offers from 25% to 50% better data compression at the same level of video quality, or improved video quality at the same bit rate, it supports resolutions up to 8192×4320, including 8K UHD, unlike the 8-bit AVC, HEVC's higher fidelity Main10 profile has been incorporated into nearly all supporting hardware. HEVC is competing with the AV1 coding format for standardization by the video standard working group NetVC of the Internet Engineering Task Force. In most ways, HEVC is an extension of the concepts in H.264/MPEG-4 AVC. Both work by comparing different parts of a frame of video to find areas that are redundant, both within a single frame and between consecutive frames; these redundant areas are replaced with a short description instead of the original pixels. The primary changes for HEVC include the expansion of the pattern comparison and difference-coding areas from 16×16 pixel to sizes up to 64×64, improved variable-block-size segmentation, improved "intra" prediction within the same picture, improved motion vector prediction and motion region merging, improved motion compensation filtering, an additional filtering step called sample-adaptive offset filtering.
Effective use of these improvements requires much more signal processing capability for compressing the video, but has less impact on the amount of computation needed for decompression. HEVC was developed by the Joint Collaborative Team on Video Coding, a collaboration between the ISO/IEC MPEG and ITU-T VCEG; the ISO/IEC group refers to it as MPEG-H Part 2 and the ITU-T as H.265. The first version of the HEVC standard was ratified in January 2013 and published in June 2013; the second version, with multiview extensions, range extensions, scalability extensions, was completed and approved in 2014 and published in early 2015. Extensions for 3D video were completed in early 2015, extensions for screen content coding were completed in early 2016 and published in early 2017, covering video containing rendered graphics, text, or animation as well as camera-captured video scenes. In October 2017, the standard was recognized by a Primetime Emmy Engineering Award as having had a material effect on the technology of television.
HEVC contains technologies covered by patents owned by the organizations that participated in the JCT-VC. Implementing a device or software application that uses HEVC may require a license from HEVC patent holders; the ISO/IEC and ITU require companies that belong to their organizations to offer their patents on reasonable and non-discriminatory licensing terms. Patent licenses can be obtained directly from each patent holder, or through patent licensing bodies, such as MPEG LA, HEVC Advance, Velos Media; the combined licensing fees offered by all of the patent licensing bodies are higher than for AVC. The licensing fees are one of the main reasons HEVC adoption has been low on the web and is why some of the largest tech companies have joined the Alliance for Open Media, which aimed to finalize the royalty-free alternative video coding format AV1 by the end of 2017. An initial version of the AV1 specification was released on 28 March 2018. In 2004, the ITU-T Video Coding Experts Group began a major study of technology advances that could enable creation of a new video compression standard.
In October 2004, various techniques for potential enhancement of the H.264/MPEG-4 AVC standard were surveyed. In January 2005, at the next meeting of VCEG, VCEG began designating certain topics as "Key Technical Areas" for further investigation. A software codebase called; the KTA software was based on the Joint Model reference software, developed by the MPEG & VCEG Joint Video Team for H.264/MPEG-4 AVC. Additional proposed technologies were integrated into the KTA software and tested in experiment evaluations over the next four years. MPEG and VCEG established a Joint Collaborative Team on Video Coding to develop the HEVC standard. Two approaches for standardizing enhanced compression technology were considered: either creating a new standard or creating extensions of H.264/MPEG-4 AVC. The project had tentative names H.265 and H. NGVC, was a major part of the work of VCEG until its evolution into the HEVC joint project with MPEG in 2010; the preliminary requirements for NGVC were the capability to have a bit rate reduction of 50% at the same subjective image quality compared with the H.264/MPEG-4 AVC High profile and computational complexity ranging from 1/2 to 3 times that of the High profile.
