The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in Ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BCE to the 6th century CE. It is roughly divided into the Archaic period, Classical period, Hellenistic period, it is succeeded by medieval Greek. Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it resembled Attic Greek and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek. Prior to the Koine period, Greek of the classic and earlier periods included several regional dialects. Ancient Greek was the language of Homer and of fifth-century Athenian historians and philosophers, it has contributed many words to English vocabulary and has been a standard subject of study in educational institutions of the Western world since the Renaissance. This article contains information about the Epic and Classical periods of the language. Ancient Greek was a pluricentric language, divided into many dialects; the main dialect groups are Attic and Ionic, Aeolic and Doric, many of them with several subdivisions.
Some dialects are found in standardized literary forms used in literature, while others are attested only in inscriptions. There are several historical forms. Homeric Greek is a literary form of Archaic Greek used in the epic poems, the "Iliad" and "Odyssey", in poems by other authors. Homeric Greek had significant differences in grammar and pronunciation from Classical Attic and other Classical-era dialects; the origins, early form and development of the Hellenic language family are not well understood because of a lack of contemporaneous evidence. Several theories exist about what Hellenic dialect groups may have existed between the divergence of early Greek-like speech from the common Proto-Indo-European language and the Classical period, they differ in some of the detail. The only attested dialect from this period is Mycenaean Greek, but its relationship to the historical dialects and the historical circumstances of the times imply that the overall groups existed in some form. Scholars assume that major Ancient Greek period dialect groups developed not than 1120 BCE, at the time of the Dorian invasion—and that their first appearances as precise alphabetic writing began in the 8th century BCE.
The invasion would not be "Dorian" unless the invaders had some cultural relationship to the historical Dorians. The invasion is known to have displaced population to the Attic-Ionic regions, who regarded themselves as descendants of the population displaced by or contending with the Dorians; the Greeks of this period believed there were three major divisions of all Greek people—Dorians and Ionians, each with their own defining and distinctive dialects. Allowing for their oversight of Arcadian, an obscure mountain dialect, Cypriot, far from the center of Greek scholarship, this division of people and language is quite similar to the results of modern archaeological-linguistic investigation. One standard formulation for the dialects is: West vs. non-west Greek is the strongest marked and earliest division, with non-west in subsets of Ionic-Attic and Aeolic vs. Arcadocypriot, or Aeolic and Arcado-Cypriot vs. Ionic-Attic. Non-west is called East Greek. Arcadocypriot descended more from the Mycenaean Greek of the Bronze Age.
Boeotian had come under a strong Northwest Greek influence, can in some respects be considered a transitional dialect. Thessalian had come under Northwest Greek influence, though to a lesser degree. Pamphylian Greek, spoken in a small area on the southwestern coast of Anatolia and little preserved in inscriptions, may be either a fifth major dialect group, or it is Mycenaean Greek overlaid by Doric, with a non-Greek native influence. Most of the dialect sub-groups listed above had further subdivisions equivalent to a city-state and its surrounding territory, or to an island. Doric notably had several intermediate divisions as well, into Island Doric, Southern Peloponnesus Doric, Northern Peloponnesus Doric; the Lesbian dialect was Aeolic Greek. All the groups were represented by colonies beyond Greece proper as well, these colonies developed local characteristics under the influence of settlers or neighbors speaking different Greek dialects; the dialects outside the Ionic group are known from inscriptions, notable exceptions being: fragments of the works of the poet Sappho from the island of Lesbos, in Aeolian, the poems of the Boeotian poet Pindar and other lyric poets in Doric.
After the conquests of Alexander the Great in the late 4th century BCE, a new international dialect known as Koine or Common Greek developed based on Attic Greek, but with influence from other dialects. This dialect replaced most of the older dialects, although Doric dialect has survived in the Tsakonian language, spoken in the region of modern Sparta. Doric has passed down its aorist terminations into most verbs of Demotic Greek. By about the 6th century CE, the Koine had metamorphosized into Medieval Greek. Ancient Macedonian was an Indo-European language at least related to Greek, but its exact relationship is unclear because of insufficient data: a dialect of Greek; the Macedonian dialect (or l
Etruscan history is the written record of Etruscan civilization compiled by Greek and Roman authors. Apart from their inscriptions, from which information of a sociological character can be extracted, the Etruscans left no surviving history of their own, nor is there any mention in the Roman authors that any was written. Remnants of Etruscan writings are exclusively concerned with religion. There are two main hypotheses as to the origins of the Etruscan civilization in the Early Iron Age: either by autochthonous development in situ out of the Villanovan culture of Etruria in central Italy, or via oriental colonization of Italy. Helmut Rix's classification of the Etruscan language in a proposed Tyrsenian language family reflects this ambiguity, he finds Etruscan on one hand genetically related to the Rhaetic language spoken in the Alps north of Etruria, suggesting autochthonous connections, but on the other hand the Lemnian language found on the "Lemnos stele" is related to Etruscan, entailing either Etruscan presence in "Tyrsenian" Lemnos, or "Tyrsenian" expansion westward to Etruria.
