Manannán mac Lir
Manannán or Manann known as Manannán mac Lir, is a sea god in Irish mythology. He is affiliated with both the Fomorians. In the tales, he is said to own a boat named Scuabtuinne, a sea-borne chariot drawn by the horse Enbarr, a powerful sword named Fragarach, a cloak of invisibility, he is seen as one who ferries souls to the afterlife. Manannán is furthermore identified with the trickster figure Bodach an Chóta Lachtna. Manannán appears in Scottish and Manx legend, where he is known as Manannan mac y Leir; some sources say. He is cognate with the Welsh figure Manawydan fab Llŷr. Manannán is known as Oirbsiu or Oirbsen, from which Lough Corrib takes its name, his name is spelt Manandán in Old Irish, Manannán in modern Irish and Scottish Gaelic, Mannan in Manx Gaelic. He is given two surnames; the most common is Mac Lir, which may mean "son of the sea" or "son of Ler" ler in both cases meaning'sea'. It has been suggested; the other is Mac Alloid. Allot or Allod may be another name for Ler; the late medieval Yellow Book of Lecan says there were four individuals called Manandán who lived at different times.
They are: Manandán mac Alloit, a "druid of the Tuath Dé Danann" whose "proper name was Oirbsen". The 9th century Sanas Cormaic euhemerizes Manannán as "a famous merchant" of the Isle of Man and the best sailor in western Europe, who knew by "studying the heavens" when the weather would be good and bad, his name is derived from that of the Isle of Man. This itself may come from a Celtic word for "mountain" or "rise", as the Isle of Man rises from the sea on the horizon. Alternatively, it may come from an earlier Indo-European word for water or wetness. In medieval Irish tradition, it appears. There are places named after Manannán in the Isle of Man and Scotland. In Ireland, most of them contain water features, they include Mannin Lake in County Mayo, Mannin Bay in County Galway, Mannin Island in County Cork and Sheevannan in County Roscommon, Derrymannin in County Mayo, Carrickmannan in County Down. The placenames Clackmannan and Slamannan in Scotland may refer to Manann. In Manx tradition, he is known as Mannan beg mac y Leir, "little Mannan, son of the sea".
Manannán's Welsh equivalent is Manawydan fab Llyr. Manannán appears in all of the four cycles of Irish mythology, although he only plays a prominent role in a limited number of tales. In the Ulster Cycle: Tochmarc Étaíne, Serglige Con Culainn, Tochmarc Luaine "The Wooing of Luan" In the Cycles of the Kings: Immram Brain maic Febail", Echtra Cormaic maic Airt, Compert Mongáin In the Mythological Cycle: Lebor Gabála Érenn, First Recension, Altram Tige Dá Medar other Old Irish texts: Sanas Cormaic, The Voyage of Bran, Compert Mongáin, His Three Calls to Cormac In the Ulster Cycle tale, Serglige Con Culainn Manannán's wife, has an ill-fated affair with the Irish warrior Cúchulainn; when Fand sees that Cúchulainn's jealous wife, Emer is worthy of him, she decides to return to Manannán, who shakes his magical cloak of mists between Fand and Cúchulainn so that they may never meet again. In The Voyage of Bran, Manannán prophesied to Bran; the 8th-century saga Compert Mongáin recounts the deeds of a legendary son, Mongán mac Fiachnai, fathered by Manannán on the wife of Fiachnae mac Báetáin.
According to the Book of Fermoy, a manuscript of the 14th to the 15th century, "he was a pagan, a lawgiver among the Tuatha Dé Danann, a necromancer possessed of power to envelope himself and others in a mist, so that they could not be seen by their enemies." It was by this method. Manannán was associated with a "cauldron of regeneration"; this is seen among other tales. Here, he appeared at Cormac's ramparts in the guise of a warrior who told him he came from a land where old age, death and falsehood were unknown; as guardian of the Blessed Isles as well as Mag Mell he has strong associations with Emhain Abhlach, the Isle of Apple Trees, where the magical silver apple branch is found. Manannán had many magical items, he gave Cormac mac Airt his magic goblet of truth.
