Fiat 500 "Topolino"
The Fiat 500 known as "Topolino", is an Italian city car produced and manufactured by Fiat from 1936 to 1955. The name "Topolino" is Italian and translates as "little mouse" in English, but is the Italian name for Mickey Mouse; the Topolino was one of the smallest cars in the world at the time of its production. Launched in 1936, three models were produced until 1955, all with only minor mechanical and cosmetic changes, it was equipped with a 569 cc four-cylinder, side-valve, water-cooled engine mounted in front of the front axle, so was a full-scale car rather than a cyclecar. The radiator was located behind the engine which made possible a lowered aerodynamic nose profile at a time when competitors had a flat, nearly vertical grille; the shape of the car's front allowed exceptional forward visibility. Rear suspension used quarter-elliptic rear springs, but buyers squeezed four or five people into the nominally two-seater car, in models the chassis was extended at the rear to allow for more robust semi-elliptic springs.
With horsepower of about 13 bhp, its top speed was about 53 mph, it could achieve about 39.2 miles per US gallon. The target price given when the car was planned was 5,000 lire. In the event the price at launch was 9,750 lire, though the decade was one of falling prices in several parts of Europe and in the 1930s the Topolino was sold for about 8,900 lire. Despite being more expensive than first envisioned, the car was competitively priced. Nearly 520,000 were sold. Three models were produced. Model A and B shared the same body, only the engine of model B had 16 hp, vs. 13 hp of Model A. Model A was produced from 1937 to 1948, while B was produced in 1948 and 1949. Model A was offered as a 2-door saloon, 2-door convertible saloon and a 2-door van, while Model B introduced a 3-door estate under the name 500 B Giardinetta; the Giardinetta was at the beginning only available as a so-called woodie, i.e. with an outside ash frame and available in seven metallic colors. When it was renamed Belvedere, the wood was replaced with metal.
This model as well as the regular two-seater Convertible-Limousine were produced in Germany by the German Fiat daughter NSU-Fiat. Model C was introduced in 1949 with a restyled body and the same engine as Model B, was offered in 2-door saloon, 2-door convertible saloon, 3-door estate and 2-door van versions. In 1952, Giardinetta was renamed Belvedere. Model C was produced until 1955. In 1955 the larger rear-wheel-drive Fiat 600 was launched by Fiat and that would become the design basis for the new Fiat 500, the Nuova 500. Fiat 500 History - Gizmohighway Auto Guide Jay Leno talks about his Topolino "Soviet-italian comic car AHCHOO-2"
The Fiat 527 is a six-cylinder passenger car produced by Fiat between 1934 and 1936. The 527 was a larger-engined and more luxurious version of the four-cylinder 518 Ardita; this car was built only with a full-length chassis. Unlike the four-cylinder Ardita, the 527 was not assembled outside Italy. 1,000 were produced. Steiningen, Fred. Fiat Personenwagen. ISBN 3-923448-37-6
A vis-à-vis is a carriage in which the passengers sit face to face with the front passengers facing rearward and the rear passengers facing forward. The term comes from the French vis-à-vis; these carriages are still made by Amish carriage makers in the midwestern United States. In the Western world, the vis-a-vis is the most common type of carriage style used to cart tourists and leisure seekers in downtown urban settings. Passengers sit back-to-back on dos-à-dos carriages; the following types of carriage had vis-à-vis seating: Barouche Berline Landau There were vis-à-vis automobiles in the early history of motoring. These were driven from the forward-facing rear seat, with front passengers sitting ahead of the steering controls and facing the driver. Passengers in the front seat would obstruct the vision of the driver in the rear seat, the style fell out of favour before 1905. Types of carriages Car body styles
Dearborn is a city in the State of Michigan. It is part of the Detroit metropolitan area. Dearborn is the eighth largest city in the State of Michigan; as of the 2010 census, it had a population of 98,153 and is home to the largest Muslim population in the United States. First settled in the late 18th century by French farmers in a series of ribbon farms along the Rouge River and the Sauk Trail, the community grew with the establishment of the Detroit Arsenal on the Chicago Road linking Detroit and Chicago, it developed as a major manufacturing hub for the automotive industry, as Henry Ford built his Rouge River Ford Complex here. Henry Ford was born on a farm here and established an estate in Dearborn, as well as his River Rouge Complex, the largest factory of his Ford empire, he developed mass production of automobiles, based the world headquarters of the Ford Motor Company here. The city has a campus of the University of Michigan as well as Henry Ford College; the Henry Ford, the United States' largest indoor-outdoor historic museum complex and Metro Detroit's leading tourist attraction, is located here.
