Legislative Assembly of Samoa
The Legislative Assembly is the Parliament of Samoa based in the capital, where the country's central administration is situated. In the Samoan language, the Legislative Assembly of Samoa is sometimes referred to as the Samoan Fono while the government of the country is referred to as the Malo; the word fono is a Samoan and Polynesian term for councils or meetings great and small and applies to national assemblies and legislatures, as well as local village councils. The modern government of Samoa exists on a national level alongside the country's fa'amatai indigenous chiefly system of governance and social organisation; the Samoan Fono is descended from the Western Samoa Legislative Assembly established under New Zealand rule in the early 1900s. On the country's political independence in 1962, the 5th Legislative Assembly became the 1st Samoan Parliament; the Samoan Fono has 50 Members of Parliament. 47 members are matai, elected in 35 single-seat constituencies. The other 2 Members are elected by, represent, individual voters, i.e. "Samoan citizens descended from non-Samoans".
An extra Member of Parliament was added after the 2016 election in order to meet the quota of 10% female MPs. Members of Parliament in Samoa are directly elected by universal suffrage, serve a five-year term; the Head of State or O le Ao o le Malo is elected for a five-year term by the Fono. Elections are held under a simple plurality system. Samoan electors are divided into 35 single-seat constituencies. In addition, two seats are reserved for "individual voters", non-indigenous citizens who may not hold a chiefly title or any customary interest in Samoan land. Electors must be Samoan citizens and aged over 21. Candidates must be qualified as electors, in addition those for territorial seats must hold a matai title; the Fono is responsible for electing the Samoan head of state. The Fono is in its 14th term; the Fono is housed in a bee-hive shaped building based on the traditional Samoan fale. Electoral Constituencies of Samoa List of Speakers of the Legislative Assembly of Samoa Politics of Samoa List of legislatures by country Official website
Luamanuvao Dame Winifred Alexandra Laban is a former New Zealand politician. She served as the Member of Parliament for the Mana electorate, representing the Labour Party, was the Labour Party's spokesperson for Pacific Island Affairs and for interfaith dialogue. Laban was born in Wellington on 14 August 1955 to Samoan parents, Ta'atofa Kenneth Laban and Emi Tunupopo, she was educated at Erskine College, Wellington Girls' College from 1969 to 1971. Before entering politics she was a family therapist and community development worker, focusing on the Pacific Island community of New Zealand. Laban graduated with a diploma in social work from the Victoria University of Wellington, in development studies from Massey University. In 1992, she was bestowed the Samoan matai chiefly title Luamanuvao from the village of Vaiala, Vaimauga, in recognition of her work. Laban was first elected to Parliament in the 1999 election as a list MP, becoming New Zealand's first Pacific Island woman MP. In the 2002 election she contested the Mana electorate held by Labour MP Graham Kelly.
In 2005 she was re-elected by a majority of 6,734 votes She was Minister of Pacific Island Affairs. Labour was defeated in the 2008 election, depriving Laban of her ministerial role, but Laban retained her electorate seat and most of her majority. In December 2009 her Mental Health Amendment Bill, which would grant greater rights to the families of those seeking or undergoing treatment, was drawn from the member's ballot; the bill was defeated at its first reading. On 10 August 2010 Laban announced she would resign from Parliament to take up a position as an assistant vice-chancellor at Victoria University of Wellington, leading to a by-election in the Mana electorate, she ceased being a member of parliament on 15 October 2010. In the 2011 New Year Honours, Laban was appointed a Companion of the Queen's Service Order for services as a Member of Parliament, she was appointed a Dame Companion of the New Zealand Order of Merit in the 2018 Queen's Birthday Honours, for services to education and the Pacific community.
