The Pennines /ˈpɛnaɪnz/, known as the Pennine Chain or Pennine Hills, are a range of mountains and hills in Northern England separating North West England from Yorkshire and North East England. The Pennines are an important water catchment area with numerous reservoirs in the streams of the river valleys. The region is considered to be one of the most scenic areas of the United Kingdom. The North Pennines and Nidderdale are designated Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty, as are Bowland, parts of the Pennines are incorporated into the Peak District National Park, the Yorkshire Dales National Park and the Northumberland National Park. Britains oldest long-distance footpath, the Pennine Way, runs along most of the Pennine Chain and is 268 miles long, various etymologies have been proposed treating Pennine as though it were a native Brittonic/Modern Welsh name related to pen-. He found that the derivation from Bertram was widely believed and considered uncomfortable, in fact, he found repeated comparisons going back at least as early as Camden, many of whose placenames and ideas Bertram incorporated into his work.
Bertram was responsible with popularizing the name against other such as Daniel Defoes English Andes. His own form of the name was the Pennine Alps, which today is used for a section of the continental Alps. Those mountains derive their name from the Latin Alpes Pœninæ, the St Bernard Pass whose name has been derived from the Carthaginians, a local god. This was the used in the invasions of Italy by the Gallic Boii. Various towns and geographical features within the Pennines retain Celtic names, including Penrith, the fell Pen-y-ghent, the River Eden, more commonly, local names result from Anglo-Saxon and Norse settlements. In Yorkshire and Cumbria, many words of Norse origin, not commonly used in standard English, are part of speech, for example, gill/ghyll, fell. This is located within parts of Cumbria, southern parts of Northumberland. This is within parts of Yorkshire and eastern parts of Derbyshire with foothills continuing into western parts of Nottinghamshire. This is within the Stoke-on-Trent conurbation of northern Staffordshire and the parts of Derbyshire above the city of Derby.
Apart from the uplands in the Lake District fringes, other Cumbrian Fells, the Pennines have been carved from a series of geological structures whose overall form is a broad anticline whose axis extends in a north–south direction. The North Pennines are coincident with the Alston Block, whilst the Yorkshire Dales are coincident with the Askrigg Block, in the south the Peak District is essentially a flat-topped dome. Each of these consists of Carboniferous limestone overlain with Millstone Grit
Electricity generation is the process of generating electric power from sources of primary energy. For electric utilities, it is the first process in the delivery of electricity to consumers, the other processes as transmission, energy storage and recovery using pumped-storage methods are normally carried out by the electric power industry. Other energy sources include solar photovoltaics and geothermal power, the fundamental principles of electricity generation were discovered during the 1820s and early 1830s by the British scientist Michael Faraday. This method is used today, electricity is generated by the movement of a loop of wire. Central power stations became practical with the development of alternating current power transmission, using power transformers to transmit power at high voltage. Electricity has been generated at central stations since 1882, the use of power-lines and power-poles have been significantly important in the distribution of electricity. There are seven fundamental methods of transforming other forms of energy into electrical energy.
Static electricity, form the physical separation and transport of charge and it was the first form discovered and investigated, and the electrostatic generator is still used even in modern devices such as the Van de Graaff generator and MHD generators. In Electromagnetic induction, a generator, dynamo or alternator transforms kinetic energy into electricity. This is the most used form for generating electricity and is based on Faradays law and it can be experimented by rotating a magnet within closed loops of a conducting material. Almost all commercial electrical generation is done using electromagnetic induction, in mechanical energy forces a generator to rotate. Almost all electrical power on Earth is generated with a turbine, driven by wind, there are many different methods of developing mechanical energy, including heat engines, hydro and tidal power. Most electric generation is driven by heat engines, the combustion of fossil fuels supplies most of the heat to these engines, with a significant fraction from nuclear fission and some from renewable sources.
The modern steam turbine currently generates about 80% of the power in the world using a variety of heat sources. Power sources include, Steam Water is boiled by coal burned in a power plant. Nuclear fission heat created in a nuclear reactor creates steam, less than 15% of electricity is generated this way. Natural gas, turbines are directly by gases produced by combustion. Combined cycle are driven by steam and natural gas
The Online Computer Library Center is a US-based nonprofit cooperative organization dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the worlds information and reducing information costs. It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center, OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded mainly by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services, the group first met on July 5,1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization. The group hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The goal of network and database was to bring libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the worlds information in order to best serve researchers and scholars. The first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26,1971 and this was the first occurrence of online cataloging by any library worldwide.
Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data, between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States. As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside of Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with networks, organizations that provided training, support, by 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on OCLC Members Council, in early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone, OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world.
WorldCat has holding records from public and private libraries worldwide. org, in October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. The Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988, a browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013, it was replaced by the Classify Service. S. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users and this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. OCLC has produced cards for members since 1971 with its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, e. g. CONTENTdm for managing digital collections, OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years.
In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications and these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organizations website. The most recent publications are displayed first, and all archived resources, membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams. The harder forms, such as coal, can be regarded as metamorphic rock because of exposure to elevated temperature and pressure. Coal is composed primarily of carbon, along with quantities of other elements, chiefly hydrogen, oxygen. A fossil fuel, coal forms when plant matter is converted into peat, which in turn is converted into lignite, sub-bituminous coal, after that bituminous coal. This involves biological and geological processes that take place over time, throughout history, coal has been used as an energy resource, primarily burned for the production of electricity and heat, and is used for industrial purposes, such as refining metals. Coal is the largest source of energy for the generation of electricity worldwide, the extraction of coal, its use in energy production and its byproducts are all associated with environmental and health effects including climate change.
Coal is extracted from the ground by coal mining, since 1983, the worlds top coal producer has been China. In 2015 China produced 3,747 million tonnes of coal –47. 7% of 7,861 million tonnes world coal production, in 2015 other large producers were United States, European Union and Australia. The word originally took the col in Old English, from Proto-Germanic *kula. In Old Turkic languages, kül is ash, cinders, öčür is quench, the compound charcoal in Turkic is öčür kül, literally quenched ashes, coals with elided anlaut ö- and inflection affixes -ülmüş. At various times in the geologic past, the Earth had dense forests in low-lying wetland areas, due to natural processes such as flooding, these forests were buried underneath soil. As more and more soil deposited over them, they were compressed, the temperature rose as they sank deeper and deeper. As the process continued the plant matter was protected from biodegradation and oxidation and this trapped the carbon in immense peat bogs that were eventually covered and deeply buried by sediments.
Under high pressure and high temperature, dead vegetation was slowly converted to coal, as coal contains mainly carbon, the conversion of dead vegetation into coal is called carbonization. The wide, shallow seas of the Carboniferous Period provided ideal conditions for coal formation, the exception is the coal gap in the Permian–Triassic extinction event, where coal is rare. Coal is known from Precambrian strata, which predate land plants — this coal is presumed to have originated from residues of algae, in its dehydrated form, peat is a highly effective absorbent for fuel and oil spills on land and water. It is used as a conditioner for soil to make it able to retain. Lignite, or brown coal, is the lowest rank of coal, jet, a compact form of lignite, is sometimes polished and has been used as an ornamental stone since the Upper Palaeolithic
Selective catalytic reduction
Selective catalytic reduction is a means of converting nitrogen oxides, referred to as NOx with the aid of a catalyst into diatomic nitrogen, and water. A gaseous reductant, typically anhydrous ammonia, aqueous ammonia or urea, is added to a stream of flue or exhaust gas and is adsorbed onto a catalyst, carbon dioxide, CO2 is a reaction product when urea is used as the reductant. Selective catalytic reduction of NOx using ammonia as the agent was patented in the United States by the Engelhard Corporation in 1957. Development of SCR technology continued in Japan and the US in the early 1960s with research focusing on less expensive, the first large-scale SCR was installed by the IHI Corporation in 1978. Commercial selective catalytic reduction systems are found on large utility boilers, industrial boilers. More recent applications include diesel engines, such as found on large ships, diesel locomotives, gas turbines. The NOx reduction reaction takes place as the pass through the catalyst chamber.
Before entering the catalyst chamber the ammonia, or other reductant, is injected and mixed with the gases, the minimum effective temperature depends on the various fuels, gas constituents, and catalyst geometry. Other possible reductants include cyanuric acid and ammonium sulfate, another catalyst based on activated carbon was developed which is applicable for the removal of NOx at low temperatures. Each catalyst component has advantages and disadvantages, thermal durability is particularly important for automotive SCR applications that incorporate the use of a diesel particulate filter with forced regeneration. They have a high catalysing potential to oxidize SO2 into SO3, zeolites have a lower potential for potentially damaging SO2 oxidation. Iron- and copper-exchanged zeolite urea SCRs have been developed with equal performance to that of vanadium-urea SCRs if the fraction of the NO2 is 20% to 50% of the total NOx. The two most common designs of SCR catalyst geometry used today are honeycomb and plate, the honeycomb form usually is an extruded ceramic applied homogeneously throughout the ceramic carrier or coated on the substrate.
