Broth is a savory liquid made of water in which bones, fish, or vegetables have been simmered. It can be eaten alone, but it is most used to prepare other dishes, such as soups and sauces. Commercially prepared liquid broths are available for chicken broth, beef broth, fish broth, vegetable broth. In North America, dehydrated meat stock in the form of tablets is called a bouillon cube. Industrially produced bouillon cubes were commercialized under the brand name Maggi in 1908, by Oxo in 1910. Using commercially prepared broths saves home and professional cooks time in the kitchen. By 2013, broth labeled as "bone broth" became popularized as a health food trend or fad in certain parts of the United States. Many cooks and food writers use the terms stock interchangeably. In 1974, James Beard wrote emphatically that stock and bouillon "are all the same thing". While many draw a distinction between stock and broth, the details of the distinction differ. One possibility is that stocks are made from animal bones, as opposed to meat, therefore contain more gelatin, giving them a thicker texture.
Another distinction, sometimes made is that stock is cooked longer than broth and therefore has a more intense flavor. A third possible distinction is that stock is left unseasoned for use in other recipes, while broth is salted and otherwise seasoned and can be eaten alone. In Britain, "broth" can refer to a soup which includes solid pieces of meat, fish, or vegetables, whereas "stock" would refer to the purely liquid base. Traditionally, according to this definition, broth contained some form of fish. Bouillon is the French word for "broth", is used as a synonym for it. In the late 18th century, Benjamin Thompson, an American-born physicist in service to the Elector of Bavaria and mass-produced a nutritious, solidified stock of bones, inexpensive meat by-products and other ingredients, using it to feed the Elector's army, his invention was the precursor of the bouillon cube. Broth has been made for many years using the animal bones which, are boiled in a cooking pot for long periods to extract the flavor and nutrients.
The bones may not have meat still on them. Egg whites may be added during simmering; the egg whites will coagulate, trapping sediment and turbidity into an strained mass. Not allowing the original preparation to boil will increase the clarity. Roasted bones will add a rich flavor to the broth but a dark color. A clarified broth eaten as a soup is called a consommé. In East Asia, a form of kelp called kombu is used as the basis for broths. In the Maldives the tuna broth known as garudiya is a basic food item, but it is not eaten as a soup in the general sense of the term. By 2013, "bone broth" had become a popular health food trend, due to the resurgence in popularity of dietary fat over sugar, interest in "functional foods" to which "culinary medicinals" such as turmeric and ginger could be added. Bone broth bars, bone broth home delivery services, bone broth carts and freezer packs grew in popularity in the United States; the fad was heightened by the 2014 book Nourishing Broth, in which authors Sally Fallon Morell and Kaayla T. Daniel state that the broth's nutrient density has a variety of health effects: boosting the immune system.
However, there is no scientific evidence to support many of the claims made for bone broth. For example, while bone broths do contain collagen, there is no evidence that consuming bone broths improves joint pain or improve skin, because dietary collagen is broken down into amino acids, which become building blocks for body tissues, is not transported directly to joints or skin in the form in which it is ingested. In addition, the fact that the broth is derived from bone does not mean that therefore it will build bone or prevent osteoporosis, as the bones release little calcium into the broth when prepared. There is little evidence that the gelatin. A few small studies have found some possible benefit for chicken broth, such as the clearing of nasal passages. Chicken soup may reduce inflammation. Canja de galinha Bouillon cube Dashi Ramen Rosół Scotch broth Bouillon, a Haitian soup Court-bouillon
Cream is a dairy product composed of the higher-butterfat layer skimmed from the top of milk before homogenization. In un-homogenized milk, the fat, less dense rises to the top. In the industrial production of cream, this process is accelerated by using centrifuges called "separators". In many countries, it is sold in several grades depending on the total butterfat content, it can be dried to a powder for shipment to distant markets, contains high levels of saturated fat. Cream skimmed from milk may be called "sweet cream" to distinguish it from cream skimmed from whey, a by-product of cheese-making. Whey cream has a lower fat content and tastes more salty, tangy and "cheesy". In many countries, cream is sold fermented: sour cream, crème fraîche, so on. Both forms have many culinary uses in sweet, bitter and tangy dishes. Cream produced by cattle grazing on natural pasture contains some natural carotenoid pigments derived from the plants they eat; this is the origin of butter's yellow color. Cream from goat's milk, or from cows fed indoors on grain or grain-based pellets, is white.