Official Labour Party page
Order of the British Empire
The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry, rewarding contributions to the arts and sciences, work with charitable and welfare organisations, public service outside the civil service. It was established on 4 June 1917 by King George V and comprises five classes across both civil and military divisions, the most senior two of which make the recipient either a knight if male or dame if female. There is the related British Empire Medal, whose recipients are affiliated with, but not members of, the order. Recommendations for appointments to the Order of the British Empire were made on the nomination of the United Kingdom, the self-governing Dominions of the Empire and the Viceroy of India. Nominations continue today from Commonwealth countries that participate in recommending British honours. Most Commonwealth countries ceased recommendations for appointments to the Order of the British Empire when they created their own honours; the five classes of appointment to the Order are, in descending order of precedence: Knight Grand Cross or Dame Grand Cross of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire Knight Commander or Dame Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire Officer of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire Member of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire The senior two ranks of Knight or Dame Grand Cross, Knight or Dame Commander, entitle their members to use the title of Sir for men and Dame for women before their forename.
Most members are citizens of the United Kingdom or the Commonwealth realms that use the Imperial system of honours and awards. Honorary knighthoods are appointed to citizens of nations where the Queen is not head of state, may permit use of post-nominal letters but not the title of Sir or Dame. Honorary appointees are, referred to as Sir or Dame – Bob Geldof, for example. Honorary appointees who become a citizen of a Commonwealth realm can convert their appointment from honorary to substantive enjoy all privileges of membership of the order, including use of the title of Sir and Dame for the senior two ranks of the Order. An example is Irish broadcaster Terry Wogan, appointed an honorary Knight Commander of the Order in 2005, on successful application for British citizenship, held alongside his Irish citizenship, was made a substantive member and subsequently styled as Sir Terry Wogan. King George V founded the Order to fill gaps in the British honours system: The Orders of the Garter, of St Patrick honoured royals, peers and eminent military commanders.
In particular, King George V wished to create an Order to honour many thousands of those who had served in a variety of non-combatant roles during the First World War. When first established, the Order had only one division. However, in 1918, soon after its foundation, it was formally divided into Military and Civil Divisions; the Order's motto is For the Empire. At the foundation of the Order, the'Medal of the Order of the British Empire' was instituted, to serve as a lower award granting recipients affiliation but not membership. In 1922, this was renamed the'British Empire Medal', it stopped being awarded by the United Kingdom as part of the 1993 reforms to the honours system, but was again awarded beginning in 2012, starting with 293 BEMs awarded for Queen Elizabeth II's Diamond Jubilee. In addition, the BEM is awarded by some other Commonwealth nations. In 2004, a report entitled "A Matter of Honour: Reforming Our Honours System" by a Commons committee recommended to phase out the Order of the British Empire, as its title was "now considered to be unacceptable, being thought to embody values that are no longer shared by many of the country's population".
The British monarch is Sovereign of the Order, appoints all other members of the Order. The next most senior member is the Grand Master, of whom there have been three: Prince Edward, the Prince of Wales; the Order is limited to 300 Knights and Dames Grand Cross, 845 Knights and Dames Commander, 8,960 Commanders. There are no limits applied to the total number of members of the fourth and fifth classes, but no more than 858 Officers and 1,464 Members may be appointed per year. Foreign appointees, as honorary members, do not contribute to the numbers restricted to the Order as full members do. Although the Order of the British Empire has by far the highest number of members of the British Orders of Chivalry, with over 100,000 living members worldwide, there are fewer appointments to knighthoods than in other orders. Though men can be knighted separately from an order of chivalry, women cannot, so the rank of Knight/Dame Commander of the Order is the lowest rank of damehood, second-lowest of knighthood.
Because of this, an appointment as Dame Commander is made in circumstances in which a man would be created a Knight Bachelor. For example, by convention, female judges of the High Court of Justice are created Dames Commander after appointment, while male judges
Nuclear weapons testing
Nuclear weapons tests are experiments carried out to determine the effectiveness and explosive capability of nuclear weapons. Throughout the twentieth century, most nations that developed nuclear weapons tested them. Testing nuclear weapons can yield information about how the weapons work, as well as how the weapons behave under various conditions and how personnel and equipment behave when subjected to nuclear explosions. Nuclear testing has been used as an indicator of scientific and military strength, many tests have been overtly political in their intention; the first nuclear device was detonated as a test by the United States at the Trinity site on July 16, 1945, with a yield equivalent to 20 kilotons of TNT. The first thermonuclear weapon technology test of an engineered device, codenamed "Ivy Mike", was tested at the Enewetak Atoll in the Marshall Islands on November 1, 1952 by the United States; the largest nuclear weapon tested was the "Tsar Bomba" of the Soviet Union at Novaya Zemlya on October 30, 1961, with the largest yield seen, an estimated 50–58 megatons.