Like the various types of catalysts, their configuration has advantages and disadvantages, plate-type catalysts have lower pressure drops and are less susceptible to plugging and fouling than the honeycomb types, but plate configurations are much larger and more expensive. Honeycomb configurations are smaller than plate types, but have higher pressure drops, a third type is corrugated, comprising only about 10% of the market in power plant applications. Several reductants are used in SCR applications including anhydrous ammonia. All those three reductants are widely available in large quantities, pure anhydrous ammonia is extremely toxic and difficult to safely store, but needs no further conversion to operate within an SCR. It is typically favoured by large industrial SCR operators, aqueous ammonia must be vaporized in order to be used, but it is substantially safer to store and transport than anhydrous ammonia
Widnes is an industrial town in the unitary authority of Halton and the ceremonial county of Cheshire in Northwest England. In 2011 it had a population of 60,221, historically in Lancashire, it is on the northern bank of the River Mersey where the estuary narrows to form the Runcorn Gap. Directly to the south across the Mersey is the town of Runcorn, upstream and 8 miles to the east is the town of Warrington, and downstream to the west is Speke, part of the city of Liverpool. Before the Industrial Revolution Widnes was made up of settlements on marsh. In 1847, the first chemical factory was established and the town became a major centre of the chemical industry. The demand for labour was met by large-scale immigration from Ireland, Lithuania, the town continues to be a major manufacturer of chemicals. Widnes and Hough Green railway stations are on the Liverpool to Manchester line, the main roads through the town are the A557 in a north–south direction and the A562 east–west. The disused Sankey Canal terminates in a known as Spike Island.
Earlier spellings of the name have been Vidnes and Wydness, there is little evidence of any early human occupation of the area although a flint arrowhead was discovered at Pex Hill, suggesting there was some human presence in the Stone Age. Pex Hill is a quarry, located to the north of the town. Roman roads by-passed the area but some Roman coins were found where the Ditton railway station stands today, in the 9th century Vikings had invaded the country and Widnes was at the extreme south of the Danelaw. The River Mersey derives its name from the Anglo-Saxon maeres ea, which means boundary river, following the Norman conquest, William the Conqueror granted the Earldom of Lancaster to Roger de Poictou who in turn granted the barony of Widnes to Yorfrid. Yorfrid had no sons and his daughter married William FitzNigel. On Yorfrids death the barony of Widnes passed to that of Halton, the current St. Lukes, a Norman church, was built in Farnworth. Its date of origin is uncertain but it is likely to be around 1180, in 1500 the South Chapel was added to the church and in 1507 a grammar school was established in Farnworth, both were endowments from Bishop William Smyth.
Until the middle of the 19th century the area consisted of the hamlets of Farnworth, Ditton, Upton. Nearby were the villages of Cronton and Cuerdley, in the 1750s the Sankey Canal was constructed. This linked the area of St. Helens with the River Mersey at Sankey Bridges and it was extended to Fiddlers Ferry in 1762 and in 1833 a further extension to Woodend was opened
Biomass is an industry term for getting energy by burning wood, and other organic matter. It has become popular among power stations, which switch from coal to biomass to comply with the law. Biomass most often refers to plants or plant-based materials that are not used for food or feed, as an energy source, biomass can either be used directly via combustion to produce heat, or indirectly after converting it to various forms of biofuel. Conversion of biomass to biofuel can be achieved by different methods which are classified into, chemical. Historically, humans have harnessed biomass-derived energy since the time people began burning wood to make fire. Even today, biomass is the source of fuel for domestic use in many developing countries. Biomass is all biologically-produced matter based in carbon and oxygen, the estimated biomass production in the world is 104.9 petagrams of carbon per year, about half in the ocean and half on land. Wood remains the largest biomass energy source today, examples include forest residues, yard clippings, wood chips, wood energy is derived by using lignocellulosic biomass as fuel.