Cream is used as an ingredient in many foods, including ice cream, many sauces, stews and some custard bases, is used for cakes. Whipped cream is served as a topping on ice cream sundaes, lassi, sweet pies, blueberries or peaches. Irish cream is an alcoholic liqueur which blends cream with whiskey, honey, wine, or coffee. Cream is used in Indian curries such as masala dishes. Cream is added to coffee in the US and Canada. Both single and double cream can be used in cooking. Double cream or full-fat crème fraîche are used when cream is added to a hot sauce, to prevent any problem with it separating or "splitting". Double cream can be thinned with milk to make an approximation of single cream; the French word crème denotes not only dairy cream, but other thick liquids such as sweet and savory custards, which are made with milk, not cream. Different grades of cream are distinguished by their fat content, whether they have been heat-treated, so on. In many jurisdictions, there are regulations for each type.
The Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code – Standard 2.5.2 – Defines cream as a milk product comparatively rich in fat, in the form of an emulsion of fat-in-skim milk, which can be obtained by separation from milk. Cream must contain no less than 350 g/kg milk fat. Manufacturers labels may distinguish between different fat contents, a general guideline is as follows: Canadian cream definitions are similar to those used in the United States, except for "light cream", low-fat cream with 5% or 6% butterfat. Specific product characteristics are uniform throughout Canada, but names vary by both geographic and linguistic area and by manufacturer: "coffee cream" may be 10% or 18% and "half-and-half" may be 3%, 5%, 6% or 10%, all depending on location and brand. Cream in Canada is defined to be the liquid obtained from milk after separating the various components to increase the milk fat content. Canadian Food and Drug Regulations allow stabilizers and acidity regulators. For heat-treated whipping cream, regulations disallow more than 0.25% skim milk powder, 0.1% glucose solids, 0.005% calcium sulphate, 0.2% microcrystalline cellulose, 0.02% xanthan gum.
The content of milk fat present in canned cream must be displayed as a percentage followed by "milk fat", "B. F", or "M. F". Fat content may be displayed on canned cream in Canada. In France, the use of the term "cream" for food products is defined by the decree 80-313 of April 23, 1980, it specifies the minimum rate of milk fat as well as the rules for pasteurisation or UHT sterilisation. The mention "crème fraîche" can only be used for pasteurised creams conditioned on production site within 24h after pasteurisation. If food additives complying with French and European laws are allowed none will be found in plain "crèmes" and "crèmes fraîches" apart from lactic ferments. Fat is displayed "XX% M. G." for "matière grasse" on packagings. In Japan, cream sold in supermarkets is between 35% and 48% butterfat. Russia, as well as other EAC countries separates cream into two classes: normal and heavy, but the industry has pretty much standardized around the following types: In Sweden, cream is sold as: Matlagningsgrädde, 10–15 % Kaffegrädde, 10-12 %, earlier 12 % Vispgrädde, 36–40 %, the 36 % variant has additives.
Mellangrädde is, nowadays, a less common variant. Gräddfil and Creme Fraiche are two common sour cream products. In Switzerland, the types of cream are defined as follows: Sour cream and crème fraîche are defined as cream soured by bacterial cultures. Thick cream is defined as cream thickened using thickening agents. In the United Kingdom, the types of cream are defined as followed: In the United States, cream is sold as: Most cream products sold in the United States at retail contain the minimum permissible fat content for their product type, e.g. "Half and half" always contains only 10.5% butterfat. Not all grades are defined by all jurisdiction
Fast food is a type of mass-produced food designed for commercial resale and with a strong priority placed on "speed of service" versus other relevant factors involved in culinary science. Fast food was created as a commercial strategy to accommodate the larger numbers of busy commuters and wage workers who did not have the time to sit down at a public house or diner and wait for their meal. By making speed of service the priority, this ensured that customers with limited time were not inconvenienced by waiting for their food to be cooked on-the-spot. For those with no time to spare, fast food became a multibillion-dollar industry; the fastest form of "fast food" consists of pre-cooked meals kept in readiness for a customer's arrival, with waiting time reduced to mere seconds. Other fast food outlets the hamburger outlets use mass-produced pre-prepared ingredients but take great pains to point out to the customer that the "meat and potatoes" are always cooked fresh and assembled "to order".
