The Matrix is a 1999 science fiction action film written and directed by The Wachowskis and starring Keanu Reeves, Laurence Fishburne, Carrie-Anne Moss, Hugo Weaving, Joe Pantoliano. It depicts a dystopian future in which humanity is unknowingly trapped inside a simulated reality called the Matrix, created by thought-capable machines to control humans while using their bodies as an energy source. Hacker and computer programmer Neo learns this truth and "is drawn into a rebellion against the machines", which involves other people who have been freed from the Matrix; the film is an example of the cyberpunk subgenre. The Wachowskis' approach to action scenes drew upon their admiration for Japanese animation and martial arts films, the film's use of fight choreographers and wire fu techniques from Hong Kong action cinema influenced subsequent Hollywood action film productions; the Matrix is known for popularizing a visual effect known as "bullet time", in which the heightened perception of certain characters is represented by allowing the action within a shot to progress in slow-motion while the camera's viewpoint appears to move through the scene at normal speed.
The film contains numerous allusions to philosophical and religious ideas, including existentialism, feminism, Buddhism and postmodernism. While some critics have praised the film for its handling of difficult subjects, others characterize the film's themes as being overshadowed by its action scenes; the Matrix was first released in the United States on March 31, 1999 and grossed over $460 million worldwide. It was well-received by many critics and won four Academy Awards, as well as other accolades, including BAFTA Awards and Saturn Awards; the Matrix was praised for its innovative visual effects and entertainment value. The film has since appeared in lists of the greatest science fiction films, and, in 2012, was added to the National Film Registry for preservation; the success of the film led to the release of two feature film sequels, both written and directed by the Wachowskis: The Matrix Reloaded and The Matrix Revolutions. The Matrix franchise was further expanded through the production of comic books, video games and animated short films, in which the Wachowskis were involved, inspired books and theories on ideas in religion and philosophy.
Computer programmer Thomas Anderson, living a double life as the hacker "Neo", feels something is wrong with the world and is puzzled by repeated online encounters with the cryptic phrase "the Matrix". A woman known as Trinity contacts him. Undeterred, Neo meets Morpheus, who offers him a choice between a red pill that will show him the truth about the Matrix, a blue pill that will return him to his former life. After swallowing the red pill, his reality disintegrates and Neo awakens, naked and hairless, in a liquid-filled pod, among countless others connected by cables to an elaborate electrical system, he is brought aboard Morpheus' hovercraft, the Nebuchadnezzar. As Neo recuperates, Morpheus explains the truth: in the 21st century, intelligent machines waged war against their human creators; when humans blocked the machines' access to solar energy, the machines retaliated by harvesting the humans' bioelectric power. The Matrix is a shared simulation of the world as it was at the end of the 20th century, where the harvested humans' minds are pacified while their bodies are contained in pods.
All free humans live in the last refuge in the real world. Morpheus and his crew are a group of rebels who hack into the Matrix to "unplug" enslaved humans and recruit them, their understanding of the simulated reality enables them to bend its physical laws, granting them superhuman abilities. Morpheus warns Neo that death within the Matrix kills the physical body, that the Agents are powerful computer programs that eliminate threats to the system. Neo's prowess during virtual combat training lends credibility to Morpheus' belief that Neo is "the One", an powerful human prophesied to free humans and end the war; the group enters the Matrix to visit the Oracle, an all-knowing prophet who predicted the emergence of the One. She implies that Neo is not the One and warns Neo that he will have to choose between Morpheus' life and his own. Before they can leave the Matrix, the group is ambushed by Agents and tactical police alerted by Cypher, a disgruntled crew member who betrayed Morpheus to Smith in exchange for a comfortable life back in the Matrix.
