Somaliland the Republic of Somaliland, is a self-declared state, internationally considered to be an autonomous region of Somalia. The government of the de facto state of Somaliland regards itself as the successor state to the former British Somaliland protectorate, which, in the form of the independent State of Somaliland, united as scheduled on 1 July 1960 with the Trust Territory of Somaliland to form the Somali Republic. Somaliland lies on the southern coast of the Gulf of Aden, it is bordered by the remainder of Somalia to the east, Djibouti to the northwest, Ethiopia to the south and west. Its claimed territory has an area of 176,120 square kilometres, with 4 million residents; the capital and the largest city is Hargeisa, with the population of around 1,500,000 residents. In 1988, the Siad Barre government began a crackdown against the Hargeisa-based Somali National Movement and other militant groups, which were among the events that led to the Somali Civil War; the conflict left the country's economic and military infrastructure damaged.
Following the collapse of Barre's government in early 1991, local authorities, led by the SNM, unilaterally declared independence from Somalia on 18 May of the same year and reinstated the borders of the former short-lived independent State of Somaliland. Since the territory has been governed by democratically elected governments that seek international recognition as the Government of the Republic of Somaliland; the central government maintains informal ties with some foreign governments, who have sent delegations to Hargeisa. Ethiopia maintains a trade office in the region. However, Somaliland's self-proclaimed independence remains unrecognised by any country or international organisation, it is a member of the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization, an advocacy group whose members consist of indigenous peoples and unrecognised or occupied territories. Somaliland has been inhabited since at least the Paleolithic. During the Stone Age, the Doian and Hargeisan cultures flourished here.
The oldest evidence of burial customs in the Horn of Africa comes from cemeteries in Somalia dating back to the 4th millennium BCE. The stone implements from the Jalelo site in the north were characterized in 1909 as important artefacts demonstrating the archaeological universality during the Paleolithic between the East and the West. According to linguists, the first Afroasiatic-speaking populations arrived in the region during the ensuing Neolithic period from the family's proposed urheimat in the Nile Valley, or the Near East; the Laas Geel complex on the outskirts of Hargeisa in northwestern Somalia dates back around 5,000 years, has rock art depicting both wild animals and decorated cows. Other cave paintings are found in the northern Dhambalin region, which feature one of the earliest known depictions of a hunter on horseback; the rock art is in the distinctive Ethiopian-Arabian style, dated to 1,000 to 3,000 BCE. Additionally, between the towns of Las Khorey and El Ayo in northern Somalia lies Karinhegane, the site of numerous cave paintings of real and mythical animals.
Each painting has an inscription below it, which collectively have been estimated to be around 2,500 years old. Ancient pyramidical structures, ruined cities and stone walls, such as the Wargaade Wall, are evidence of an old civilization that once thrived in the Somali peninsula; this civilization enjoyed a trading relationship with ancient Egypt and Mycenaean Greece since the second millennium BCE, supporting the hypothesis that Somalia or adjacent regions were the location of the ancient Land of Punt. The Puntites traded myrrh, gold, short-horned cattle and frankincense with the Egyptians, Babylonians, Indians and Romans through their commercial ports. An Egyptian expedition sent to Punt by the 18th dynasty Queen Hatshepsut is recorded on the temple reliefs at Deir el-Bahari, during the reign of the Puntite King Parahu and Queen Ati. In 2015, isotopic analysis of ancient baboon mummies from Punt, brought to Egypt as gifts indicated that the specimens originated from an area encompassing eastern Somalia and the Eritrea-Ethiopia corridor.
The camel is believed to have been domesticated in the Horn region sometime between the 2nd and 3rd millennium BCE. From there, it spread to the Maghreb. During the classical period, the northern Barbara city-states of Mosylon, Mundus, Malao, Essina and Sarapion developed a lucrative trade network, connecting with merchants from Ptolemaic Egypt, Ancient Greece, Parthian Persia, the Nabataean Kingdom, the Roman Empire, they used the ancient Somali maritime vessel known as the beden to transport their cargo. After the Roman conquest of the Nabataean Empire and the Roman naval presence at Aden to curb piracy and Somali merchants agreed with the Romans to bar Indian ships from trading in the free port cities of the Arabian peninsula to protect the interests of Somali and Arab merchants in the lucrative commerce between the Red and Mediterranean Seas. However, Indian merchants continued to trade in the port cities of the Somali peninsula, free from Roman interference. For centuries, Indian merchants brought large quantities of cinnamon to Somalia and Arabia from Ceylon and the Spice Islands.