NGVC would be able to provide 25% bit rate reduction along with 50% reduction in complexity at the same perceived video quality as the High profile, or to provide greater bit rate reduction with somewhat higher complexity. The ISO/IEC Moving Picture Experts Group started a similar project in 2007, tentatively named High-performance Video Coding. An agreement of getting a bit rate reduction of 50% had been decided as the goal of the project by July 2007. Early evaluations were performed with modifications of the KTA reference software encoder developed by VCEG. By July 2009, experimental results showed average bit reduction of around 20% compared with AVC High Profile. A formal joi
TransACT is the trading name of TransACT Capital Communications, an Australian telecommunications company based in Canberra which provides broadband internet access, fixed telephony, cable television services, mobile phone services in Canberra and a subset of these services in Queanbeyan, throughout South-east New South Wales and in Victoria. In November 2011, TransACT was acquired by iiNet Limited, which in 2015 itself became a subsidiary of TPG, it continues to trade as TransACT. The company was part-owned by Actew Corporation a 50% joint venture partner in ActewAGL. TransACT was launched in 1996 by a small team comprising Robin Eckermann, Joe Ceccato, Robert Clarke and Jane Taylor, working under the guidance of ACTEW Executive Neville Smith; the company adopted an Open Access Network business model, separating the wholesale and retail businesses. TransACT operates in collaboration with ten ISPs, comprising a mix of large national organisations and smaller local operations. One of the ISPs, owned by both TransACT and ActewAGL became a wholly owned subsidiary in March 2010.
The company has an extensive fibre network in the ACT. SDH, ATM and IP/MPLS Metro Ethernet technologies are used to deliver services via dedicated hubs or gateways that are built around the region. Services are delivered to various businesses, government departments and residential customers via a diverse range of access networks. At the end of 2007, the company acquired the regional Victoria telecommunications company Neighbourhood Cable, with its hybrid fibre coaxial cable networks and customers in three Victorian regional cities of Mildura and Geelong, rebranded it as TransACT in June 2011; the first broadband platform rolled out known as Phase 1 network was based on FTTC design with nodes being placed within 300 metres of premises. SDH backbone is used to transport voice and video whereas VDSL technology is used as the access network to get customers connected to TransACT's high-speed broadband and digital TV services. Coincidentally, TransACT became the first telco in Australia to implement this particular high-speed broadband technology much superior to ADSL, prominent throughout the country at that time.
TransACT remains as the only telco to support VDSL and the products are still sold with network reach-ability to over 55,000 homes in the ACT. The Phase 2 rollout involved TransACT placing its own DSLAM equipment within Telstra exchanges and utilising their own fibre-optic backhaul to their main data centre in Dickson, ACT. TransACT completed their ADSL 2/2+ rollout on 1 March 2007; the Phase 2 network is available to anyone outside Phase 1 with a Telstra phone line in Canberra and Queanbeyan, as long as they are within sufficient distance of their telephone exchange – as with any ADSL service. In 2009, TransACT commenced a greenfield rollout and upgrade of existing VDSL access network to VDSL2, the most advanced and fastest digital subscriber line broadband technology commercially available, commencing with a number of medium- to high-density developments in Canberra's more established suburbs; the upgrade increases broadband speeds by up to four times, compared to the fastest existing ADSL2+ networks used by most carriers.
As with the existing VDSL network, VDSL2 products include triple-play services. By mid-2009, multiples sites including The Avenue on Northbourne Avenue, Skyplaza in Woden and The Gateway at Kingston Foreshore were upgraded to VDSL2 with more projects underway; the telco is the first in the country to build a dedicated G.984 based FTTH or FTTP gateway and the first provider in Australia to offer broadband services at up to 100 Mbit/s download and 20 Mbit/s upload speeds which were made available on 4 September 2009. The gateway build in the suburb of Forde close to the Gungahlin township trunks back to TransACT's core network in Dickson via a high-bandwidth MPLS backbone. With such infrastructure in place, TransACT is able to offer triple-play services to customers via fibre without the need for any copper in the path, thus enabling higher bit-rates. Similar PON technology and network hierarchy has been chosen by NBNco Limited, the company established in 2009 to design and operate the National Broadband Network As of end of 2009, five new greenfield suburbs, namely Forde, Crace, Bonner, some parts of Kingston and the Flemington road corridor, were all wired up for this next-generation technology with many new suburbs expected to come on board in the ACT region.