The mythology of pre-Christian Ireland did not survive the conversion to Christianity. However, much of it was preserved in medieval Irish literature, though it was shorn of its religious meanings; this literature represents the most extensive and best preserved of all the branches of Celtic mythology. Although many of the manuscripts have not survived and much more material was never committed to writing, there is enough remaining to enable the identification of distinct, if overlapping, cycles: the Mythological Cycle, the Ulster Cycle, the Fenian Cycle and the Historical Cycle. There are a number of extant mythological texts that do not fit into any of the cycles. Additionally, there are a large number of recorded folk tales that, while not mythological, feature personages from one or more of these four cycles. Today some of the best known tales are of Tír na nÓg, Fionn MacCumhaill, Na Fianna, The Aos Sí / Aes Sídhe, Sétanta, The Tuatha Dé Danann, the Children of Lir, Táin Bó Cúailnge & the Salmon of Knowledge.
Depending on the sources, the importance of gods and goddesses in Irish mythology varies. The geographical tales, emphasize the importance of female divinities while the historical tradition focuses on the colonizers, inventors, or male warriors with the female characters only intervening in episodes. Goddesses are linked to a place and they seem to draw their power from that place, they are maternal deities caring for the earth itself as well as children. They are connected to poetry, smith craft, healing. Many appear to be prophetic when foretelling death as well as transformational. Zoomorphism is an important feature for many Irish deities. Badb Catha, the Raven of Battle, introduces zoomorphism to celtic deities of both sexes. Male deities are less zoomorphic than the female deities in the Irish tradition, but there are still some instances of shapeshifting among gods. There is a presence in Irish Mythology of the Triad referred to as the "power of three," which expresses the extreme potency of a deity rather than dividing the power.
It is an attribute more pronounced among female deities. Dagda is called by two other names, Lug has two brothers, there is the Three Gods of Skill There is a lack of a goddess of love equivalent to Aphrodite or Venus due to the predominance of the maternal element in the culture of the Celts. There are multiple categories of goddesses in Irish Mythology: the Mother Goddess, Seasonal Goddess, Warrior Goddess are a few; some of these goddesses are considered to be all one goddess while other stories treat them as separate. Among the mother goddesses is Anu the goddess of Danu. Additionally, Brigit is a mother goddess, sometimes considered one goddess and sometimes considered the three sisters Brigit, she is the mother goddess that watches over childbirth. She brings abundance. Brigit can be categorized as a seasonal goddess and one can win her favor by burying a fowl alive at the meeting of three waters as a form of sacrifice, she survives as Saint Brigit in the Christian faith and some modern folklore makes her midwife to the Blessed Virgin.
The function of these goddesses involves the entire cycle of life from birth through adolescence and the fertility. They are protecting forces that provide the necessities of life within the home and are envisioned as being the earth itself, their importance have led some scholars to propose a matrilineal social organization and others highlight this argument as being feminist propaganda and deny all indications of importance. These goddesses are the patronesses of feasts, they appear during great feasts of Ireland and they bring abundance. The main goddesses are the Machas: Carman, Tea, but there are other seasonal goddesses. Warrior Goddesses are linked with warrior women because there is historical evidence of women leading their tribes into battle. Oftentimes, warrior goddesses are depicted in a trio; this trio can change to include different goddesses. They reign over the battlefield without having to physically be involved, they do not need to strike a blow because they control the events while the male deities are depicted as being in the battles.
This aspect leads to the discussion of women as the gods of slaughter. Scholars note that the female deities govern the natural event while the male deities govern the social event; the main goddesses of war are Morrigan and Bodb. The Irish Gods are divided into four main groups. Group one encompasses the older gods of Britain; the second group is the main focus of much of the mythology and surrounds the native Irish gods with their homes in burial mounds. The third group are the gods that dwell in the sea and the fourth group includes stories of the Otherworld; the gods that appear most are Dagda and Lug. Some scholars have argued that the stories of these gods align with the Greek gods. Druids were held in high esteem by the community as religious leaders, their functions and origins are debated which some attribute to the fact that there was no written tradition. This lack of documentary evidence is said to be because the practices become common property and this makes the student relax their diligence.