The source of the cinnamon and other spices is said
The ABC-79M armoured personnel carrier has been developed in Romania and uses some automotive components of the TAB-77 armoured personnel carrier. Although known as TABC-79, it is now known as the ABC-79M; the ABC-79M is a simplified version of the earlier TAB-77 8x8 armored personal carrier, itself a Romanian version of the BTR-70. Both vehicles share several common components; the ABC-79M is amphibious, is equipped with a single water-jet for propulsion. Other equipment includes infra-red night-vision equipment, winch with 50m of cable and capacity of 5,500 kilograms, central tire pressure regulation, it is equipped with an engine preheater, to allow the engine to start in severe cold. It is equipped for nuclear and biological warfare and features a 14.5mm KPVT heavy machine gun with 500 rounds of ammunition as primary armament. This is supplemented by a lighter 7.62mm machine gun with 2000 rounds of ammunition on board. Both weapons are located in a small one-man turret, identical to turret of the TAB 77 and the earlier TAB 71M Production is now complete, the vehicle is no longer available for foreign or domestic sale.
It is in use only with second line units of the Romanian military, there have been no export orders other than a single vehicle purchased by Israel in 1994. No Israeli order followed the trials. Variants include: TAB-C reconnaissance vehicle AM-425 armored personnel carrier TAB-79A PCOMA artillery observation vehicle TAB-79AR mortar carrier ML-A95M vehicle used for the CA-95M self-propelled anti-aircraft weapon www.military-today.com
Bushmaster Protected Mobility Vehicle
The Bushmaster Protected Mobility Vehicle or Infantry Mobility Vehicle is an Australian-built four-wheel drive armoured vehicle. The Bushmaster was designed by the government-owned Australian Defence Industries, is produced by Thales Australia with a support contract provided by Oshkosh Truck following the acquisition of ADI; the Bushmaster is in service with the Australian Army, Royal Australian Air Force, Royal Netherlands Army, British Army, Japan Ground Self Defense Force, Fiji Infantry Regiment, Jamaica Defence Force and the New Zealand Army. The role of the Bushmaster is to provide protected mobility transport, with infantry dismounting from the vehicle before going into action; as the Bushmaster is only armoured, the term Infantry Mobility Vehicle was adopted to distinguish it from a heavier wheeled or tracked armoured personnel carrier, such as the ASLAV and M113 in Australian service. The Bushmaster's designation was changed to Protected Mobility Vehicle; the 1991 Defence Force Structure Review identified the Australian Army need for an Infantry Mobility Vehicle.
The 1994 White Paper stated. Project Bushranger was created to procure both protected and unprotected vehicles; the Infantry Improvised Mobility Vehicle, a fleet of unarmoured Land Rover Perentie vehicles, were purchased from November 1993 to fill the IMV role until it entered service. In February 1994, the draft specification for the IMV was released, followed in July by the invitation to register interest with 17 proposals received including by Australian company Perry Engineering with the Bushmaster and by Australian Specialised Vehicle System with the Taipan derived from the South African Mamba. In September 1995, the request for tender was issued to 5 shortlisted proposals and in January 1997 due to withdrawals the Bushmaster and Taipan remained the only bidders. In early 1996, Perry Engineering produced a prototype Bushmaster based on an Irish designed Timoney Technologies MP44, including the Rockwell/Timoney independent suspension, with U. S. company Stewart & Stevenson components from the Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles.
Over 65% of the components by Stewart & Stevenson were from the FMTV including engine, steering, instrumentation and pneumatic systems. The prototype was built in less than seven months. In September 1996, the Australian government-owned company Australian Defence Industries purchased the intellectual property rights from Boral's Perry Engineering with agreement from Timoney Technologies and Stewart & Stevenson. In November 1997, ADI launched its re-engineered Bushmaster proposal changing the design and shape of the hull to withstand a greater force and associated internal and external features. In March 1998, three Bushmaster IMVs and three Taipain IMVs built in South Africa started a 44-week competitive evaluation trial. Neither vehicle met all of the requirements of the specification, performed with varying success over the course of the trials. On 10 March 1999, ADI was awarded the Bushranger contract to produce the Bushmaster to be manufactured at their Bendigo facility. In November 1999, ADI was privatised becoming 50% owned by French company Thales and 50% owned by Australian company Transfield.
In 2006, ADI was renamed to Thales Australia following Thales buying out Transfield. In October 2016 it was announced that Australia and Indonesia would jointly develop a vehicle based on the Bushmaster for use by the Indonesian military; the vehicle, known as the Sanca, is manufactured by PT Pindad in collaboration with Thales. The Bushmaster is optimised for operations in northern Australia, is capable of carrying up to 9 soldiers and their equipment and supplies for 3 days, depending on the type of variant; the vehicle is fitted with air conditioning and was once planned to have a cool water drinking system, but was omitted upon production due to cost constraints. After operational complaints the drinking water cooling system is being reconsidered for installation, it has an operational range of 800 km. The Bushmaster is a mine protected vehicle and provides a high degree of protection against land mines, using its v-hull monocoque to deflect the blast away from the vehicle and its occupants.