Harvested wood may be used directly as a fuel or collected from waste streams to be processed into pellet fuel or other forms of fuels. The largest source of energy from wood is pulping liquor or black liquor, in the second sense, biomass includes plant or animal matter that can be converted into fibers or other industrial chemicals, including biofuels. Based on the source of biomass, biofuels are classified broadly into two major categories, first-generation biofuels are derived from sources such as sugarcane and corn starch. Sugars present in this biomass are fermented to produce bioethanol, a fuel which can be used directly in a fuel cell to produce electricity or serve as an additive to gasoline. However, utilizing food-based resources for production only aggravates the food shortage problem. Second-generation biofuels, on the hand, utilize non-food-based biomass sources such as agriculture. These biofuels mostly consist of lignocellulosic biomass, which is not edible and is a waste for many industries.
Despite being the alternative, economical production of second-generation biofuel is not yet achieved due to technological issues. These issues arise due to chemical inertness and structural rigidity of lignocellulosic biomass. Plant energy is produced by crops grown for use as fuel that offer high biomass output per hectare with low input energy
Ordnance Survey National Grid
The Ordnance Survey National Grid reference system is a system of geographic grid references used in Great Britain, different from using Latitude and Longitude. It is often called British National Grid, the Ordnance Survey devised the national grid reference system, and it is heavily used in their survey data, and in maps based on those surveys. Grid references are commonly quoted in other publications and data sources. The Universal Transverse Mercator coordinate system is used to provide references for worldwide locations. European-wide agencies use UTM when mapping locations, or may use the Military Grid Reference System system, the grid is based on the OSGB36 datum, and was introduced after the retriangulation of 1936–1962. It replaced the previously used Cassini Grid which, up to the end of World War Two, had issued only to the military. The Airy ellipsoid is a regional best fit for Britain, more modern mapping tends to use the GRS80 ellipsoid used by the GPS, the British maps adopt a Transverse Mercator projection with an origin at 49° N, 2° W.
Over the Airy ellipsoid a straight grid, the National Grid, is placed with a new false origin. This false origin is located south-west of the Isles of Scilly, the distortion created between the OS grid and the projection is countered by a scale factor in the longitude to create two lines of longitude with zero distortion rather than one. Grid north and true north are aligned on the 400 km easting of the grid which is 2° W. 2° 0′ 5″ W. OSGB36 was used by Admiralty nautical charts until 2000 after which WGS84 has been used, a geodetic transformation between OSGB36 and other terrestrial reference systems can become quite tedious if attempted manually. The most common transformation is called the Helmert datum transformation, which results in a typical 7 m error from true, the definitive transformation from ETRS89 that is published by the OSGB is called the National Grid Transformation OSTN02. This models the detailed distortions in the 1936–1962 retriangulation, and achieves backwards compatibility in grid coordinates to sub-metre accuracy, the difference between the coordinates on different datums varies from place to place.
The longitude and latitude positions on OSGB36 are the same as for WGS84 at a point in the Atlantic Ocean well to the west of Great Britain. In Cornwall, the WGS84 longitude lines are about 70 metres east of their OSGB36 equivalents, the smallest datum shift is on the west coast of Scotland and the greatest in Kent. But Great Britain has not shrunk by 100+ metres, a point near Lands End now computes to be 27.6 metres closer to a point near Duncansby Head than it did under OSGB36. For the first letter, the grid is divided into squares of size 500 km by 500 km, there are four of these which contain significant land area within Great Britain, S, T, N and H. The O square contains an area of North Yorkshire, almost all of which lies below mean high tide
American Electric Power
American Electric Power is a major investor-owned electric utility in the United States, delivering electricity to more than five million customers in 11 states. AEP ranks among the nations largest generators of electricity, owning nearly 38,000 megawatts of generating capacity in the U. S. States and eastern Canada, and approximately 11 percent of the electricity demand in Electric Reliability Council of Texas, the transmission system that covers much of Texas. AEPs utility units operate as AEP Ohio, AEP Texas, Appalachian Power, Indiana Michigan Power, Kentucky Power, Public Service Company of Oklahoma, AEPs headquarters are in Columbus, Ohio. American Electric Power was the first utility to utilize 345 kV transmission lines which took place in 1953, AEP has come under criticism in many of the states they operate in for attacking rooftop solar. They have specifically attempted to halt distributed solar in Louisiana, Oklahoma, West Virginia, Kentucky, the company is divided into seven major geographic local operating companies, AEP Ohio serves 1.5 million customers in central and northwestern Ohio.