The Etruscan language was of a different family from that of neighbouring Italic and Celtic peoples, who spoke Indo-European languages. Modern archaeologists have come to suggest that the history of the Etruscans can be traced accurately, based on the examination of burial sites and writing. A separate Etruscan culture distinguishable from that of the ancestral Villanovan people emerged in the beginning of the 8th century BC, evidenced by the inscriptions in a script similar to that used for Euboean Greek; the burial tombs, some of, fabulously decorated, promotes the idea of an aristocratic city-state, with centralized power structures maintaining order and constructing public works, such as irrigation networks and town defenses. Etruscan expansion was focused both south into Campania; some small towns disappeared during the 6th century BC, ostensibly consumed by greater, more powerful neighbors. However, there is no doubt that the political structure of the Etruscan culture was similar, albeit more aristocratic, to Magna Graecia in the south.
The mining and commerce of metal copper and iron, led to an enrichment of the Etruscans and to the expansion of their influence in the Italian peninsula and the western Mediterranean sea. Here, their interests collided with those of the Greeks in the 6th century BC, when Phoceans of Italy founded colonies along the coast of France and Corsica; this led the Etruscans to ally themselves with the Carthaginians, whose interests collided with the Greeks. Around 540 BC, the Battle of Alalia led to a new distribution of power in the western Mediterranean Sea. Though the battle had no clear winner, Carthage managed to expand its sphere of influence at the expense of both the Etruscans and the Greeks. Etruria saw. From the first half of the 5th century BC, Campanian Etruria lost its Etruscan character, the new international political situation meant the beginning of the Etruscan decline. In 480 BC, Etruria's ally Carthage was defeated by a coalition of Magna Graecia cities led by Syracuse. A few years in 474, Syracuse's tyrant Hiero defeated the Etruscans at the Battle of Cumae.
Etruria's influence over the cities of Latium and Campania weakened, it was taken over by Romans and Samnites. In the 4th century BC, Padanian Etruria saw a Gallic invasion end its influence over the Po valley and the Adriatic coast. In the 4th century BC, Rome started annexing Etruscan cities. By the beginning of the 1st century BC, Rome had annexed all the remaining Etruscan territory; the institution of kingship was general. Many names of individual Etruscan kings are recorded, most of them in a historical vacuum, but with enough chronological evidence to show that kingship persisted in Etruscan city-culture long after it had been overthrown by the Greeks and at Rome, where Etruscan kings were long remembered with suspicion and scorn; when the last king was appointed, at Veii, the other Etruscan cities were alienated, permitting the Romans to destroy Veii. It is presumed that Etruscan kings were religious leaders; the paraphernalia of Etruscan kingship is familiar because it was inherited at Rome and adopted as symbols of the republican authority wielded by the consuls: the purple robe, the staff or scepter topped with an eagle, the folding cross-framed "curule seat", the sella curulis, most prominent of all, the fasces carried by a magistrate, which preceded the king in public appearances.
The tradition by which the Etruscan cities could come together under a single leader was the annual council held at the sacred grove of the Fanum Voltumnae, the precise site of which has exercised scholars since the Renaissance. In times of no emergency, the position of praetor Etruriae, as Roman inscriptions express it, was no doubt ceremonial and concerned with cultus. Osiniu fl. early 11th century BC Lars Porsena fl. late 6th century BC Aruns fl. c. 500 BC Lausus Larthia Thefarie Velianas fl. c. late 6th century–early 4th century BC, known from his temple dedication recorded on the Pyrgi Tablets Volumnius fl. mid 5th century–437 BC Lars Tolumnius fl. late 5th century–428 BC Arimnestos Lucius Tarquinius Priscus Servius Tullius Lucius Tarquinius Superbus BC Mezentius fl. c. 1100? BC Tyrsenos Velsu fl. Gilda. "The Villanovan culture: at the beginning of Etruscan history." In The Etruscan World, edited by Jean MacIntosh Turfa, 79-98. Abingdon: Routledge, 2013. Briquel, Dominique. "Etruscan origins and the ancient authors."