As of mid-2010, the total number of premises passed through had reached 11,000. TransACT offers a range of wholesale services to business and ISP customers, including Colocation, IP transit, data centre services, VPN, managed services, point-to-point and point-to-multipoint services including VPWS and VPLS services of up to 1 Gbit/s for customers anywhere on their network. In July 2010, they launched the'eHub', Australia's first commercial IPTV product bundled with a set-top box capable of handling high-definition video with an onboard personal video recorder. TransACT is the naming rights sponsor of the TransACT Canberra Capitals, a Canberra team competing in the Women's National Basketball League from October to February each year. TransACT first sponsored the Capitals in 2000, when the new company was looking for a community partner. In November 2011, iiNet confirmed plans to acquire TransACT for $60m. At the time TransACT had about 40,000 customers throughout the ACT, Queanbeyan and regional Victoria, across the residential and government sectors, had "total recurring annual revenue" of about $80 million and earnin
Presto was an Australian media streaming company which offered subscriptions to unlimited viewing of selected movies, from 2015, TV shows. The service owned wholly by Foxtel, launched on 13 March 2014 featuring films exclusively. There were three separate subscription options for Presto, named Presto Movies, Presto TV, the bundled option Presto Entertainment, it competed against Australian streaming company Quickflix, the American-based Netflix and the Fairfax Media and Nine Entertainment Co. joint venture Stan. In October 2016, it was announced that Presto would cease operations on 31 January 2017; the service launched contract-free on 13 March 2014 at AU$19.99, but was lowered to AU$9.99 in August 2014. Films tend to be recent releases, come from Foxtel's suite of Foxtel Movies channels, who have relationships with studios including MGM, NBCUniversal, Paramount Pictures, Roadshow Films, Sony Pictures Entertainment, Twentieth Century Fox, The Walt Disney Company, Warner Bros Entertainment, Entertainment One, Icon and Transmission Films.
On 8 December 2014, Foxtel and Seven West Media announced a spin-off of Presto Movies to launch before March 2015, to be named Presto Entertainment, which will feature television programs, with content coming from both Foxtel channels and the Seven Network. The existing Presto Movies service will continue to be available, but each will require a separate subscription, it became available on 15 January 2015, was named Presto TV, with Presto Entertainment referring to the bundled offer for both movies and TV access at $14.99Australian content made available from Foxtel will include Wentworth, Love My Way and Tangle. Local Seven Network content includes Packed to the Rafters, All Saints, City Homicide and Away, Winners & Losers and Always Greener. Foreign content will include Lewis, A Touch of Frost and Rosemary and Thyme. Aquarius will join Presto. Presto had exclusive access to HBO programming including Entourage, The Sopranos and Boardwalk Empire, with the notable exception of Game of Thrones.
A non-exclusive deal was reached with Showtime, which includes programs such as Ray Donovan, Californication, however these programs will feature on rival service Stan. Since May 2015, Presto has started offering Australian premiere content, including Mr. Robot, The Firm and Rogue. In October 2016 it was announced by the company that Seven West Media's 50% stake in Presto will be bought out by Foxtel and Presto will cease operations on 31 January 2017. All Presto users with a subscription will automatically be able to use Foxtel's streaming service, Foxtel Now. Presto Entertainment costed $14.99 per month, which analysts noted was more expensive than rivals Netflix and Stan, which don't differentiate between film and television programming on their service. 5 months after launch, it was suggested Presto Movies was struggling, with only "a few thousand subscribers". In May 2015, Roy Morgan Research found that Netflix had 1.039 million Australian users, compared to 97,000 for Presto and 91,000 for Stan.
In October 2015, Nine Entertainment said that Stan had 150,000-200,000 paying subscribers, which they said was ahead of Presto's estimated 100,000 customers. It was reported that Presto had 130,000 paying subscribers as of September 2016, the month before the company announced it would cease operations the following January. In May 2016, Presto had a public campaign in Melbourne involving a graffiti artist to promote the addition of Empire to the service. Internet television in Australia Subscription television in Australia Presto
Viacom Media Networks
Viacom Media Networks known as MTV Networks, is an American mass media division of Viacom that oversees the operations of many of its television channels and Internet brands. Its sister international division is Viacom International Media Networks; the company was founded in 1984 after Warner Communications and American Express decided to divest the basic cable assets of Warner-Amex Satellite Entertainment, renaming it as MTV Networks, Inc. Warner-Amex had created and owned Nickelodeon, MTV, VH1 and The Movie Channel. Viacom acquired 66% of the company in 1985 and acquired the remaining 34% interest in 1986; the company was renamed Viacom Media Networks in 2011. In the fall of 2012, media analysts began to report that ratings amongst some of MTV Networks' leading brands in the U. S. including MTV, Comedy Central and Nickelodeon, were experiencing falls in viewership unlike other US broadcasters. Cable channels CMT and TV Land were moved in February 2017 from Kids and Family Group to the Global Entertainment Group under Kevin Kay joining with Spike TV.