They are figures in Irish Mythology and study astronomy. Heroes in Irish mythology can be found in two distinct groups. There is the hero outside of the tribe; the first group encompasses all, subject to man and his works must belong to the tribe and live under its laws. Within the tribe, heroes are of the race of humans and gods
Lebor Gabála Érenn
Lebor Gabála Érenn is a collection of poems and prose narratives that purports to be a history of Ireland and the Irish from the creation of the world to the Middle Ages. There are a number of versions, the earliest of, compiled by an anonymous writer in the 11th century, it synthesized narratives, developing over the foregoing centuries. The Lebor Gabála tells of Ireland being settled six times by six groups of people: the people of Cessair, the people of Partholón, the people of Nemed, the Fir Bolg, the Tuatha Dé Danann, the Milesians; the first four groups are wiped out or forced to abandon the island, the fifth group represent Ireland's pagan gods, while the final group represent the Irish people. Today, most scholars regard the Lebor Gabála as myth rather than history, it appears to be based on medieval Christian pseudo-histories, but it incorporates some of Ireland's native pagan mythology. Scholars believe the goal of its writers was to provide an epic history for Ireland that could compare to that of the Israelites or the Romans, which reconciled native myth with the Christian view of history.
It is suggested, for example, that there are six'takings' to match the "Six Ages of the World". Lebor Gabála Érenn is considered a "highly influential Middle Irish prose-and-verse treatise written in order to bridge the chasm between Christian world-chronology and the prehistory of Ireland"; the Lebor Gabála is known in English as The Book of Invasions or The Book of Conquests, in Modern Irish as Leabhar Gabhála Éireann or Leabhar Gabhála na hÉireann. Purporting to be a history of Ireland and the Irish, a critical analysis by Thomas F O'Rahilly claims the purpose of Lebor Gabála Érenn was three-fold: firstly to unite the population by obliterating the memory of previous and different ethnic groups, secondly to weaken the influence of pre-Christian pagan religions by converting their gods into mere mortals, thirdly to manufacture pedigrees into which the various dynastic groups could conveniently be fitted It has been described as an attempt to provide the Irish with a written history comparable to that which the Israelites provided for themselves in the Old Testament.
Drawing upon the pagan myths of Gaelic Ireland but reinterpreting them in the light of Judeo-Christian theology and historiography, it describes how the island was settled six times by six groups of people. Biblical paradigms provided the mythologers with ready-made stories which could be adapted to their purpose, thus we find the ancestors of the Irish enslaved in a foreign land, or fleeing into exile, or wandering in the wilderness, or sighting the "Promised Land" from afar. Four Christian works in particular seem to have had a significant bearing on the formation of LGE: St Augustine's De Civitate Dei, The City of God, Orosius's Historiae adversum paganos, "Histories," Eusebius's Chronicon, translated into Latin by St Jerome as the Temporum liber Isidore of Seville's Etymologiae, or Origines The pre-Christian elements, were never effaced. One of the poems in LGE, for instance, recounts how goddesses from among the Tuatha Dé Danann took husbands from the Gaeil when they'invaded' and'colonised' Ireland.
Furthermore, the pattern of successive invasions which LGE preserves is reminiscent of Timagenes of Alexandria's account of the origins of the Gauls of continental Europe. Cited by the 4th-century historian Ammianus Marcellinus, Timagenes describes how the ancestors of the Gauls were driven from their native lands in eastern Europe by a succession of wars and floods. Numerous fragments of Ireland's mythological history are scattered throughout the 7th and 8th centuries. In his Lectures on the Manuscript Materials of Ancient Irish History, Eugene O'Curry, Professor of Irish History and Archaeology at the Catholic University of Ireland, discusses various genres of historical tales mentioned in the manuscripts: The Tochomladh was an Immigration or arrival of a Colony, it is from the original records of these ancient stories that the early part of the various Books of Invasions has been compiled. The earliest extant account of the purported history of Ireland is to be found in the Historia Brittonum or "History of the Britons,", once thought to have been written by the Welsh priest Nennius in 829–830.