The vehicle's armour provides protection against small arms of up to 7.62 mm ball ammunition, 81mm mortar fragments, Claymore mines, with additional applique armour, protection for armour-piercing ammunition of up to 7.62mm. The fuel and hydraulic tanks of the vehicle are located outside the crew compartment, while it has an automatic fire suppression system; the troop carrier variant of the Bushmaster is fitted with one gun ring. The forward gun ring can be fitted with a 5.56 mm or 7.62 mm machine gun. The two rear hatches each have a mounting boss to allow the attachment of a swing mount capable of holding a 7.62 mm machine gun. The Bushmaster is air transportable by C-17 Globemaster III and Mil Mi-26 aircraft, it is the first armoured vehicle to be designed and manufactured in Australia since the Sentinel tank during World War II. In keeping with the vehicle's role and capabilities, the Australian Army designates Bushmaster-equipped infantry units as being motorised, not mechanised. Following the vehicle's troubled development, a total of 299 Bushmasters were ordered by the Wheeled Manoeuvre Systems Program Office of the Defence Materiel Organisation for the Australian Defence Force.
Bushmaster deliveries began in 2005 and were scheduled to be completed in July 2007. Deliveries of
The AVGP is a series of three armoured fighting vehicles ordered by the Canadian military in the 1970s. The vehicles, which are the Grizzly and Husky, were based on the six-wheeled version of the Swiss MOWAG Piranha I; the Canadian Army retired all AVGP variants beginning in 2005. The AVGP had propellers and trim vanes for amphibious use, like the eight-wheeled Bison, the vehicle family's immediate successor. Recent retrofits have removed the marine drive system, as it was used and maintenance was costly; the Canadian Army's LAV III, the United States Marine Corps' LAV-25, the US Army's Stryker are other variants of the LAV family and directly evolved from the Canadian designs. The AVGP variants were introduced into Canadian service in the late 1970s. Intended for use only in Canada, they were pressed into service for several United Nations missions, including UNPROFOR and the mission to Somalia. One Grizzly was captured by Serb forces in the late 1990s, despite it being present on a peace keeping mission.
The Cougar was used for training in Canada as a reconnaissance vehicle. During the 1980s and 1990s, it was used by armoured units as a fire support vehicle, for those units not equipped with the Leopard tank; the squadrons equipped with the Cougar in those regiments were humorously referred to as the "boat squadron" as opposed to the reconnaissance squadrons, which were equipped with the Lynx, the Coyote. The Grizzly was used as an armoured personnel carrier in regular force infantry battalions not equipped with the M113 APC, by reserve units; the majority of vehicles had their marine propulsion systems removed. Under the Wheeled LAV Life Extension project, the Canadian Forces planned to convert Grizzly and Husky vehicles to support variants, such as Command Post and Mobile Repair Team Vehicle. However, the project was cancelled in 2005, the vehicles retired. In May 2007, the Edmonton Police Service accepted the donation of a disarmed Grizzly from the Canadian Army. In March 2010, the Canadian Army donated two disarmed Cougar AVGPs to the Royal Canadian Mounted Police in British Columbia for use by the Emergency Response Team.
They were retrofitted to transport ERT assault teams into hazardous areas where transport in unarmoured vehicles would not be safe. In April 2014, the department of National Defence donated a Cougar AVGP to the Windsor Police Service in Windsor, Ontario. In June 2005, the Canadian government announced plans to loan 105 AVGPs to African peacekeepers in the Darfur region of Sudan; the AVGP was considered sufficiently modern to be useful in this low-intensity conflict. Canada planned to arrange for civilian contractors to maintain these vehicles; as the vehicles contained some U. S.-manufactured or licensed parts, U. S. permission would be required to loan the vehicles. The vehicles were to be shipped without their Cadillac-Gage turrets; the vehicles arrived in Senegal in the late summer of 2005. The Sudanese government required various kinds of assurances before they would allow peacekeepers to use the vehicles in Sudan. On November 18, 2005 the vehicles started arriving in Sudan, with their turrets.