Dearborn residents are Americans of European or Middle Eastern ancestry, descendants of 19th and 20th-century immigrants. Because of new waves of immigration from the Middle East in the late 20th century, the largest ethnic grouping is now composed of descendants of various nationalities of that area: Christians from Lebanon and Palestine, as well as Muslim immigrants from Syria and Yemen; the primary European ethnicities as identified by respondents to the census are German, Polish and Italian. Before European encounter, the area had been inhabited for thousands of years by varying indigenous peoples. Historical tribes belonged to the Algonquian-language family the Council of Three Fires, the Potawatomi and related peoples. In contrast, the Huron were Iroquoian speaking. French colonists had a trading post at Fort Detroit and a settlement developed there in the colonial period, as well as on the south side of the Detroit River in what is now southwestern Ontario. France ceded all of its territory east of the Mississippi River to Britain in 1763 after losing to the English in the Seven Years' War.
Beginning in 1786, after the United States gained independence in the American Revolutionary War, more European Americans entered the region, settling in Detroit and the Dearborn area. With population growth, Dearborn Township was formed in 1833 and the village of Dearbornville in 1836, each named after patriot Henry Dearborn, a general in the American Revolution who served as Secretary of War under President Thomas Jefferson; the town of Dearborn was incorporated in 1893. Through much of the 19th century, the area was rural. Stimulated by industrial development in Detroit and within its own limits, in 1927 Dearborn was established as a city, its current borders result from a 1928 consolidation vote that merged Dearborn and neighboring Fordson, which feared being absorbed into expanding Detroit. According to historian James W. Leuwen, in his book Sundown Towns, many of Dearborn's residents "took pride in the saying,'The sun never set on a Negro in Dearborn'". According to segregationist Orville Hubbard, mayor of Dearborn from 1942 to 1978, "as far as he was concerned, it was against the law for a Negro to live in his suburb."The area between Dearborn and Fordson was undeveloped, still remains so in part.
Once farm land, considerable property was bought by Henry Ford for his estate, Fair Lane, the Ford Motor Company World Headquarters. Developments in this corridor were the Ford airport, other Ford administrative and development facilities. More recent additions are The Henry Ford, the Henry Ford Centennial Library, the super-regional shopping mall Fairlane Town Center, the Ford Performing Arts Center; the open land is planted with sunflowers and with Ford's favorite crop of soybeans. The crops are never harvested. With the growth and achievements of the Arab-American community, they developed and in 2005 opened the Arab American National Museum, the first museum in the world devoted to Arab-American history and culture. Arab Americans in Dearborn include descendants of Lebanese Christians who immigrated in the early twentieth century to work in the auto industry, as well as more recent Arab immigrants and their descendants from other nations. In January of 2019, Dearborn Mayor John "Jack" O'Reilly, Jr. terminated the contract of Bill McGraw, new editor of the Dearborn Historian, a city publication, has refused to allow the Autumn, 2018 issue to be distributed to subscribers.
That issue, on the 100th anniversary of Henry Ford's acquisition of the Dearborn Independent newspaper, discussed the influential anti-Semitism of Dearborn's most famous resident. This decision of the mayor received national publicity; the Dearborn Historical Commission held an emergency meeting and passed a resolution calling for the mayor to reverse these actions. The suppressed article may be read here. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 24.5 square miles, of which 24.4 square miles is land and 0.1 square miles is water. The city developed on both sides of the Rouge River. An artificial waterfall/low head dam was constructed by Henry Ford on his estate to power its powerhouse; the Upper and Lower Branches of the river come together in Dearborn. The river channeled near the Rouge Plant to allow lake freighter access. Fordson Island is an 8.4 acres island about three miles (5
An engine or motor is a machine designed to convert one form of energy into mechanical energy. Heat engines, like the internal combustion engine, burn a fuel to create heat, used to do work. Electric motors convert electrical energy into mechanical motion, pneumatic motors use compressed air, clockwork motors in wind-up toys use elastic energy. In biological systems, molecular motors, like myosins in muscles, use chemical energy to create forces and motion; the word engine derives from Old French engin, from the Latin ingenium–the root of the word ingenious. Pre-industrial weapons of war, such as catapults and battering rams, were called siege engines, knowledge of how to construct them was treated as a military secret; the word gin, as in cotton gin, is short for engine. Most mechanical devices invented during the industrial revolution were described as engines—the steam engine being a notable example. However, the original steam engines, such as those by Thomas Savery, were not mechanical engines but pumps.
In this manner, a fire engine in its original form was a water pump, with the engine being transported to the fire by horses. In modern usage, the term engine describes devices, like steam engines and internal combustion engines, that burn or otherwise consume fuel to perform mechanical work by exerting a torque or linear force. Devices converting heat energy into motion are referred to as engines. Examples of engines which exert a torque include the familiar automobile gasoline and diesel engines, as well as turboshafts. Examples of engines which produce thrust include rockets; when the internal combustion engine was invented, the term motor was used to distinguish it from the steam engine—which was in wide use at the time, powering locomotives and other vehicles such as steam rollers. The term motor derives from the Latin verb moto which means to maintain motion, thus a motor is a device. Motor and engine are interchangeable in standard English. In some engineering jargons, the two words have different meanings, in which engine is a device that burns or otherwise consumes fuel, changing its chemical composition, a motor is a device driven by electricity, air, or hydraulic pressure, which does not change the chemical composition of its energy source.