This text gives two separate accounts of early Irish history. The first consists of a series of successive colonisations from Iberia by the pre-Gaelic peoples of Ireland, all of which found their way into LGE; the second recounts the origins of the Gaeil themselves, tells how they in turn came to be the masters of the country and'ancestors' of all the Irish. These two stories continued to be enriched and elaborated upon by Irish historian-poets throughout the 9th century. In the 10th and 11th centuries, several long historical poems were written that were incorporated into the scheme of LGE. Most of the poems on which the 11th-12th century version of LGE was based were written by the following four poets: Eochaidh Ua Floinn from Armagh – Poems 30, 41, 53, 65, 98, 109, 111 Flann Mainistrech mac Echthigrin and historian of Monasterboice Abbey – Poems?42, 56, 67,?82 Tanaide – Poems 47, 54, 86 Gilla Cómáin mac Gilla Samthainde – Poems 13, 96, 115It was late in the 11th century that a single anonymous scholar appears to have brought together these and numerous other poems and fitted the
Brigit, Brigid or Bríg was a goddess of pre-Christian Ireland. She appears in Irish mythology as a member of the Tuatha Dé Danann, the daughter of the Dagda and wife of Bres, with whom she had a son named Ruadán, it has been suggested. She is associated with the spring season, healing and smithcraft. Cormac's Glossary, written in the 10th century by Christian monks, says that Brigid was "the goddess whom poets adored" and that she had two sisters: Brigid the healer and Brigid the smith; this suggests. Saint Brigid shares many of the goddess's attributes and her feast day on 1 February was a pagan festival marking the beginning of spring, it has thus been argued. She is identified in Lebor Gabála Érenn as a daughter of a poet; the same passage mentions that she has two oxen, Fe and Men, that graze on a plain named after them, Femen. She possessed the king of boars, Torc Triath, Cirb, king of wethers, from whom Mag Cirb is named; the animals were said to cry out a warning and thus Brigid is considered the guardian of domesticated animals.
As the daughter of Dagda, she is the half sister of Cermait, Aengus and Bodb Derg. In Cath Maige Tuireadh, Bríg invents keening, a combination of weeping and singing, while mourning for her son Ruadán, after he is slain while fighting for the Fomorians, she is credited in the same passage with inventing a whistle used for night travel. Brigid is considered the patroness of poetry, medicine and crafts, cattle and other livestock, sacred wells and the arrival of early spring. In the Christian era, nineteen nuns at Kildare tended a perpetual flame for the Saint, believed to be a continuation of a pre-Christian practice of women tending a flame in her honour, her festival day, Imbolc is traditionally a time for weather prognostication: In her English retellings of Irish myth, Lady Augusta Gregory describes Brigit as "a woman of poetry, poets worshipped her, for her sway was great and noble. And she was a woman of healing along with that, a woman of smith's work, it was she first made the whistle for calling one to another through the night."A possible British and continental counterpart Brigantia seems to have been the Celtic equivalent of the Roman Minerva and the Greek Athena goddesses with similar functions and embodying the same concept of elevated state, whether physical or psychological.
She is the goddess of all things perceived to be of high dimensions such as high-rising flames, hill-forts and upland areas. In the living traditions, whether seen as goddess or saint, she is associated with the home and hearth and is a favorite of both Polytheists and Catholics. A number of these associations are attested in Cormac's Glossary. In the Middle Ages, the goddess Brigid was syncretized with the Christian saint of the same name. According to medievalist Pamela Berger, Christian "monks took the ancient figure of the mother goddess and grafted her name and functions onto her Christian counterpart," St. Brigid of Kildare. St. Brigid is associated with perpetual, sacred flames, such as the one maintained by 19 nuns at her sanctuary in Kildare, Ireland; the sacred flame at Kildare was said by Giraldus Cambrensis and other chroniclers to have been surrounded by a hedge, which no man could cross. Men who attempted to cross the hedge were said to have been cursed to die or be crippled; the tradition of female priestesses tending sacred occurring eternal flames is a feature of ancient Indo-European pre-Christian spirituality.