In 1963, three of the four nuclear states and many non-nuclear states signed the Limited Test Ban Treaty, pledging to refrain from testing nuclear weapons in the atmosphere, underwater, or in outer space. The treaty permitted underground nuclear testing. France continued atmospheric testing until 1974, China continued until 1980. Neither has signed the treaty. Underground tests in the United States continued until 1992, the Soviet Union until 1990, the United Kingdom until 1991, both China and France until 1996. In signing the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty in 1996, these states have pledged to discontinue all nuclear testing. Non-signatories India and Pakistan last tested nuclear weapons in 1998. North Korea conducted nuclear tests in 2006, 2009, 2013, 2016, 2017; the most recent confirmed. Nuclear weapons tests have been divided into four categories reflecting the medium or location of the test. Atmospheric testing designates explosions; these have occurred as devices detonated on towers, barges, islands, or dropped from airplanes, those only buried far enough to intentionally create a surface-breaking crater.
The United States, the Soviet Union, China have all conducted tests involving explosions of missile-launched bombs. Nuclear explosions close enough to the ground to draw dirt and debris into their mushroom cloud can generate large amounts of nuclear fallout due to irradiation of the debris; this definition of atmospheric is used in the Limited Test Ban Treaty, which banned this class of testing along with exoatmospheric and underwater. Underground testing refers to nuclear tests conducted under the surface of the earth, at varying depths. Underground nuclear testing made up the majority of nuclear tests by the United States and the Soviet Union during the Cold War. True underground tests are intended to be contained and emit a negligible amount of fallout; these nuclear tests do "vent" to the surface, producing from nearly none to considerable amounts of radioactive debris as a consequence. Underground testing by definition, causes seismic activity of a magnitude that depends on the yield of the nuclear device and the composition of the medium in which it is detonated, creates a subsidence crater.
In 1976, the United States and the USSR agreed to limit the maximum yield of underground tests to 150 kt with the Threshold Test Ban Treaty. Underground testing falls into two physical categories: tunnel tests in horizontal tunnel drifts, shaft tests in vertically drilled holes. Exoatmospheric testing refers to nuclear tests conducted above the atmosphere; the test devices are lifted on rockets. These high altitude nuclear explosions can generate a nuclear electromagnetic pulse when they occur in the ionosphere, charged particles resulting from the blast can cross hemispheres following geomagnetic lines of force to create an auroral display. Underwater testing results from nuclear devices being detonated underwater moored to a ship or a barge. Tests of this nature have been conducted to evaluate the effects of nuclear weapons against naval vessels, or to evaluate potential sea-based nuclear weapons. Underwater tests close to the surface can disperse large amounts of radioactive particles in water and steam, contaminating nearby ships or structures, though they do not create fallout other than local to the explosion.
Another way to classify nuclear tests are by the number of explosions. The treaty definition of a salvo test is: In conformity with treaties between the United States and the Soviet Union, a salvo is defined, for multiple explosions for peaceful purposes, as two or more separate explosions where a period of time between successive individual explosions does not exceed 5 seconds and where the burial points of all explosive devices can be connected by segments of straight lines, each of them connecting two burial points, the total length does not exceed 40 kilometers. For nuclear weapon tests, a salvo is defined as two or more under
Mata'afa Faumuina Fiame Mulinu'u I
Mata'afa Faumuina Fiame Mulinu'u I was a high chief of Samoa and a leader of the country's pro-independence Mau movement during the early 1900s. He was the holder of high-ranking ali'i chiefly titles, Mata'afa, Fiame from Lotofaga and Faumuina from Lepea. Mulinu'u was a civil servant, he became the President of the Mau following the death of high chief and leader Tupua Tamasese Lealofi III in 1929. He was one of the wounded during a peaceful Mau procession in the capital Apia on 28 December 1929 when New Zealand police fired into the crowd and resulting in a day of violence that saw up to 11 Samoans and a New Zealand constable killed; the date is referred to as Black Saturday in Samoa's history. In March 1939 he succeeded Salanoa Muliufi as Mata'afa following a hearing by the Samoan Land and Titles Commission, his wife Fa'amusami, was the daughter of paramount chief Malietoa Laupepa. His son, Fiame Mata'afa Faumuina Mulinu’u II became the first Prime Minister of Western Samoa at the country's independence from New Zealand colonial administration.