Although a vast variety of food can be "cooked fast", "fast food" is a commercial term limited to food sold in a restaurant or store with frozen, preheated or precooked ingredients, served to the customer in a packaged form for take-out/take-away. Fast food restaurants are traditionally distinguished by their ability to serve food via a drive-through. Outlets may be kiosks, which may provide no shelter or seating, or fast food restaurants. Franchise operations that are part of restaurant chains have standardized foodstuffs shipped to each restaurant from central locations. Fast food began with chip shops in Britain in the 1860s. Drive-through restaurants were first popularized in the 1950s in the United States; the term "fast food" was recognized in a dictionary by Merriam–Webster in 1951. Eating fast food has been linked to, among other things, colorectal cancer, high cholesterol, depression. Many fast foods tend to be high in saturated fat, sugar and calories; the traditional family dinner is being replaced by the consumption of takeaway fast food.
As a result, the time invested on food preparation is getting lower, with an average couple in the United States spending 47 minutes and 19 seconds per day on food preparation in 2013. The concept of ready-cooked food for sale is connected with urban developments. Homes in emerging cities lacked adequate space or proper food preparation accouterments. Additionally, procuring cooking fuel could cost as much as purchased produce. Frying foods in vats of searing oil proved as dangerous as it was expensive, homeowners feared that a rogue cooking fire "might conflagrate an entire neighborhood". Thus, urbanites were encouraged to purchase pre-prepared meats or starches, such as bread or noodles, whenever possible. In Ancient Rome, cities had street stands – a large counter with a receptacle in the middle from which food or drink would have been served, it was during post-WWII American economic boom that Americans began to spend more and buy more as the economy boomed and a culture of consumerism bloomed.
As a result of this new desire to have it all, coupled with the strides made by women while the men were away, both members of the household began to work outside the home. Eating out, considered a luxury, became a common occurrence, a necessity. Workers, working families, needed quick service and inexpensive food for both lunch and dinner; this need is what drove the phenomenal success of the early fast food giants, which catered to the family on the go. Fast food became an easy option for a busy family today. In the cities of Roman antiquity, much of the urban population living in insulae, multi-story apartment blocks, depended on food vendors for much of their meal. In the mornings, bread soaked in wine was eaten as a quick snack and cooked vegetables and stews in popina, a simple type of eating establishment. In Asia, 12th century Chinese scarfed down fried dough and stuffed buns, all of which still exist as contemporary snack food, their Baghdadi contemporaries supplemented home-cooked meals with processed legumes, purchased starches, ready-to-eat meats.
During the Middle Ages, large towns and major urban areas such as London and Paris supported numerous vendors that sold dishes such as pies, flans, wafers and cooked meats. As in Roman cities during antiquity, many of these establishments catered to those who did not have means to cook their own food single households. Unlike richer town dwellers, many could not afford housing with kitchen facilities and thus relied on fast food. Travelers such as pilgrims en route to a holy site, were among the customers. In areas with access to coastal or tidal waters,'fast food' included local shellfish or seafood, such as oysters or, as in London, eels; this seafood was cooked directly on the quay or close by. The development of trawler fishing in the mid-nineteenth century led to the development of a British favourite and chips, the first shop in 1860. A blue plaque at Oldham's Tommyfield Market marks the origin of the
Fettuccine is a type of pasta popular in Roman and Tuscan cuisine. It is a flat, thick pasta traditionally made of egg and flour, wider than, but similar to, the tagliatelle typical of Bologna. Spinach fettuccine is made from spinach and eggs. Fettucine is classically eaten with sugo d'umido or ragù di pollo. Dishes made with fettuccine include fettuccine Alfredo. Fettuccine is traditionally made fresh, but dried fettuccine can be bought in stores. Cannelloni Boni, Ada. La Cucina Romana. Roma: Newton Compton Editori. Carnacina, Luigi. Roma in Cucina. Milano: Giunti Martello
Olive Garden is an American casual dining restaurant chain specializing in Italian-American cuisine. It is a subsidiary of Darden Restaurants, Inc., headquartered in Orange County, Florida. As of May 28, 2018, Olive Garden operates 892 locations globally and accounts for $3.8 billion of the $6.9 billion revenue of parent Darden. Olive Garden started as a unit of General Mills Inc; the first Olive Garden was opened on December 1982, in Orlando. By 1989, there were 145 Olive Garden restaurants, making it the fastest-growing units in the General Mills restaurant division. Olive Garden restaurants were uniformly popular, the chain's per-store sales soon matched former sister company Red Lobster; the company became the largest chain of Italian-themed full-service restaurants in the United States. General Mills spun off its restaurant holdings as Darden Restaurants, a stand-alone company, in 1995. Olive Garden is Darden's most value-oriented chain with an average 2009 check per person of $15.00 versus over $90 at its sibling Capital Grille.