Other examples include the Roman goddess Vesta, other hearth-goddesses, such as Hestia. Both the goddess and saint are associated with holy wells, at Kildare and many other sites in the Celtic lands. Well dressing, the tying of clooties to the trees next to healing wells, other methods of petitioning or honoring Brigid still take place in some of the Celtic lands and the diaspora. Saint Brigid's feast day is on 1 February celebrated as St Brigid's Day in the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church and by the Anglican Communion; the Gaelic festival coincides with Imbolc, a pagan festival associated with the goddess Brigid. Brigid is an important figure for modern pagans, she is sometimes worshipped in conjunction with Cernunnos. Old Irish Brigit came to be spelled Brighid by the modern Irish period. Since the spelling reform of 1948, this has been spelled Bríd; the earlier form gave rise to various forms in the languages of Europe, starting from the Medieval Latin Brigit /ˈbriʒit/, suggested by the written form, from there to various modern forms, such as English Bridget and Bridgit, French Brigitte, Swedish Birgitta, Italian Brigida and Finnish Piritta.
The name is derived from Proto-Celtic *Brigantī and means "The High One", cognate with the name of the ancient British goddess Brigantia, the Old High German personal name Burgunt, the Sanskrit word Bṛhatī "high", an epithet of the Hindu dawn goddess Ushas. The ultimate source is Proto-Indo-European *bʰr̥ǵʰéntih₂, derived from the root *bʰerǵʰ-. Brìghde/Brìde Ffraid (also Braint, alt. Breint, the name of a river in Anglese
Étaín or Édaín is a figure of Irish mythology, best known as the heroine of Tochmarc Étaíne, one of the oldest and richest stories of the Mythological Cycle. She figures in the Middle Irish Togail Bruidne Dá Derga. T. F. O'Rahilly identified her as a sun goddess; the name Étaín is alternately spelt as Edain, Etaoin, Éadaoin, Aedín, or Adaon. It is derived from a diminutive form of Old Irish ét, "passion, jealousy", she is sometimes known by the epithet Echraide, suggesting links with horse deities and figures such as the Welsh Rhiannon and the Gaulish Epona. In Tochmarc Étaíne Midir names her Bé Find. However, the poem embedded in the text, "A Bé Find in ragha lium" may be an older, unrelated composition, appended to the story later. In Tochmarc Étaine, Étaín is the daughter of king of the Ulaid. A different genealogy is told in Togail Bruidne Dá Derga. Here she is the daughter of Étar, marries the High King Eochaid Feidlech, they have a daughter, called Étaín Óg, who marries Cormac, king of Ulster.
She bears him Mess Buachalla, but no sons. Cormac abandons Mess Buachalla; when she grows up she becomes the mother of Conaire Mor. In genealogical tracts she is said to have been the wife of the Ulster prince Cormac Cond Longas; when Midir of the Tuatha Dé Danann falls in love with and marries her, his rejected first wife Fúamnach becomes jealous and casts a series of spells on her. First Fúamnach turns Étaín into a pool of water into a worm, into a beautiful butterfly. Midir does not know that the butterfly is Étaín, but it becomes his constant companion, he has no interest in women. Fúamnach creates a wind that blows the butterfly away and does not allow it to alight anywhere but the rocks of the sea for seven years, it lands on the clothes of Óengus, who recognises it as Étaín, but he is at war with Midir and cannot return her to him. He makes her a little chamber with windows so she can come and go, carries the chamber with him wherever he goes, but Fúamnach hears of this and creates another wind which blows her away from him for another seven years.
The butterfly falls into a glass of wine. The wine is swallowed by the wife of an Ulster chieftain, in the time of Conchobar mac Nessa, she becomes pregnant, Étain is reborn, one thousand and twelve years after her first birth. When she grows up, Étaín marries Eochaid Airem, their meeting is related in the opening episode of Togail Bruidne Dá Derga. Eochaid's brother Ailill Angubae falls in love with her, begins to waste away, he admits to Étaín that he is dying of love for her, she agrees to sleep with him to save his life. They arrange to meet, but Midir casts a spell which causes Ailill to fall asleep and miss the assignation. However, Étaín meets a man there who looks and speaks like Ailill but does not sleep with him because she senses that it is not him; this happens three times, the man who looks like Ailill reveals himself to be Midir, tells her of her previous life as his wife. She refuses to leave with him, she returns to Ailill to find him cured. Midir goes to Eochaid in his true form and asks to play fidchell, a board game, with him.