However, rocketry uses the term rocket motor though they consume fuel. A heat engine may serve as a prime mover—a component that transforms the flow or changes in pressure of a fluid into mechanical energy. An automobile powered by an internal combustion engine may make use of various motors and pumps, but all such devices derive their power from the engine. Another way of looking at it is that a motor receives power from an external source, converts it into mechanical energy, while an engine creates power from pressure. Simple machines, such as the club and oar, are prehistoric. More complex engines using human power, animal power, water power, wind power and steam power date back to antiquity. Human power was focused by the use of simple engines, such as the capstan, windlass or treadmill, with ropes and block and tackle arrangements; these were used in cranes and aboard ships in Ancient Greece, as well as in mines, water pumps and siege engines in Ancient Rome. The writers of those times, including Vitruvius and Pliny the Elder, treat these engines as commonplace, so their invention may be more ancient.
By the 1st century AD, cattle and horses were used in mills, driving machines similar to those powered by humans in earlier times. According to Strabo, a water powered mill was built in Kaberia of the kingdom of Mithridates during the 1st century BC. Use of water wheels in mills spread throughout the Roman Empire over the next few centuries; some were quite complex, with aqueducts and sluices to maintain and channel the water, along with systems of gears, or toothed-wheels made of wood and metal to regulate the speed of rotation. More sophisticated small devices, such as the Antikythera Mechanism used complex trains of gears and dials to act as calendars or predict astronomical events. In a poem by Ausonius in the 4th century AD, he mentions a stone-cutting saw powered by water. Hero of Alexandria is credited with many such wind and steam powered machines in the 1st century AD, including the Aeolipile and the vending machine these machines were associated with worship, such as animated altars and automated temple doors.
Medieval Muslim engineers employed gears in mills and water-raising machines, used dams as a source of water power to provide additional power to watermills and water-raising machines. In the medieval Islamic world, such advances made it possible to mechanize many industrial tasks carried out by manual labour. In 1206, al-Jazari employed a crank-conrod system for two of his water-raising machines. A rudimentary steam turbine device was described by Taqi al-Din in 1551 and by Giovanni Branca in 1629. In the 13th century, the solid rocket motor was invented in China. Driven by gunpowder, this simplest form of internal combustion engine was unable to deliver sustained power, but was useful for propelling weaponry at high speeds towards enemies in battle and for fireworks. After invention, this innovation spread throughout Europe; the Watt steam engine was the first type of steam engine to make use of steam at a pressure just above atmospheric to drive the piston he
Ceirano GB & C
The Ceirano GB & C was a historic automobile company, founded in October 1898 by Giovanni Battista Ceirano, Emanuele di Bricherasio, Attilio Calligaris, Pietro Fenoglio and Cesare Goria Gatti. The headquarters of the new company was set at Turin, where in 1899 it began to build a small car with two seats, the Welleyes designed by Aristide Faccioli. Welleyes was a great commercial success for Ceirano, but managers found themselves unable to cope with the orders of the vehicle. In July 1898 Ceirano decided to sell the plans and patents to Giovanni Agnelli; the Ceirano brothers, Giovanni Battista, Giovanni and Matteo, were influential in the founding of the Italian auto industry, being variously responsible for: Ceirano. T. A. R. / Rapid. P. A.. Giovanni's son Giovanni "Ernesto" was influential, co-founding Ceirano Fabbrica Automobili and Fabrica Anonima Torinese Automobili. In 1888, after eight years apprenticeship at his father's watch-making business, Giovanni Battista started building Welleyes bicycles, so named because English names had more sales appeal.
In October 1898 Giovanni Battista and Matteo co-founded Ceirano GB & C and started producing the Welleyes motor car in 1899. In July 1899 the plant and patents were sold to Giovanni Agnelli and produced as the first F. I. A. T.s - the Fiat 4 HP. Giovanni Battista was employed by Fiat as the agent for Italy, but within a year he left to found Fratelli Ceirano & C. which in 1903 became Società Torinese Automobili Rapid building cars badged as'Rapid'. In 1904 Matteo Ceirano left Ceirano C to create his own brand - Itala. In 1906 Matteo left Itala to found S. P. A. with chief designer, Alberto Ballacco. In 1906 Giovanni founded SCAT in Turin. In 1919 Giovanni and Giovanni "Ernesto" co-founded Ceirano Fabbrica Automobili and in 1922 they took control of Fabrica Anonima Torinese Automobili; the Welleyes was presented on 30 April 1899, was designed by Aristide Faccioli, one of the most brilliant car engineers at the time. The car was equipped with two horizontal cylinders, transmission with leather belt and with two gears.
The first Fiat made. List of automobile companies founded by the Ceirano brothers