Morpheus allows himself to be captured so Neo and the rest of the crew can escape. Cypher exits the murders several crew members as they lie defenseless in the real world; as he prepares to disconnect Neo and Trinity, Tank, a crewman whom he had left for dead, kills him. In the Matrix, the Agents interrogate Morpheus to learn his access codes to the mainframe computer in Zion. Tank proposes killing Morpheus to prevent this, but Neo, believing that he is not the One, decides himself worth sacrificing if need be to rescue Morpheus. While rescuing Morpheus, Neo gains confidence in his abilities, performing feats comparable to the Agents'. Morpheus and Trinity exit the Matrix. In the real world, machines called. Trinity whispers to Neo that he can't be dead because she loves him and the Oracle told her that she would fall in love with the One, she kisses Neo and he revives with the power to control the Matrix. He effortlessly defeats Smith and leaves the Matrix just as the ship
Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, culture of everyday life. It is a social science that uses various methods of empirical investigation and critical analysis to develop a body of knowledge about social order and change or social evolution. While some sociologists conduct research that may be applied directly to social policy and welfare, others focus on refining the theoretical understanding of social processes. Subject matter ranges from the micro-sociology level of individual agency and interaction to the macro level of systems and the social structure; the different traditional focuses of sociology include social stratification, social class, social mobility, secularization, sexuality and deviance. As all spheres of human activity are affected by the interplay between social structure and individual agency, sociology has expanded its focus to other subjects, such as health, economy and penal institutions, the Internet, social capital, the role of social activity in the development of scientific knowledge.
The range of social scientific methods has expanded. Social researchers draw upon a variety of quantitative techniques; the linguistic and cultural turns of the mid-20th century led to interpretative and philosophic approaches towards the analysis of society. Conversely, the end of the 1990s and the beginning of the 2000s have seen the rise of new analytically and computationally rigorous techniques, such as agent-based modelling and social network analysis. Social research informs politicians and policy makers, planners, administrators, business magnates, social workers, non-governmental organizations, non-profit organizations, people interested in resolving social issues in general. There is a great deal of crossover between social research, market research, other statistical fields. Sociological reasoning predates the foundation of the discipline. Social analysis has origins in the common stock of Western knowledge and philosophy, has been carried out from as far back as the time of ancient Greek philosopher Plato, if not before.
The origin of the survey, i.e. the collection of information from a sample of individuals, can be traced back to at least the Domesday Book in 1086, while ancient philosophers such as Confucius wrote about the importance of social roles. There is evidence of early sociology in medieval Arab writings; some sources consider Ibn Khaldun, a 14th-century Arab Islamic scholar from North Africa, to have been the first sociologist and father of sociology. The word sociology is derived from both Greek origins; the Latin word: socius, "companion". It was first coined in 1780 by the French essayist Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyès in an unpublished manuscript. Sociology was defined independently by the French philosopher of science, Auguste Comte in 1838 as a new way of looking at society. Comte had earlier used the term social physics, but that had subsequently been appropriated by others, most notably the Belgian statistician Adolphe Quetelet. Comte endeavoured to unify history and economics through the scientific understanding of the social realm.
Writing shortly after the malaise of the French Revolution, he proposed that social ills could be remedied through sociological positivism, an epistemological approach outlined in The Course in Positive Philosophy and A General View of Positivism. Comte believed a positivist stage would mark the final era, after conjectural theological and metaphysical phases, in the progression of human understanding. In observing the circular dependence of theory and observation in science, having classified the sciences, Comte may be regarded as the first philosopher of science in the modern sense of the term. Comte gave a powerful impetus to the development of sociology, an impetus which bore fruit in the decades of the nineteenth century. To say this is not to claim that French sociologists such as Durkheim were devoted disciples of the high priest of positivism, but by insisting on the irreducibility of each of his basic sciences to the particular science of sciences which it presupposed in the hierarchy and by emphasizing the nature of sociology as the scientific study of social phenomena Comte put sociology on the map.