Brad Blum, a former president of Olive Garden, said that sales in existing restaurants decreased, with a 12% decline occurring at one point though the company was establishing new restaurants. Sandra Pedicini of the Orlando Sentinel said that "Darden reinvented the Olive Garden in the 1990s, from a floundering chain into an industry star."As part of a February 2011, Darden analyst conference, the parent group announced it intended to add more than 200 Olive Garden locations in the following few years. The announcement came after a previous announcement that the company would be expanding into potential new international markets for the chain, including the Middle East and Asia, due to the maturity of the North American market; the company announced it would begin licensing franchising partnerships, a new direction for the chain and its parent which had traditionally relied on expansion via company-owned locations exclusively. Parent company Darden announced it was going to begin co-locating Olive Garden and sibling chain Red Lobster locations.
The new format stores are designed for smaller market locations and will have separate entrances and dining areas but operate a single kitchen and support areas. The dining areas of the new format will be half the standard area found in more traditional Darden chains, but the actual building will be larger than stand-alone operations of the chain. Menus will remain separate, with customers only able to order from the location they are seated in. In 2014, Darden Restaurants announced intentions to sell Red Lobster, therefore closing two Olive Garden and Red Lobster co-locations in Georgia and South Carolina, converting the remaining four co-locations into stand-alone Olive Garden restaurants. In 2010, Olive Garden generated $3.3 billion in sales. Its closest competitor, Carrabba's Italian Grill, had generated $650.5 million in sales during the same year. By 2012, sales had decreased at Olive Garden. At the final quarter of 2011, sales at established Olive Garden locations had decreased by 2.5%.
Chris Muller, the dean of the hospitality school of Boston University and a former restaurant professor at the University of Florida, said "What does Olive Garden stand for now? I don't know what it stands for." The Darden president and chief operating officer, said that Olive Garden at that point was "a beloved, but somewhat expected brand." The company unveiled. In 2011, Olive Garden implemented a mandatory tip-out program which enabled them to cut more employees' hourly wage to $2.13 an hour. In October 2012, Olive Garden became one of the first national restaurant chains to test converting most of its staff to part-time, aiming to limit the cost of paying for health care benefits for full-time employees. On July 9, 2014, Olive Garden launched a new restaurant design; this included the addition of smaller lunch portions. Olive Garden's original slogan was "Good Times, Great Salad, Olive Garden"; this was used. When unlimited soup and breadsticks were added to the menu, the slogan was changed to "When you're here, you're family".
The new company slogan started in early 2013 is "We're all family here". In the fall of 2013, Olive Garden started a promotion for the "Never Ending Pasta Bowl", where customers can eat all the pasta they want starting at $9.99. During the event, the restaurant served over 13 million bowls of pasta. In 2014, the restaurant continued the promotion but added the "Never Ending Pasta Pass", where customers can eat all the pasta they wanted during a seven-week period for $99; this promotion was limited to the first 1000 people to purchase the pass online. The Pasta Pass promotion has been offered every year since; as of March 22, 2013, the company operates 891 restaurants globally. There are six locations in Canada, which are Manitoba. In the 1990s, there had been at various times between 10 and 15 locations in Ontario, but they were all closed in the early 2000s. Newer restaurants are styled after a farmhouse in the town of Castellina in Chianti, Tuscany, on the grounds of the Rocca delle Macie winery.