In The Etruscan World, edited by Jean MacIntosh Turfa, 36-55. A
Ab Urbe Condita Libri
The book History of Rome, sometimes referred to as Ab Urbe Condita, is a monumental history of ancient Rome, written in Latin between 27 and 9 BC by the historian Titus Livius, or "Livy", as he is known in English. The work covers the period from the legends concerning the arrival of Aeneas and the refugees from the fall of Troy, to the city's founding in 753, the expulsion of the Kings in 509, down to Livy's own time, during the reign of the emperor Augustus; the last event covered by Livy is the death of Drusus in 9 BC. About 25% of the work survives; the History of Rome comprised 142 "books", thirty-five of which—Books 1–10 with the Preface and Books 21–45—still exist in reasonably complete form. Damage to a manuscript of the 5th century resulted in large gaps in Books 41 and 43–45. A fragmentary palimpsest of the 91st book was discovered in the Vatican Library in 1772, containing about a thousand words, several papyrus fragments of unknown material, much smaller, have been found in Egypt since 1900, most about 40 words from Book 11, unearthed in 1986.
Some passages are known thanks to quotes from ancient authors, the most famous being on the death of Cicero, quoted by Seneca the Elder. Livy was abridged, in antiquity, to an epitome, which survives for Book 1, but was itself abridged in the fourth century into the so-called Periochae, a list of contents; the Periochae survive for the entire work, except for books 136 and 137. In Oxyrhynchus, a similar summary of books 37–40 and 48–55 was found on a roll of papyrus, now in the British Museum classified as P. Oxy. IV 0668. There is another fragment, named P. Oxy. XI 1379, which represents a passage from the first book and that shows a high level of correctness; however the Oxyrhynchus Epitome is incomplete. The entire work covers the following periods:Books 1–5 – The legendary founding of Rome, the period of the kings, the early republic down to its conquest by the Gauls in 390 BC. Books 6–10 – Wars with the Aequi, Volsci and Samnites, down to 292 BC. Books 11–20 – The period from 292 to 218, including the First Punic War.
Books 21–30 – The Second Punic War, from 218 to 202. Books 31–45 – The Macedonian and other eastern wars from 201 to 167. Books 46 to 142 are all lost: Books 46–70 – The period from 167 to the outbreak of the Social War in 91. Books 71–90 – The civil wars between Marius and Sulla, to the death of Sulla in 78. Books 91–108 – From 78 BC through the end of the Gallic War, in 50. Books 109–116 – From the Civil War to the death of Caesar. Books 117-133 – The wars of the triumvirs down to the death of Antonius. Books 134-142 – The rule of Augustus down to the death of Drusus; the first book has been one of the most significant sources of the various accounts of the traditional legend of Romulus and Remus. His version of the legend is told in chapters 3-7 of the first book. Livy states. Procas, her grandfather had willed the throne to his son Numitor but he was deposed by her uncle, Amulius, she was forced to take the Vestal oath to prevent her from producing a rival to his rule. She became pregnant after taking her vows and claimed that she had been raped by Mars, the Roman god of war.
Livy speculates. She was imprisoned by King Amulius and he ordered the newborn twins to be cast into the River Tiber, they were instead left by the swollen banks of the river, when the waters subsided, a she-wolf found them and suckled them until they were found and adopted by a shepherd named Faustulus and his wife Laurentia. He mentions, without attribution, a claim that Larentia was in fact a prostitute who serviced Faustulus and the other shepherds; the she-wolf tale arose from the slang word for her profession. They grow up strong, braving wild bandits along the way. In his account of the conflict with Amulius, Livy states that Faustulus had always known that the boys had been abandoned by the order of the king and had hoped that they were of Royal blood. On their way to celebrate the Lupercalia, the twins were ambushed by some of the thieves they had driven off. After a struggle, Remus was captured; the thieves accused him of stealing from Numitor's land. He was handed over to the former king, his grandfather—unbeknownst to either at the time—for punishment.