To be sure, beginnings can be traced back well beyond Montesquieu, for example, to Condorcet, not to speak of Saint-Simon, Comte's immediate predecessor. But Comte's clear recognition of sociology as a particular science, with a character of its own, justified Durkheim in regarding him as the father or founder of this science, in spite of the fact that Durkheim did not accept the idea of the three states and criticized Comte's approach to sociology. Both Auguste Comte and Karl Marx set out to develop scientifically justified systems in the wake of European industrialization and secularization, informed by various key movements in the philosophies of history and science. Marx rejected Comtean positivism but in attempting to develop a science of society came to be recognized as a founder of sociology as the word gained wider meaning. For Isaiah Berlin, Marx may be regarded as the "true father" of modern sociology, "in so far as anyone can claim the title."To have given clear and unified answers in familiar empirical terms to those theor
Sheriff of Nottingham
The Sheriff of Nottingham is the main antagonist in the legend of Robin Hood. He is depicted as an unjust tyrant, who mistreats the local people of Nottinghamshire, subjecting them to unaffordable taxes. Robin Hood fights against him, stealing from the rich, the Sheriff, in order to give to the poor, it is not conclusively known who this character is based on, but it would have been one of the people who have occupied the post of the High Sheriff of Nottinghamshire and the Royal Forests. If, as in many versions of the Robin Hood legend, the action of the story is placed during the absence of King Richard I of England during the Third Crusade, the character could be identified with the little-known William de Wendenal; the holder of the office of Nottingham's Sheriff, it is his task to capture outlaws such as Robin Hood, either to ensure the safety of trade routes through Sherwood Forest or to keep them from poaching the King's deer. In some stories, the Sheriff of Nottingham is portrayed as having a lecherous desire for Robin Hood's lady Maid Marian.
He is considered to be the principal villain of the Robin Hood stories, appearing alongside such enemies of Robin Hood as Sir Guy of Gisbourne or Prince John. The legends are set far from Nottingham. In the film Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves, the Sheriff's influence outside the region of Nottingham has grown so great, he attempts to take control of the throne. In some versions, the Sheriff is a cowardly schemer while his assistant, Sir Guy of Gisbourne, is a more competent and determined physical threat to Robin. In other versions, the Sheriff answers to Prince John, he was portrayed on Broadway in 1891 in The Sheriff of Nottingham by H. C. Barnabee. In the 1938 film The Adventures of Robin Hood, starring Errol Flynn in the title role, the Sheriff is played by Melville Cooper, he is nominally characterised as a coward and a secondary to Sir Guy of Gisbourne but is quite intelligent. For instance, he is the one who prudently advises Sir Guy to increase their caravan's security to ward off a possible ambush by Robin Hood, which Sir Guy disregards to his sorrow, he is the mastermind of the archery tournament trap that captures Robin Hood.
In the 1950s ITV series The Adventures of Robin Hood, he is played by Alan Wheatley who portrays him as a competent and ruthless enemy, not quite Robin's equal in combat. Wheatley was replaced late in the series with John Arnatt as the deputy Sheriff, a more treacherous, duplicitous villain, more on par with Robin's fighting skills. In The Goon Show sketch, Ye Bandit of Sherwood Forest first broadcast on 28 December 1954, the Sheriff of Nottingham is played by Peter Sellers as Hercules Grytpype-Thynne; when the script was rewritten as Robin Hood and his Mirry Mon, recorded on 2 December 1956, the part was played by Valentine Dyall. In Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves, in which he is the main antagonist, he is played by Alan Rickman, his given name is said to be George. More ambitious than most depictions, the Sheriff's agenda is to supplant Richard the Lionheart by marrying into royalty becoming king, or at least ensuring his future descendants would assume the throne, he was played by Keith Allen in the BBC series Robin Hood, from 2006.