The loan of vehicles for peace-keeping service in Sudan was for one year. However, the loan was extended, transferred from the African Union to the United Nations. According to Amnesty International, the soldiers who used the loaned vehicles served in Sudan for too short a term to be properly trained, become experienced. One of the vehicles was destroyed by a rocket-propelled grenade. A second vehicle was damaged when it rammed a more armed, but unarmoured Technical vehicle. In 2008, the Uruguayan Army bought 44 surplus Cougars from the Canadian Army, they were rebuilt without the turret by the Chilean MOWAG-Piranha builder FAMAE, as they will act as armoured personnel carriers for the UN deployment in the Republic of Congo, domestically. In 2009, Uruguay bought 98 Grizzlys and 5 Huskys that were on loan with the AMIS/UNAMID mission in Darfur. It's reported in the vehicles were placed under modernization under a contract with FAMAE since 2011 by installing new engines and gearboxes, as well as preventive maintenance to keep them in good condition.
Variants of the AVGP are: Used as a tank trainer and fire support vehicle Three-man crew Turret of a British Scorpion reconnaissance vehicle Armoured personnel carrier Three-man crew Designed to carry a section of infantry Mounting a Cadillac-Gage 1 metre turret, armed with a.50 BMG and a 7.62 mm machine gun Armoured recovery vehicle Two-man crew Designed to provide mechanical support for the other two vehicles Canada - AVGPs were used by Regular and Reserve units, the Cougar in armoured regiments and the Grizzly in mechanized infantry battalions. Serbia - at least one Canadian Grizzly serving in the former Yugoslavia was captured by Serbian forces and had been photographed in the service of Jedinica za Specijalne Operacije or Crvene Beretke, a unit of the Serbian police. Canada – as the Tav 2 variant, these were given for free by the Canadian Army to the RCMP in British Columbia in March 2010; the Edmonton Police Service received one Grizzly in 2007. The New Glasgow Regional Police received one Grizzly in 2013.
Due to concerns that it's not being daily, the NGP is ready to hand it over to another police that needs it as of 2017. The Windsor Police Service received one Grizzly in 2013. Uruguay – 44 refurbished Cougars with turret
The Peruvian Army is the branch of the Peruvian Armed Forces tasked with safeguarding the independence and integrity of national territory on land through military force. Additional missions include assistance in safeguarding internal security, conducting disaster relief operations and participating in international peacekeeping operations, it celebrates the anniversary of the Battle of Ayacucho on December 9. Military traditions in Peruvian territory go back to prehispanic times, ranging from small armed bands to the large armies assembled by the Inca Empire. After the Spanish conquest, small garrisons were kept at strategic locations but no standing army existed until the Bourbon reforms of the 18th century; the main purpose of this force was the defense of the Viceroyalty from pirates and corsairs as well as internal rebellions. The Ejército del Perú was established on August 18, 1821 when the government of general José de San Martín established the Legión Peruana de la Guardia, although some militia units had been formed before.
Peruvian troops were key participants in the final campaign against Spanish rule in South America, under the leadership of general Simón Bolívar, which ended victoriously in the battles of Junín and Ayacucho in 1824. After the War of Independence the strong position of the Army and the lack of solid political institutions meant that every Peruvian president until 1872 held some military rank; the Ejército del Perú had a major role in the definition of national borders by participating in several wars against neighbor countries. This included an indecisive conflict against the Gran Colombia, the wars of the Peru-Bolivian Confederacy, two invasions of Bolivia and a brief occupation of Ecuador. Starting in 1842, increased state revenues from guano exports allowed the expansion and modernization of the Army, as well as the consolidation of its political power; these improvements were an important factor in the defeat of a Spanish naval expedition at the Battle of Callao. However, continuous overspending and a growing public debt led to a chronic fiscal crisis in the 1870s which affected defense budgets.
The consequent lack of military preparedness combined with bad leadership were major causes of Peru's defeat against Chile in the War of the Pacific. The reconstruction of the Army started after the war due to a general lack of funds. A major turning point in this process was the arrival in 1896 of a French Military Mission contracted by president Nicolás de Piérola. By 1900 the peacetime strength of the army was evaluated at six infantry battalions, two regiments and four squadrons and cavalry, one artillery regiment for a total of 3,075 personnel. A military school was operating in the Chorrillos District of Lima and French officers were continuing to assist in the army's reorganization. During the early years of the 20th century the Peruvian Army underwent a series of reforms under the guidance of the French Military Mission which operated in the periods 1896-1914, 1919–1924 and 1932-1939. Changes included the streamlining of the General Staff, the establishment of the Escuela Superior de Guerra in 1904, the creation of four military regions in 1905 and a general professionalization of the military career.