With Remus a captive, Faustulus told Romulus the truth of the twins’ origin. Meanwhile, encountering his grandson for the first time since infancy—a grandson whom he had thought long dead—looked favorably upon his royal demeanor and physicality, he realized the truth of who Remus and his twin brother Romulus were. Romulus and the other shepherds traveled separately to the city and converged with Remus and Numitor's supporters at the palace, where they killed Amulius. Seizing the moment, Numitor called for an assembly to regain his crown, he made public the ordeal of the twins and announced the death of Amulius, claiming he had given the order to kill him. To help boost their grandfather's effort to regain his throne, the twins marched their men into the center of the assembly and proclaimed him king; the people followed Numitor was once again king of the Alban kingdom. Inspired, the twins set out to build their own city; the twins began to argue immediately after starting out on their undertaking.
According to Livy, both wanted to be the king of their new city. H
Capri is an island located in the Tyrrhenian Sea off the Sorrentine Peninsula, on the south side of the Gulf of Naples in the Campania region of Italy. The main town Capri, located on the island shares the name, it has been a resort since the time of the Roman Republic. Some of the main features of the island include the Marina Piccola, the Belvedere of Tragara, the limestone crags called sea stacks that project above the sea, the town of Anacapri, the Blue Grotto,the ruins of the Imperial Roman villas, the various towns surrounding the Island of Capri including Positano, Ravello, Sorrento and Naples. Capri is part of the region of Metropolitan City of Naples; the town of Capri is the island's main population centre. The island has Marina Piccola and Marina Grande; the separate comune of Anacapri is located high on the hills to the west. The etymology of the name Capri is unclear, but it could derive from Latin capreae. Fossils of wild boars have been discovered, lending credence to the "kapros" etymology.
There is the possibility that the name derives from an Etruscan word for "rocky", though any historical Etruscan rule of the island is disputed. Capri is a large and sandstone rock; the sides of the island are perpendicular cliffs and the surface of the island is composed of more cliffs. The voters of the island elect representatives for the two municipalities on the island; the chosen representatives choose two mayors to govern with them. The island has been inhabited since early times. Evidence of human settlement was discovered during the Roman era; the emperor ordered these to be displayed in the garden of the Sea Palace. Modern excavations have shown that human presence on the island can be dated to the Neolithic and the Bronze Age. Augustus developed Capri. In his Aeneid, Virgil states that the island had been populated by the Greek people of Teleboi, coming from the Ionian Islands. Strabo says that "in ancient times in Capri there were two towns reduced to one." Tacitus records. Ruins of one at Tragara could still be seen in the 19th century.
Augustus' successor Tiberius built a series of villas at Capri, the most famous of, the Villa Jovis, one of the best-preserved Roman villas in Italy. In 27 AD, Tiberius permanently moved to Capri, running the Empire from there until his death in 37 AD. In 182 AD, Emperor Commodus banished his sister Lucilla to Capri, she was executed shortly afterwards. After the end of the Western Roman Empire, Capri returned to the status of a dominion of Naples, suffered various attacks and ravages by pirates. In 866 Emperor Louis II gave the island to Amalfi. In 987 Pope John XV consecrated the first bishop of Capri, when Capri, Scala and Lettere were made dioceses to serve as suffragans of Amalfi, which thereby became a metropolitan see. Capri continued to be a residential diocese until 1818, when the island became part of the archdiocese of Sorrento. No longer a residential bishopric, Capreae in Latin, is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see. In 1496, Frederick IV of Naples established legal and administrative parity between the settlements of Capri and Anacapri.
The pirate raids reached their peak during the reign of Charles V: the famous Turkish admirals Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha and Turgut Reis captured the island for the Ottoman Empire, in 1535 and 1553 respectively. The first recorded tourist to visit the island was French antiques dealer Jean-Jacques Bouchard in the 17th century, his diary, found in 1850, is an important information source about Capri. French troops under Napoleon occupied Capri in January 1806; the British ousted the French in the following May, after which Capri was turned into a powerful naval base, but the building program caused heavy damage to the archaeological sites. The French reconquered Capri in 1808, remained there until the end of the Napoleonic era, when Capri was returned to the Bourbon ruling house of Naples; the natural scientist Ignazio Cerio catalogued Capri's fauna during the 19th century. His work was continued by his son and engineer Edwin Cerio, who wrote several books on life in Capri in the 20th century.