Allen plays the Sheriff, named Vaisey, as a psychopath with a sarcastic nature. In the show's third series, Vaisey is deposed by Prince John as a result of his failure to assassinate King Richard, whereupon he fakes his own death, he is temporarily replaced by his seeming killer, Guy of Gisborne, for one episode before Gisborne is outlawed. In the Disney version of Robin Hood, the Sheriff is a large anthropomorphic gray wolf voiced by Alabama-born comedian Pat Buttram, he serves as Prince John's chief enforcer, collecting unlimited taxes from the people of Nottingham and hunting Robin Hood and Little John. This version is depicted as being far less smart than he realizes, claiming he can see through Robin Hood's disguises when he fails to see through two of them. In addition, he has vulture soldiers named Trigger that work for him. In the film's climax, he battles Robin inside Prince John's burning tower and is left trapped behind some curtains, but the film's final scene makes it clear that he survived.
He is last seen breaking rocks down in the Royal Rock Pile, having been sentenced to do so along with Prince John and Sir Hiss by King Richard while being overseen by Nutsy and Trigger. During story development, the animators considered experimenting with a different animal concept for the villain by making him a goat. However, they were over-ruled by the director who wanted to keep to traditional animal stereotypes and ordered the Sheriff be a wolf. In the anime series Robin Hood no Daibōken, the main antagonist Baron Alwyn is based on the Sheriff of Nottingham in both character design and personality as well as actions, he taxes his workers while keeping them working for him. Near the end of the series, due to Robin's constant thwarting and a near death experience by him, he starts to make a change for the better until coming across a plot that would allow him to take over the kingdom. Once again, his plan of action is stopped by Robin and his allies as well
Water Margin translated as Outlaws of the Marsh, Tale of the Marshes, All Men Are Brothers, Men of the Marshes or The Marshes of Mount Liang, is a Chinese novel attributed to Shi Nai'an. Considered one of the Four Great Classical Novels of Chinese literature, the novel is written in vernacular Chinese rather than Classical Chinese; the story, set in the Song dynasty, tells of how a group of 108 outlaws gather at Mount Liang to form a sizable army before they are granted amnesty by the government and sent on campaigns to resist foreign invaders and suppress rebel forces. It has introduced to readers many of the best-known characters in Chinese literature, such as Wu Song, Lin Chong and Lu Zhishen. Water Margin was based on the exploits of his 108 companions; the group was active in the Huainan region and surrendered to the Song government in 1121. They were recorded in the historical text History of Song; the name of "Song Jiang" appeared in the biography of Emperor Huizong of Song, which stated: The outlaw Song Jiang of Huainan and others attacked the army at Huaiyang, sent generals to attack and arrest them.
Infringed on the east of the capital and entered the boundaries of Chu and Haizhou. The prefect Zhang Shuye was ordered to pacify them. Zhang Shuye's biography further described Song Jiang and the outlaws' activities and how they were defeated by Zhang. Folk stories of Song Jiang circulated during the Southern Song; the first source to name Song Jiang's 36 companions was Miscellaneous observations from the year of Guixin by Zhou Mi, written in the 13th century. Among the 36 were Lu Junyi, Guan Sheng, Ruan Xiao'er, Ruan Xiaowu, Ruan Xiaoqi, Liu Tang, Hua Rong and Wu Yong; some of the characters who became associated with Song Jiang appeared around this time. They include Yang Zhi, Lin Chong, Lu Zhishen and Wu Song. A palace memorial by Hou Meng is included in the historical record History of Song, which states: "Song Jiang and 36 others cross Qi and Wei at will. Government troops number tens of thousands but no one dare oppose him, his abilities must be extraordinary. Since we face plunders by Fang La and his outlaws from Qingxi, why not grant Song Jiang and his men amnesty and allow them to lead a campaign against Fang La to redeem themselves?"