The farmhouse is home to the Riserva di Fizzano restaurant adjoining the company's Culinary Institute of Tuscany, founded in 1999. In late 2012, two restaurants were opened in Mexico City: Interlomas and Reforma Ave. Currently, there are four restaurants in Mexico City. In May 2018, Olive Garden opened two new restaurants in Gran Plaza, Mexico an
The term shrimp is used to refer to some decapod crustaceans, although the exact animals covered can vary. Used broadly, shrimp may cover any of the groups with elongated bodies and a swimming mode of locomotion – most Caridea and Dendrobranchiata. In some fields, the term is used more narrowly and may be restricted to Caridea, to smaller species of either group or to only the marine species. Under the broader definition, shrimp may be synonymous with prawn, covering stalk-eyed swimming crustaceans with long narrow muscular tails, long whiskers, slender legs. Any small crustacean which resembles a shrimp tends to be called one, they swim forward by paddling with swimmerets on the underside of their abdomens, although their escape response is repeated flicks with the tail driving them backwards quickly. Crabs and lobsters have strong walking legs, whereas shrimp have thin, fragile legs which they use for perching. Shrimp are abundant. There are thousands of species adapted to a wide range of habitats.
They can be found feeding near the seafloor on most coasts and estuaries, as well as in rivers and lakes. To escape predators, some species flip off the dive into the sediment, they live from one to seven years. Shrimp are solitary, though they can form large schools during the spawning season, they play important roles in the food chain and are an important food source for larger animals ranging from fish to whales. The muscular tails of many shrimp are edible to humans, they are caught and farmed for human consumption. Commercial shrimp species support an industry worth 50 billion dollars a year, in 2010 the total commercial production of shrimp was nearly 7 million tonnes. Shrimp farming became more prevalent during the 1980s in China, by 2007 the harvest from shrimp farms exceeded the capture of wild shrimp. There are significant issues with excessive bycatch when shrimp are captured in the wild, with pollution damage done to estuaries when they are used to support shrimp farming. Many shrimp species are small as the term shrimp suggests, about 2 cm long, but some shrimp exceed 25 cm.
Larger shrimp are more to be targeted commercially and are referred to as prawns in Britain. Shrimp are swimming crustaceans with long antennae. Unlike crabs and lobsters, shrimp have well developed slender walking legs, it was the distinction between walking and swimming that formed the primary taxonomic division into the former suborders Natantia and Reptantia. Members of the Natantia were adapted for swimming while the Reptantia were adapted for crawling or walking; some other groups have common names that include the word "shrimp". The following description refers to the external anatomy of the common European shrimp, Crangon crangon, as a typical example of a decapod shrimp; the body of the shrimp is divided into two main parts: the head and thorax which are fused together to form the cephalothorax, a long narrow abdomen. The shell which protects the cephalothorax is harder and thicker than the shell elsewhere on the shrimp and is called the carapace; the carapace surrounds the gills, through which water is pumped by the action of the mouthparts.
The rostrum, eyes and legs issue from the carapace. The rostrum, from the Latin rōstrum meaning beak, looks like a beak or pointed nose at the front of the shrimp's head, it can be used for attack or defense. It may stabilize the shrimp when it swims backward. Two bulbous eyes on stalks sit either side of the rostrum; these are compound eyes which have panoramic vision and are good at detecting movement. Two pairs of whiskers issue from the head. One of these pairs is long and can be twice the length of the shrimp, while the other pair is quite short; the antennae have sensors on them which allow the shrimp to feel where they touch, allow them to "smell" or "taste" things by sampling the chemicals in the water. The long antennae help the shrimp orient itself with regard to its immediate surroundings, while the short antennae help assess the suitability of prey. Eight pairs of appendages issue from the cephalothorax; the first three pairs, the maxillipeds, Latin for "jaw feet", are used as mouthparts.
In Crangon crangon, the first pair, the maxillula, pumps water into the gill cavity. After the maxilliped come five more pairs of appendages, the pereiopods; these form the ten decapod legs. In Crangon crangon, the first two pairs of pereiopods have claws or chela; the chela can bring them to the mouth. They can be used for fighting and grooming; the remaining six legs are long and slender, are used for walking or perching. The muscular abdomen has a thinner shell than the carapace; each segment has a separate overlapping shell. The first five segments each have a pair of appendages on the underside, which are shaped like paddles and are used for swimming forward; the appendages are called pleopods or swimmerets, can be used for purposes other than swimming. Some shrimp species use them for brooding eggs, others have gills on them for breathing, the males in some species use the first pair or two for insemination; the sixth segment terminates in the telson flanked by two pairs of appendages called the uropods.