Improvements such as these were instrumental in the good performance of the Army in border skirmishes with Colombia and a major war against Ecuador. Though the Peruvian Army was not involved in World War II, this conflict had a significant effect in its development through the replacement of French military influence by that of the United States. A US military mission started operations in 1945 followed by an influx of surplus American military equipment delivered as military aid or sold at a low cost. Washington established itself as the leader of continental defense through the creation of the Inter-American Defense Board in 1942 and the signing of the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance in 1947. A parallel development was the founding in 1950 of the Centro de Altos Estudios Militares for the formation of officers in the major problems of the nation beyond those related to its military defense; the Peruvian Army was the main protagonist of the Gobierno Revolucionario de las Fuerzas Armadas, an institutionalized military government that ruled the country between 1968 and 1980.
During this period, defense expenditures underwent exponential growth allowing a rapid expansion of the Armed Forces and an unprecedented level of weapon acquisitions. In the early 1970s, US influence over the Army was replaced by a massive influx of Soviet training and equipment, including T-55 tanks, the BM-21 Grad, AK series rifles and the BTR series APCs plus a new Soviet-styled national military strategy of regaining the lost southern provinces which were now part of Chile. Political power returned to the civilians in the 1980s, but the rise of the terrorist insurgent group Sendero Luminoso prompted the deployment of several Army units in a counter-insurgency role. Human rights violations associated with this intervention and a sharp decrease in the defense budget due to a general economic crisis caused serious problems for the Army morale and readiness as well as a strain on civil-military relations; the presidency of Alberto Fujimori saw the Army regain protagonism in the public scene, but its increased political power led to some cases of corruption.
The internal con
The ACMAT Bastion is a modern French armoured personnel carrier, manufactured by ACMAT. Its chassis is based on the ACMAT VLRA. In 2018, owner of ACMAT, signed a contract with AM General to propose the Bastion as an armored ambulance for the U. S. Army; the Bastion PATSAS is a variant designed for special forces. It carry 5 equipped soldiers, it can carry 3 additional medium machine guns. The Fortress Bastion HM, is an up-armored Bastion, with a more powerful motor and an independent suspension to improve its mobility, it does exist in APC and armored logistic vehicle. The Chadian détachement d'action rapide used Bastion Patsas during the 2013 intervention in Mali. Chadian Army fielded Bastions during the 2015 intervention against Boko Haram in Far North Cameroon and Nigeria; the Cameroonian Bastion APCs, nicknamed as Cyclones, have been deployed in Northern Cameroon with the Battalion d'intervention rapide elite force. Burkina Faso deployed its Bastions in peacekeeping operations in Northern Mali, under the MINUSMA banner.
They have been used in internal security missions, Bastion Patsas being for instance fielded by the regiment de sécurité présidentielle before its disbandment in 2015. One Bastion was destroyed by Ansar ul Islam in the 2016 Nassoumbou attack. In Mali, the 134th Escadron de Reconnaissance was trained for the use of Bastion APC by the EUTM Mali. In 2015, United States Department of Defense bought 62 Bastion APC commercialised by Mack Trucks to supply various African forces, some of them, such as Ouganda, being involved in AMISOM; some of the Saudi Arabian Bastion Patsas were used in the intervention in Yemen. Burkina Faso - 10 Bastion received in 2012. At least 8 Bastion Patsas and some Bastion APC in service. More than 100 in service according to Jane's. Cameroon - 23 Bastion APC received in 2015-2016, supplied via U. S. DoD. 15 Bastions received in late 2017. Chad - 22 Bastion Patsas received in 2013. Ethiopia - 12 Bastion APC received in 2016, supplied via U. S. DoD. In 2018, an industry source explained to Jane's that none has been supplied.
Gabon - 5 Bastion APC Ivory Coast - at least 9 Bastions in 2018 Kenya - 12 Bastion APC received in 2018, supplied via U. S. DoD. Mali - 5 Bastion APC received in 2016. Saudi Arabia - 71 Bastion Patsas received in 2016. Senegal - 36 Bastion APC and 2 Patsas, 7 were bought in December 2017 by the Senegalese Gendarmerie for riot control. An additional 29 were procured in 2019 for the Army with financial aid from Saudi Arabia Somalia - 13 Bastion APC received in 2016, supplied via U. S. DoD. In 2018, an industry source explained to Jane's that none has been supplied. Sweden - some Bastion HM supplied from 2016, used by the Särskilda operationsgruppen. Togo - 30 Bastion Patsas received in 2014. Tunisia - 4 Bastion APC received in 2016, supplied via U. S. DoD. Uganda - 19 Bastion APC received in 2017, supplied via U. S. DoD. A total of 31 has been supplied. France - Bastion PATSAS evaluated by the French special forces