A direct precursor of Water Margin was the Old incidents in the Xuanhe period of the great Song dynasty, which appeared around the mid 13th century. The text is a written version of storytellers' tales, based on supposed historical events, it is divided into ten chapters covering the history of the Song dynasty from the early 11th century to the establishment of the Southern Song regime in 1127. The fourth chapter covers the adventures of Song Jiang and his 36 companions, their eventual defeat by Zhang Shuye; some of the more well-known stories and characters in Water Margin are visible, including "Yang Zhi sells his precious sabre", "Robbing the convoy of birthday gifts", "Song Jiang kills Yan Poxi", "Fighting Fang La", among others. Song Jiang and his outlaws were said to operate in the Taihang Mountains. Stories about the outlaws became a popular subject for Yuan dynasty drama. During this time, the material on which Water Margin was based evolved into what it is in the present; the number of outlaws increased to 108.
Though they came from different backgrounds, all of them came to occupy Mount Liang. There is a theory that Water Margin became popular during the Yuan era as the common people resented the Mongol rulers; the outlaws' rebellion was deemed "safe" to promote as it was a negative reflection of the fallen Song dynasty. Concurrently, the rebellion was a call for the common people to rise up against corruption in the government; the Chongzhen Emperor of the Ming dynasty, acting on the advice of his ministers, banned the book as a means of preventing revolts. The novel, praised as an early "masterpiece" of vernacular fiction, is renowned for the "mastery and control" of its mood and tone; the work is known for its use of vivid and racy language. However, it has been denounced as "obscene" by various critics since the Ming dynasty. "These seduction cases are the hardest of all. There are five conditions. First, you have to be as handsome as Pan An. Second, you need a tool as big as a donkey's. Third, you must be as rich as Deng Tong.
Fourth, you must be as forbearing as a needle plying through cotton wool. Fifth, you've got to spend time, it can be done only if you meet these five requirements." "Frankly, I think. First, while I'm far from a Pan An, I still can get by. Second, I've had a big cock since childhood." The opening episode in the novel is the release of the 108 Spirits, imprisoned under an ancient stele-bearing tortoise. The next chapter describes the rise of one of the primary antagonists of the story. Gao abuses his status as a Grand Marshal by oppressing Wang Jin. Wang Jin flees from the capital with his mother and by chance he meets Shi Jin, who becomes his apprentice; the next few chapters tell the story of Shi Jin's friend Lu Zhishen, followed by the story of Lu's sworn brother Lin Chong. Lin Chong is framed by Gao Qiu for attempting to assassinate him, die
Maquis (Star Trek)
In the Star Trek science fiction franchise, the Maquis are a 24th-century paramilitary organization/terrorist group first introduced in the 1994 episode "The Maquis" of the television series Star Trek: Deep Space Nine, subsequently appeared in Star Trek: The Next Generation and Star Trek: Voyager. The Maquis story debuted when three Star Trek television shows running from the late 1980s to 2001 took place in the same fictional science-fiction universe at the same time in the future; as a result, the Maquis story was told across dozens of episodes with many more shows providing the context in the wider Star Trek narrative. The Maquis are featured in the comic book saga The Maquis: Soldier of Peace by Malibu Comics, who held the rights to Deep Space Nine comics in the 1990s; the Maquis are an important part of Star Trek: Voyager, as the formative plot for the series is that a Federation and a Maquis crew are stranded together on the opposite side of the Galaxy. The Maquis are in the book series The Badlands by Susan Wright, who has written many other non-canon trekiverse novels published by Pocket Books.
The concept of the Maquis was intentionally introduced by the creators of Deep Space Nine so that it could play a role in the upcoming Voyager, scheduled to begin airing in 1995. As Jeri Taylor commented, "we knew that we wanted to include a renegade element in Voyager, that the show would involve a ship housing both Starfleet people and those idealistic freedom fighters that the Federation felt were outlaws." Therefore, the creators of Star Trek decided to create a backstory for the Maquis in several episodes of Deep Space Nine and The Next Generation, they named them after the French guerrilla fighters of the Second World War. The recurring characters of Michael Eddington in Deep Space Nine and Ro Laren in The Next Generation became members of the Maquis, Voyager contained three regular former Maquis characters: Chakotay, B'Elanna Torres, Tom Paris. In, "Caretaker", the pilot episode of Star Trek: Voyager, the titular starship pursues a Maquis ship into the Badlands before being teleported to the Delta Quadrant.