For years, it consisted of two operating companies, Ohio Power and Columbus Southern Power, however, in 2014, Columbus Southern was merged into Ohio Power, leaving Ohio Power as the legal operating company for regulatory purposes. AEP Texas was formed from a merger of various predecessor utilities and it consists of AEP Texas North Company, which operates in west Texas, and AEP Texas Central Company, which operates in south Texas. Appalachian Power is based in Charleston, West Virginia and owns the rights to Appalachian Power Park in Charleston. AP serves about one million customers in parts of central and Southern West Virginia, Southwest Virginia and parts of Northeast Tennessee, cities in the Appalachian Power service territory include Charleston and Huntington, West Virginia, Roanoke and Kingsport. Until the 21st century, AEPs operations in Tennessee were part of an operating company. While Kingsport Power still legally exists, the Kingsport Power name is almost never used anymore except for regulatory formality.
Wheeling Power, based in Wheeling, West Virginia, was treated as a de facto part of Ohio Power. In 2015, AEP supported the utility bill HB1320 in Indiana in an effort to halt rooftop solar in the state, the bill is designed to curtail the regulation of Indianas oil and gas industry, as well as end consumer energy choice. Kentucky Power serves most of Eastern Kentucky, the area abutting the Appalachian Power service area, including communities of Pikeville and Ashland. Kentucky Power is currently headquartered in Frankfort, Kentucky but announced on July 13,2016 that they will be moving their headquarters to Ashland. PSO was one of the four CSW operating companies when CSW merged with AEP, incorporated in 1913, PSO serves approximately 540,000 customers in eastern and southwestern Oklahoma. PSO has 4,269 megawatts of generating capacity and provides electricity to 232 cities, in April,2014, Oklahoma Governor Mary Fallin signed into law an AEP-backed bill that would add a tax onto anyone in the state who adopted rooftop solar
The River Mersey /ˈmɜːrzi/ is a river in the north west of England. Its name is derived from the Anglo-Saxon language and translates as boundary river, the river may have been the border between the ancient kingdoms of Mercia and Northumbria and for centuries it formed part of the boundary between the historic counties of Lancashire and Cheshire. The start of the Mersey is at the confluence of the River Tame and it flows westwards through the suburban areas of south Manchester, into the Manchester Ship Canal at Irlam, becoming a part of the canal and maintaining the canals water levels. After 4 miles the river exits the canal flowing towards Warrington where the river widens before it narrows as it passes between the towns of Runcorn and Widnes. From Runcorn the river widens into an estuary, which is 3 miles wide at its widest point near Ellesmere Port. The course of the heads north as the estuary narrows between Liverpool and Birkenhead on the Wirral Peninsula to the west and empties into Liverpool Bay.
In total the river flows 70.33 miles, a railway tunnel between Birkenhead and Liverpool as part of the Mersey Railway opened in 1886. Two road tunnels pass under the estuary from Liverpool, the Queensway Tunnel opened in 1934 connecting the city to Birkenhead, the Silver Jubilee Bridge completed in 1961, crosses between Runcorn and Widnes, adjacent to the Runcorn Railway Bridge which opened in 1868. Water quality in the Mersey was severely affected by industrialisation, and in 1985, in 2009 it was announced that the river is cleaner than at any time since the industrial revolution and is now considered one of the cleanest in the UK. The Mersey Valley Countryside Warden Service manages local nature reserves such as Chorlton Ees, the river gave its name to Merseybeat, developed by bands from Liverpool, notably the Beatles. In 1965 it was the subject of the hit single Ferry Cross the Mersey by Gerry. Its name is derived from the Anglo-Saxon mǣres, of a boundary and ēa, the Mersey was possibly the border river between Mercia and Northumbria.
Its Welsh name is Afon Merswy, and it has given the alternative etymology of Celtic môr-afon meaning sea river. The Mersey is formed from three tributaries, the River Etherow, the River Goyt and the River Tame, the modern accepted start of the Mersey is at the confluence of the Tame and Goyt, in central Stockport, Greater Manchester. The 1784 John Stockdale map shows the River Mersey extending to Mottram, in the west of Stockport it flows at the base of a cliff below the road called Brinksway before reaching flat country. The old course of the Mersey has been obliterated by the canal past Hollins Green to Rixton although the old river bed can be seen outside Irlam, the river is tidal from Howley Weir in Warrington, although high spring tides often top the weir. Before construction of the canal, work to improve navigation included Woolston New Cut, bypassing a meander, and Howley Lock for craft to avoid the weir. The island formed between the weir and the lock is known locally as Monkey Island, west of Warrington the river widens, and narrows as it passes through the Runcorn Gap between the towns of Runcorn and Widnes, in Halton
Reuters /ˈrɔɪtərz/ is an international news agency headquartered in London, England. It is a division of Thomson Reuters, until 2008, the Reuters news agency formed part of an independent company, Reuters Group plc, which was a provider of financial market data. Since the acquisition of Reuters Group by the Thomson Corporation in 2008, Reuters transmits news in English, Arabic, German, Portuguese, Japanese, Korean and Chinese. The Reuter agency was established in 1851 by Paul Julius Reuter in Britain at the London Royal Exchange, Paul Reuter worked at a book-publishing firm in Berlin and was involved in distributing radical pamphlets at the beginning of the Revolutions in 1848. Upon moving to England, he founded Reuters Telegram Company in 1851, headquartered in London, the company initially covered commercial news, serving banks, brokerage houses, and business firms. The first newspaper client to subscribe was the London Morning Advertiser in 1858, Reuters agency built a reputation in Europe and the rest of the world as the first to report news scoops from abroad.