He offers a stake of fifty horses and gives Eochaid the horses as promised. Midir challenges him to more games, for higher stakes, keeps losing. Eochaid, warned by his foster-father that Midir is a being of great power, sets him a series of tasks, including laying a causeway over Móin Lámrige, which he performs reluctantly, he challenges Eochaid to one final game of fidchell, the stake to be named by the winner. This time, Midir wins, demands an embrace and a kiss from Étaín. Eochaid agrees. A month Midir returns, he puts his arms around Étaín, they turn into swans and fly off. Eochaid and his men begin digging at the mound of Brí Léith. Midir tells Eochaid his wife will be restored to him the following day; the next day fifty women who all look like Étain appear, an old hag tells Eochaid to choose which one is his wife. He chooses one, but Midir reveals that Étaín had been pregnant when he had taken her, the girl he has chosen is her daughter. Eochaid is horrified; when the girl is born she is exposed.
She becomes the mother of the High King Conaire Mor. Two episodes from the Tochmarc Étaíne are recounted in the metrical Dindsenchas; the Dindsenchas poem on Rath Esa recounts. The poem on Ráth Crúachan refers to Midir's abduction of Étaín; the Middle Irish text Togail Bruidne Dá Derga includes a rather lengthy and colourful depiction of her in the episode of her encounter with King Echu in Brí Léith: In rapturous style, the narrator proceeds to home in on her physical beauty: The silver basin with the four golden birds around it may have symbolic or religious significance. Margaret Dobbs has noted the parallel of the three cups offered by Medb to the Ulster heroes in Fled Bricrenn; each of these three cups had a bird of greater material value placed on the inside: the bronze cup was fitted out with a bird of findruine, the findruine one with a bird of gold and the gold cup with
The Dagda is an important god in Irish mythology. One of the Tuatha Dé Danann, the Dagda is portrayed as a father-figure and druid, he is associated with fertility, agriculture and strength, as well as magic and wisdom. He is said to have control over life and death, the weather and crops, as well as time and the seasons, he is described as a large bearded man or giant wearing a hooded cloak. He owns a magic staff or club which can kill with one end and bring to life with the other, a cauldron which never runs empty, a magic harp which can control men's emotions and change the seasons, he is said to dwell in Brú na Bóinne. Other places associated with or named after him include Uisneach, Grianan of Aileach, Assaroe Falls and Lough Neagh; the Dagda is said to be husband of the Boann. His children include Aengus, Bodb Derg, Cermait and Midir, he is said to have two brothers and Ogma, but this may be an instance of the tendency to triplicate deities. The name Dagda is believed to come from Proto-Celtic: *Dagodeiwos, "the good god" or "the great god".
He has several other epithets which reflect aspects of his character. These include Eochu or Eochaid Ollathair, Ruad Rofhessa, Dáire, Fer Benn, Cerrce and Eogabal, it is argued that the death and ancestral god Donn was a form of the Dagda, he has similarities with the harvest figure Crom Dubh. Several tribal groupings saw the Dagda as an ancestor and were named after him, such as the Uí Echach and the Dáirine; the Dagda has been likened to the Germanic god Odin, the Gaulish god Sucellos, the Roman god Dīs Pater. Tales depict the Dagda as a figure of immense power, he is said to own a magic club or mace which could kill nine men with one blow. It was called the lorg anfaid, his magic cauldron was known as the coire ansic and was said to be bottomless, from which no man left unsatisfied. It was said to have a ladle so big. Uaithne known as "the Four Angled Music", was a richly ornamented magic harp made of oak which, when the Dagda played it, put the seasons in their correct order, he possessed two pigs, one of, always growing whilst the other was always roasting, ever-laden fruit trees.