According to the fictional storyline of the Star Trek universe, the Maquis were formed in the 24th century after a peace treaty was enacted between the United Federation of Planets and the Cardassian Union, redesignating the demilitarized zone between the two powers, which resulted in the Federation ceding several of their colony worlds to the Cardassians. Although the colonists were offered free relocation to elsewhere in Federation territory, some insisted on remaining on the ceded worlds becoming Cardassian Union citizens; some of these colonists subsequently formed the Maquis to protect themselves from Cardassian aggression, although they received no official support from the Federation, who feared breaking the peace treaty with the Cardassians, which would lead to war. Nonetheless, various Federation members supported the Maquis' cause, illegally helped to supply them with weapons and other technology that they could use in their struggle. In several cases, the Federation intervened in the war between the Maquis and the Cardassians, aiding the latter in recognition of the peace treaty.
In one case, the Federation ship USS Voyager tracked a Maquis vessel to the Badlands with the intention of apprehending it, but an alien force transported both to the Delta Quadrant, on the opposite side of the Milky Way Galaxy. The two crews were forced to unite to survive against alien threats such as the Borg. In years, when the Cardassians joined the Dominion to fight in the Dominion War against the Federation, the Dominion aided the Cardassian military in wiping out the Maquis, a prelude to their war against the Federation and its allies; the Maquis provide moral challenges to existing characters such as Quark and Sisko on Deep Space Nine station. Quark is lured into selling weapons to the Maquis by an attractive Vulcan woman, showing how his desire for money unwittingly turned him into an illegal arms dealer. Sisko must navigate the internal politics of the Cardassians and Federation as he tries to uphold the peace treaty, in addition to being tested by his old friend trying to recruit him into the rebellion.
Background: The Cardassians were introduced on Star Trek The Next Generation in January 1991 with the episode "The Wounded" which lays some of the foundation for the Maquis story as does the story arc of Ensign Ro, introduced on The Next Generation in the fall of 1991 "The Wounded" introduces the Cardassians and the Federation-Cardassian peace treaty "Ensign Ro" Introduces Bajoran character Ro Laren "Chain of Command" further develops Cardassian-Federation relationship "Duet" further develops Cardassian-Bajor story "Journey's End" background on the Federation-Cardassian peace treatyMaquis-focussed episodes: "The Maquis, Part I and Part II" "Preemptive Strike" "Tribunal" "Defiant" "Caretaker" "Heart of Stone" "Learning Curve" "Dreadnought" Aftermath of Maquis-Cardassian war "For the Cause" "For the Uniform "Worst Case Scenario" (Airdate - May 14
Star Wars is an American epic space-opera media franchise created by George Lucas. The franchise began with the eponymous 1977 film and became a worldwide pop-culture phenomenon; the first film subtitled Episode IV – A New Hope, was followed by two successful sequels, Episode V – The Empire Strikes Back and Episode VI – Return of the Jedi. A subsequent prequel trilogy, consisting of Episode I – The Phantom Menace, Episode II – Attack of the Clones and Episode III – Revenge of the Sith, completed what Lucas called the "tragedy of Darth Vader". A sequel trilogy began with Episode VII – The Force Awakens, continued with Episode VIII – The Last Jedi, will end with Episode IX – The Rise of Skywalker in 2019; the first eight films were commercially successful. Together with the theatrical spin-off films Rogue One and Solo, the series has a combined box office revenue of over US$9 billion, is the second-highest-grossing film franchise; the film series has spawned into other media, including television series, video games, comics, theme park attractions and themed areas, resulting in a detailed fictional universe.