The uropods allow the shrimp to swim backward, function like rudders, steering the shrimp when it
Rome is the capital city and a special comune of Italy. Rome serves as the capital of the Lazio region. With 2,872,800 residents in 1,285 km2, it is the country's most populated comune, it is the fourth most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4,355,725 residents, thus making it the most populous metropolitan city in Italy. Rome is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio, along the shores of the Tiber; the Vatican City is an independent country inside the city boundaries of Rome, the only existing example of a country within a city: for this reason Rome has been defined as capital of two states. Rome's history spans 28 centuries. While Roman mythology dates the founding of Rome at around 753 BC, the site has been inhabited for much longer, making it one of the oldest continuously occupied sites in Europe; the city's early population originated from a mix of Latins and Sabines.
The city successively became the capital of the Roman Kingdom, the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, is regarded by some as the first metropolis. It was first called The Eternal City by the Roman poet Tibullus in the 1st century BC, the expression was taken up by Ovid and Livy. Rome is called the "Caput Mundi". After the fall of the Western Empire, which marked the beginning of the Middle Ages, Rome fell under the political control of the Papacy, in the 8th century it became the capital of the Papal States, which lasted until 1870. Beginning with the Renaissance all the popes since Nicholas V pursued over four hundred years a coherent architectural and urban programme aimed at making the city the artistic and cultural centre of the world. In this way, Rome became first one of the major centres of the Italian Renaissance, the birthplace of both the Baroque style and Neoclassicism. Famous artists, painters and architects made Rome the centre of their activity, creating masterpieces throughout the city.
In 1871, Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy, which, in 1946, became the Italian Republic. Rome has the status of a global city. In 2016, Rome ranked as the 14th-most-visited city in the world, 3rd most visited in the European Union, the most popular tourist attraction in Italy, its historic centre is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. The famous Vatican Museums are among the world's most visited museums while the Colosseum was the most popular tourist attraction in world with 7.4 million visitors in 2018. Host city for the 1960 Summer Olympics, Rome is the seat of several specialized agencies of the United Nations, such as the Food and Agriculture Organization, the World Food Programme and the International Fund for Agricultural Development; the city hosts the Secretariat of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Union for the Mediterranean as well as the headquarters of many international business companies such as Eni, Enel, TIM, Leonardo S.p. A. and national and international banks such as Unicredit and BNL.
Its business district, called EUR, is the base of many companies involved in the oil industry, the pharmaceutical industry, financial services. Rome is an important fashion and design centre thanks to renowned international brands centered in the city. Rome's Cinecittà Studios have been the set of many Academy Award–winning movies. According to the founding myth of the city by the Ancient Romans themselves, the long-held tradition of the origin of the name Roma is believed to have come from the city's founder and first king, Romulus. However, it is a possibility that the name Romulus was derived from Rome itself; as early as the 4th century, there have been alternative theories proposed on the origin of the name Roma. Several hypotheses have been advanced focusing on its linguistic roots which however remain uncertain: from Rumon or Rumen, archaic name of the Tiber, which in turn has the same root as the Greek verb ῥέω and the Latin verb ruo, which both mean "flow". There is archaeological evidence of human occupation of the Rome area from 14,000 years ago, but the dense layer of much younger debris obscures Palaeolithic and Neolithic sites.
Evidence of stone tools and stone weapons attest to about 10,000 years of human presence. Several excavations support the view that Rome grew from pastoral settlements on the Palatine Hill built above the area of the future Roman Forum. Between the end of the bronze age and the beginning of the Iron age, each hill between the sea and the Capitol was topped by a village. However, none of them had yet an urban quality. Nowadays, there is a wide consensus that the city developed through the aggregation of several villages around the largest one, placed above the Palatine; this aggregation was facilitated by the increase of agricultural productivity above the subsistence level, which allowed the establishment of secondary and tertiary activities. These in turn boosted the development of trade with the Greek colonies of southern Italy; these developments, which according to archaeological ev