Reuters was the first to report Abraham Lincolns assassination in Europe, for instance, in 1872, Reuters expanded into the far east, followed by South America in 1874. Both expansions were made possible by advances in overland telegraphs and undersea cables, in 1883, Reuters began transmitting messages electrically to London newspapers. In 1923, Reuters began using radio to transmit news internationally, in 1925, The Press Association of Great Britain acquired a majority interest in Reuters, and full owners some years later. During the world wars, The Guardian reported that Reuters came under pressure from the British government to national interests. In 1941 Reuters deflected the pressure by restructuring itself as a private company, the new owners formed the Reuters Trust. In 1941, the PA sold half of Reuters to the Newspaper Proprieters Association, the Reuters Trust Principles were put in place to maintain the companys independence. At that point, Reuters had become one of the major news agencies.
In 1961, Reuters scooped news of the erection of the Berlin Wall, in 1981, Reuters began making electronic transactions on its computer network, and afterwards developed a number of electronic brokerage and trading services. Reuters was floated as a company in 1984, when Reuters Trust was listed on the stock exchanges such as the London Stock Exchange. Reuters published the first story of the Berlin Wall being breached in 1989, share price grew during the dotcom boom, fell after the banking troubles in 2001. In 2002, Brittanica wrote that most news throughout the world came from three major agencies, the Associated Press and Agence France-Presse, Reuters merged with Thomson Corporation in Canada in 2008, forming Thomson Reuters. In 2009, Thomson Reuters withdrew from the LSE and the NASDAQ, instead listing its shares on the Toronto Stock Exchange, the last surviving member of the Reuters family founders, Baroness de Reuter, died at age 96 on 25 January 2009
Fossil fuel power station
A fossil fuel power station is a power station which burns fossil fuel such as coal, natural gas, or petroleum to produce electricity. Central station fossil fuel power plants are designed on a scale for continuous operation. In many countries, such plants provide most of the energy used. Fossil fuel power stations have machinery to convert the energy of combustion into mechanical energy. The prime mover may be a steam turbine, a gas turbine or, in small plants, all plants use the energy extracted from expanding gas, either steam or combustion gases. Very few MHD generators have been built which directly convert the energy of moving hot gas into electricity, by products of thermal power plant operation must be considered in their design and operation. The flue gas from combustion of the fuels is discharged to the air. This gas contains carbon dioxide and water vapor, as well as other such as nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, traces of other metals. Solid waste ash from coal-fired boilers must be removed, some coal ash can be recycled for building materials.
Fossil fueled power stations are major emitters of carbon dioxide, a gas which according to a consensus opinion of scientific organisations is a contributor to global warming. S. From a single coal-fired power plant, however, as of 2015, no such cases have awarded damages in the U. S. Per unit of energy, brown coal emits nearly two times as much CO2 as natural gas, and black coal emits somewhat less than brown. Carbon capture and storage of emissions is not currently available, each fossil fuel power plant is a complex, custom-designed system. Construction costs, as of 2004, run to US$1,300 per kilowatt, multiple generating units may be built at a single site for more efficient use of land, natural resources and labor. Most thermal power stations in the world use fossil fuel, outnumbering nuclear, biomass, the second law of thermodynamics states that any closed-loop cycle can only convert a fraction of the heat produced during combustion into mechanical work. The rest of the heat, called heat, must be released into a cooler environment during the return portion of the cycle.
The fraction of heat released into a cooler medium must be equal or larger than the ratio of temperatures of the cooling system. Raising the furnace temperature improves the efficiency but complicates the design, primarily by the selection of used for construction