His granddaughter, Fiame Naomi Mata'afa is a high-ranking chief and a long serving cabinet minister in the Samoan government. History of Samoa Mata'afa Fa'amatai, chiefly system of Samoa
Upolu is an island in Samoa, formed by a massive basaltic shield volcano which rises from the seafloor of the western Pacific Ocean. The island is 75 kilometres long and 1,125 square kilometres in area, making it the second largest of the Samoan Islands geographically. With 145,000 people, it is by far the most populated of the Samoan Islands. Upolu is situated to the southeast of Savai'i, the "big island". Apia, the capital, is in the middle of the north coast, with Faleolo International Airport at the western end of the island; the island has not had any recorded eruptions, although three lava flows date back only a few hundred to a few thousand years. In the Samoan branch of Polynesian mythology, Upolu was the first woman on the island. In 1841, the island was the site of the Bombardment of Upolu, an incident during the United States Exploring Expedition. In the late-19th century, the Scottish writer Robert Louis Stevenson owned a 400-acre estate at Vailima village and died there in 1894, he is buried at the top of Mount Vaea above his former home.
The Vailima estate was purchased in 1900 as the official residence for the German governor and, after British/Dominion confiscation, served successively as residence for the New Zealand administrator and for the Samoan head of state after independence. The island of Upolu was affected by a tsunami at 06:48:11 local time on 29 September 2009. Twenty villages on Upolu's south side were destroyed, including Lepa, the home of Samoa's Prime Minister Tuilaepa Lupesoliai Sailele Malielegaoi. In Lepa, only the church and the village's welcome sign remained standing following the disaster. An small species of spider lives on Upolu. According to the Guinness Book of World Records, the spider is the size of a period on a printed page. Upolu was the filming location for the 1953 South Seas film Return to Paradise, starring Gary Cooper; the island was the filming location for several seasons of the CBS competitive Survivor reality television series: Survivor: Samoa, the nineteenth. Australian Survivor was set on the island in the 2016 third season and 2017 fourth season.
1889 Apia cyclone Archaeology of Samoa Samoa Tourism Authority Samoa Tourism Authority
Prime Minister of Samoa
The Prime Minister of Samoa is the head of government of the Independent State of Samoa, a sovereign country located in the Pacific Ocean. The first Prime Minister of Samoa was Albert Barnes Steinberger, who represented the American government in the Samoan Islands but was close to German commercial interests. After the indigenous authorities of the islands adopted the Constitution of 1873, Steinberger was appointed Prime Minister by the King Malietoa Laupepa in July 1875, he hold this post for seven months before the British and American consuls in the country persuaded Laupepa to dismiss him, seeing his role as German interference in the islands. Over the next two decades, there was no Prime Minister in the country, in 1899 Samoa fell under the colonial rule of the Western powers, being divided as a German colony and an American colony at the end of the Second Samoan Civil War, according to the terms of the Tripartite Convention. At the beginning of the World War I, German Samoa was occupied by New Zealand in 1914, was subsequently organized as a trust territory of New Zealand in 1920.
The territory gained independence in 1962 as the Independent State of Samoa. The Constitution, adopted in 1960 during the transitional period of autonomy, provides that the executive power is vested in the head of state, elected by the Legislative Assembly, who acts only on the recommendation of the government; the head of state has a ceremonial role. The real executive power is exercised by his cabinet; the Prime Minister is appointed by the head of state as a member of the Legislative Assembly who enjoys the confidence of a majority in the Legislative Assembly. The Prime Minister may be removed from office by the Legislative Assembly. Samoa is thus a parliamentary democracy based on the Westminster system. Samoa Politics of Samoa List of colonial governors of Samoa O le Ao o le Malo Lists of incumbents World Statesmen – Samoa