The Dagda was one of the kings of the Tuatha De Danann. The Tuatha Dé Danann are the race of supernatural beings who conquered the Fomorians, who inhabited Ireland prior to the coming of the Milesians; the Mórrígan is described as his wife, his daughter was Brígh, his lover was Boann, after whom the River Boyne is named, though she was married to Elcmar. Prior to the battle with the Fomorians, he coupled with the goddess of war, the Mórrígan, on Samhain in exchange for a plan of battle. Despite his great power and prestige, the Dagda is sometimes depicted as oafish and crude comical, wearing a short, rough tunic that covers his rump, dragging his great penis on the ground; such features are thought to be the additions of Christian redactors for comedic purposes. The Middle Irish language Coir Anmann paints a less clownish picture: "He was a beautiful god of the heathens, for the Tuatha Dé Danann worshipped him: for he was an earth-god to them because of the greatness of his power." The name Dagda may be derived from the Proto-Indo-European *Dhagho-deiwos "shining divinity", the first element being cognate with the English word "day", a byword for a deification of a notion such as "splendour".
This etymology would tie in well with Dagda's mythic association with the sun and the earth, with kingship and excellence in general. *Dhago-deiwos would have been inherited into Proto-Celtic as *Dago-deiwos, thereby punning with the Proto-Celtic word *dago-s "good". Under the name Aed of Ess Ruaid, the Dagda is named as the son of Badurn, the Lord of Emain, the Grandson of Argatmar; the rapids in which he drowned were named Ess Ruaid and were called Ess Duind after Dond, the grandson of Bile. The Dagda had an affair with wife of Elcmar. In order to hide their affair, Dagda made. He, along with Bóand, helped Aengus search for his love. Whilst Aengus was away the Dagda shared out his land among his children, but Aengus returned to discover that nothing had been saved for him. Aengus tricked his father out of his home at the Brú na Bóinne. Aengus asked his father if he could live in the Brú for láa ogus oidhche " day and night", which in Irish is ambiguous, could refer to either "a day and a night", or "day and night", which means for all time, so Aengus took possession of the Brú permanently.
In The Wooing of Étaín, on the other hand, Aengus uses the same ploy to trick Elcmar out of Brú na Bóinne, with the Dagda's connivance. The Dagda was the father of Bodb Dearg, Midir, Áine, Brigit, he was the brother or father of Oghma, related to the Gaulish god Ogmios. Another Gaulish god who may be related to the Dagda is Sucellus, the striker, depicted with a hammer and cup, he is credited with a sevent
Lir or Ler is a sea god in Irish mythology. His name suggests, he is named Allód in early genealogies, corresponds to the Llŷr of Welsh mythology. Lir is chiefly an ancestor figure, is the father of the god Manannán mac Lir, who appears in medieval Irish literature. Lir appears as the titular king in the tale The Children of Lir. Lir, like his Welsh counterpart Llŷr, is a god of the sea, though in the case of the Gaelic myths his son Manannán mac Lir seems to take over his position and so features more prominently, it is probable that more myths referring to Lir which are now lost to us existed and that his popularity was greater considering the number of figures called'son of Lir'. In the 9th century AD Irish glossary entitled Sanas Cormaic, famed bishop and scholar Cormac mac Cuilennáin makes mention of Manannan and his father Lir, who Cormac identifies with the sea: Manannan mac lir.i. Cennaige amra bói aninis Manand. Ise luam as deach boi aniarthar Eorpa. Noḟindad tre nemgnacht inoiret nobíd insoinind ⁊ in donind ⁊ intan nosclæchlóbad cechtar don dá résin, inde Scoti et Brittones eum deum vocaverunt maris.
Et inde filium maris esse dixerunt.i. Mac lir mac mara."Manannan mac Lir: i. e. A renowned trader who dwelt in the Isle of Man, he was the best pilot in the west of Europe. Through acquaintance with the sky he knew the quarter in which would be fair weather and foul weather, when each of these two seasons would change. Hence the Scots and Britons called him a god of the sea, hence they said he was son of the sea, i. e. mac lir'son of the sea"Lir is a key character in the mythological story The Children of Lir. The Lir in this story was the rival of Bodb Dearg for the kingship of the Tuatha Dé Danann after their retreat into the fairy mounds. In order to appease Lir, Bodb gave one of his daughters to marry him, Aeb, she bore him four children, one girl and three sons and twins, Fiachra and Conn. Aebh died and, not wanting the children to remain motherless, Bodb sent another of his daughters, Aoife, to marry Lir. Aoife cursed them to live as swans for 900 years. Ægir, a personification of the sea in Norse mythology