Star Wars holds a Guinness World Records title for the "Most successful film merchandising franchise". In 2018, the total value of the Star Wars franchise was estimated at US$65 billion, it is the fifth-highest-grossing media franchise of all time; the Star Wars franchise depicts the adventures of characters "A long time ago in a galaxy far, far away...." in which many species of aliens co-exist with droids who may assist them in their daily routines, space travel between planets is common due to hyperspace technology. The rises and falls of different governments are chronicled throughout the saga: the democratic Republic is corrupted and overthrown by the Galactic Empire, fought by the Rebel Alliance; the Rebellion gives rise to the New Republic and rebuilds society, but the remnants of the Empire reform as the First Order and attempt to destroy the Republic. Heroes of the former rebellion lead the Resistance against the oppressive dictatorship. A mystical power known as "the Force" is described in the original film as "an energy field created by all living things... binds the galaxy together."
Those whom "the Force is strong with" have quick reflexes. The Force is wielded by two major knighthood orders at conflict with each other: the Jedi, who act on the light side of the Force through non-attachment and arbitration, the Sith, who use the dark side through fear and aggression; the latter's members are intended to be limited to two: their apprentice. The Star Wars film series centers on a trilogy of trilogies, they were produced non-chronologically, with Episodes IV–VI being released between 1977 and 1983, Episodes I–III being released between 1999 and 2005, Episodes VII–IX, the first Star Wars films to be made without Lucas's direct involvement, being released between 2015 and 2019. Each trilogy focuses on a generation of the Force-sensitive Skywalker family; the original trilogy depict the heroic development of Luke Skywalker, the prequels tell of his father Anakin's fall from grace, the sequels introduce Luke's nephew and Anakin's grandson, Kylo Ren. A theatrical animated film, The Clone Wars, was released as a pilot to a TV series of the same name.
They were among the last projects overseen by George Lucas before the franchise was sold to Disney in 2012. An anthology series set between the main episodes entered development in parallel to the production of the sequel trilogy, described by Disney CFO Jay Rasulo as origin stories; the first entry, Rogue One, tells the story of the rebels who steal the Death Star plans directly before Episode IV. Solo: A Star Wars Story focuses on Han Solo's backstory featuring Chewbacca and Lando Calrissian. Two spin-off trilogies have been announced: one by Episode VIII's director Rian Johnson and the other by Game of Thrones creators David Benioff and D. B. Weiss. Prequel trilogy Original trilogy Sequel trilogy In 1971, George Lucas wanted to film an adaptation of the Flash Gordon serial, but couldn't obtain the rights, so he began developing his own space opera. After directing American Graffiti, he wrote a two-page synopsis titled Journal of the Whills, which 20th Century Fox decided to invest in. By 1974, he had expanded the story into the first draft of a screenplay.
The subsequent movie's success led Lucas to make it the basis of an elaborate film serial. With the backstory he created for the sequel, Lucas decided that the series would be a trilogy of trilogies. Most of the main cast would return for the two additional installments of the original trilogy, which were self-financed by Lucasfilm. Star Wars was released on May 25, 1977 and first called Episode IV – A New Hope in the 1979 book The Art of Star Wars. Episode V – The Empire Strikes Back was released on May 21, 1980 achieving wide financial and critical success; the final film in the trilogy, Episode VI – Return of the Jedi was released on May 25, 1983. The story of the original trilogy focuses on Luke Skywalker's quest to become a Jedi, his struggle with the evil Imperial agent Darth Vader, the struggle of the Rebel Alliance to free the galaxy from the clutches of the Empire. According to producer Gary Kurtz, lo
Bare-knuckle boxing is the original form of boxing related to ancient combat sports. It involves two individuals fighting without other padding on their hands; the difference between street fighting and a bare-knuckle boxing match is that the latter has an accepted set of rules, such as not striking a downed opponent. According to the boxing chronicle Pugilistica, the first newspaper report of a boxing match in England dates from 1681, when the Protestant Mercury stated: "Yesterday a match of boxing was performed before his Grace the Duke of Albemarle, between the Duke's footman and a butcher; the latter won the prize, as he hath done many before, being accounted, though but a little man, the best at that exercise in England."The first bare-knuckle champion of England was James Figg, who claimed the title in 1719 and held it until his retirement in 1730. Before Jack Broughton, the first idea of current boxing originated from James Figg, viewed as the organizer of cutting edge boxing. In 1719, he set up a'pugilistic foundation' and charged himself as'a professional in the Noble Science of Defense' to instruct boxers on the utilization of clench hands and quarterstaff.