In October 2018, Kevin Kay was announced to be leaving his position as head of the entertainment group as a reduction of its cable channel groups from five to four. CMT was transferred from the entertainment group to the music group under president Chris McCarthy with his exit. Executive Kent Alterman would take charge of Paramount Network and TV Land to go with his current charge of Comedy Central plus Bellator MMA. Comedy Central7 Paramount Network13 TV Land BET BET Gospel BET Her BET Hip-Hop BET International BET Jams BET Soul MTV MTV2 MTV Classic MTV Live MTVU MTV Tres Logo TV4 CMT2CMT Music3 VH1 Nickelodeon1 9Nick Jr.5 NickMusic10 Nicktoons8 TeenNick6 Nick at Nite NickRewind 11 Nick Gas NickMom VH1 Uno NickSports 1Channel created by Warner-Amex Satellite Entertainment prior to 1984.2Channel owned by CBS, became part of MTV Networks when CBS merged with Viacom.3Created as VH1 Country prior to Viacom/CBS merger.4Channel was known as VH1 MegaHits before being discontinued in July 2005 to facilitate Logo launch.5Channel was known as Noggin before being rebranded as Nick Jr. in 2009.
Co-owned with Sesame Workshop from 1999 to 2002.6Channel was known as The N before being rebranded as TeenNick in 2009.7Channel started as Ha!, merged with HBO's The Comedy Channel the following year, became owned by Viacom in 2003.8Channel was known as Nicktoons TV until 2003 when it was rebranded as Nicktoons, rebranded again as Nicktoons Network in 2005 and rebranded yet again as Nicktoons once more in 2009.9Channel was known Pinwheel until 1979 when it was rebranded as Nickelodeon.10Channel was known MTV Hits until 2016 when it was rebranded as NickMusic.11Channel was known as The 90's Are All That until 2015, The Splat until 2017 and NickSplat until 2019.12Formerly on NickToons until February 11, 2018.13Originally TNN from 1983 to 2003 and was known as Spike until January 2018. The company owns internet properties, such as MTV News and AwesomenessTV; the company ran Virtual MTV, in the late 2000s. It owned Neopets, Atom Entertainment, RateMyProfessors.com, other web properties before shutting them down or selling them to other companies in the 2000s and 2010s.
In 2006, Viacom acquired Harmonix, a video game studio oriented towards music video games and the original developer of the Guitar Hero franchise, for $175 million. The two subsequently collaborated on the creation of Rock Band; that year, Viacom acquired the gaming-oriented communications platform Xfire. In 2010, Harmonix was divested to an investment firm to become an independent studio, Xfire was sold. In 2011, Viacom established a new in-house studio known as 345 Games, dedicated to developing games based on Comedy Central and MTV properties. Viacom International Media Networks is a division of Viacom International, its headquarters are in New York, London and Buenos Aires. It consists of MTV, VH1, Nickelodeon, TMF, VIVA, Comedy Central, Game One, Nitrome Limited, Addicting Games, Atom Films and Xfire; the Viacom International Media Networks network consists of: Viacom International Media Networks Europe Viacom International Media Networks Northern Europe Viacom International Media Networks Southern Europe, Middle East and Africa Viacom International Media Networks Asia Viacom 18 Viacom International Media Networks The Americas List of MTV channels Viacom International Media Networks Europe Viacom International Media Networks Latin America Viacom International Media Networks Africa MTV Networks Asia Pacific Viacom brands webpage Viacom Media Networks Affiliate B2B website