Noted champions were Jack Broughton, Elizabeth Wilkinson, Daniel Mendoza, Jem Belcher, Hen Pearce, John Gully, Tom Cribb, Tom Spring, Jem Ward, James Burke, William "Bendigo" Thompson, Ben Caunt, William Perry, Tom Sayers and Jem Mace. The record for the longest bare-knuckle fight is listed as 6 hours and 15 minutes for a match between James Kelly and Jonathan Smith, fought near Fiery Creek, Australia, on December 3, 1855, when Smith gave in after 17 rounds; the bare-knuckle fighter Jem Mace is listed as having the longest professional career of any fighter in history. He fought for more than 35 years into his 60s, recorded his last exhibition bout in 1909 at the age of 79. Professional bare-knuckle boxing was never legal under any federal or state laws in the United States until Wyoming became the first to legalize on March 20, 2018. Prior to that date, the chief sanctioning organization for bare-knuckle boxing was the magazine National Police Gazette, which set up matches and issued championship belts throughout the 1880s.
The Police Gazette sanctioned what is considered the last major bare-knuckle heavyweight world championship, between John L. Sullivan and Jake Kilrain on July 8, 1889, with Sullivan emerging as the victor. Since other claimants to being sanctioned bare-knuckle championship bouts include the August 5, 2011, match at Fort McDowell Casino on the Yavapai Nation reservation in Arizona; the Native American tribe sanctioned the bout between Rich Stewart of New Castle and Bobby Gunn, with Gunn emerging as the victor. Other noted champions were Tom Hyer, Yankee Sullivan, Nonpareil Dempsey, Tom Sharkey, Bob Fitzsimmons and John Morrissey. While boxing has always included punching it included grappling techniques like throws, arm locks, chokes as well as kicks; these techniques were banned during the several rule changes which turned classical pugilism, or bare knuckle boxing, into the modern sport of boxing. "Irish stand down" is a type of traditional bare knuckle fighting where the aspect of maneuvering around the ring is removed, leaving only the less nuanced aspects of punching and "taking" punches.
This form of combat was popular in Irish American ghettos in the United States in the late 19th century but was eclipsed in the Irish American community first by bare knuckle boxing and later by regulation boxing. The Irish stand down is known as strap fighting or toe to toe. Modern Bareknuckle Combat, a contemporary form of bare-knuckle boxing, exists on a small scale worldwide. In the United States, publicly ticketed events started in the 1990s. There are several UK promotions conducting shows including UBKB, Rouge Elite, Barefist. Modern bouts have several changes from traditional gloved boxing rules. Notably, there is a 20-second count on any knockdown and the fights consist of 3x2 minute rounds. Additionally, several US states have more approved and sanction bare knuckle boxing. List of bare-knuckle boxers List of bare-knuckle lightweight champions Bare Knuckle Boxing Hall of Fame London Prize Ring rules Russian fist fighting Burmese bareknuckle boxing The Outsiders – Exposing the Secretive World of Ireland's Travellers Chapters 4 and 5 by Eamon Dillon, published Nov 2006 by Merlin Publishing David Snowdon, Writing the Prizefight: Pierce Egan's Boxiana World Interview with bare knuckle boxer from the 1950s Bare Knuckle Fighting Championship Bare Knuckle Boxing World Bareknuckle Boxing Association A site dedicated to teaching Historical Bare Knuckle Boxing A free site dedicated to the Art