Prior to the First World War the island was popular with wealthy gay men. John Ellingham Brooks and Somerset Maugham shared a villa there. Norman Douglas, Friedrich Alfred Krupp, Jacques d'Adelswärd-Fersen, Christian Wilhelm Allers, Emil von Behring, Curzio Malaparte, Axel Munthe, Maxim Gorky are all reported to have owned a villa there, or to have stayed there for more than three months. Swedish Queen Victoria stayed there because Axel Munthe was her doctor. Rose O'Neill, the American illustrator and creator of the Kewpie, owned the Villa Narcissus owned by the famous Beaux-Arts painter Charles Caryl Coleman. Dame Gracie Fields had a villa and restaurant on the island and is buried there. Mariah Carey owns a villa on the island. In 1908, Lenin was hosted by Maxim Gorky, the Russian author, at his house near the Giardini Aug
Clusium was an ancient city in Italy, one of several found at the site. The current municipality of Chiusi overlaps this Roman walled city; the Roman city remodeled an earlier Etruscan city, found in the territory of a prehistoric culture also Etruscan or proto-Etruscan. The site is located in northern central Italy on the west side of the Apennines. Chiusi is situated on a hill above the valley of the Clanis river near lake Clusium, both of which features had those names in antiquity; the Clanis was navigable by boat from there. Rome was accessed by the via Cassia, built over an Etruscan road. By the time it appears in Livy's History, it is a major Etruscan city being petitioned for assistance against the republican partisans of ancient Rome. About its life prior to that time, Livy only makes a brief statement. Different theories exist of the city's origin. Villanovan pottery has been found at Chiusi. One common type is a cinerary urn dating to the 8th century BC; these urns are in the shape of wattle-and-daub huts with thatched roofs the homes of the deceased.
This style of architecture is so different from classical Etruscan that many Etruscologists have denied a continuity. On the other hand, it is clear that the people of the region received a strong impetus from Greek colonies such as Cumae and from Greek immigration; the minority theory is the Proto-Italic. In this theory, Etruscans from the coast or from the Aegean resettled and renamed an Umbrian city called Camars, which the exponents believe means "marshland" in Italic. On enclosing the city with a wall they changed the name to "enclosure", using an Etruscanized form, Clevsin, of the perfect passive participle, clusus, of Latin cludere, "to close". Clevsin and Camars are more comfortable in their Etruscan milieu as Etruscan words; the limited known Etruscan vocabulary includes camthi, the name of a magistracy, which might be segmented cam-thi, where –thi is a known locative ending. Ar, -arasi, -aras are plural endings of different cases. A cleva is an offering. S and - isi are dative endings.
A place of magistracies or offerings is harmonious with Etruscan culture and the uses of a regional capital city. The final resolution of the question waits for more evidence, it is believed that Clusium joined the Etruscan League of twelve cities in the 600s BC. The site of ancient Clusium was reoccupied in Roman and times and obliterating much of the Etruscan layers. For example, the ancient sources describe the tomb of Lars Porsena at Clusium as well as the sacking and levelling of the city by Sulla. Much of what remains are its tombs and its underground passages, some of which might have been associated with the monument to Porsena. Lars Porsena was king of Clusium in 508 BC. Lucius Tarquinius Superbus king of Rome, had been expelled along with his family from Rome in 509 BC, he had sought to regain the throne, firstly by the Tarquinian conspiracy and secondly by force of arms. Both attempts had been unsuccessful, the conspiracy having been discovered, Tarquin's army having been defeated at the Battle of Silva Arsia.
Tarquin convinced Lars Porsena to lead his army against Rome. The war between Clusium and Rome followed; the siege and the war ended with a peace treaty, by which Porsena received hostages from Rome and returned to Veii lands, taken by Rome. In 507 BC Rome's hostages and lands were restored, peace between Rome and Porsena was cemented. Tarquinius was not restored to the Roman throne. In 508 BC, after the siege of Rome, Porsena split his forces and sent part of the Clusian army with his son Aruns to besiege the Latin city of Aricia; the Clusians besieged Aricia. Pliny never saw this tomb, so his description was based on a report from Varro and a conflated comparison to the Minoan labyrinths he describes before this tomb. Large-size tumuli of the late archaic period were built at Chiusi, modern scholars have tried to associate these with the legendary tomb of Porsena. In 2004 Professor of Urban Restoration Giuseppe Centauro suggested that the traditional location of Clusium at Chiusi is wrong and that it is near Florence.
As of 2008 he was trying to get permission to excavate. In the early 4th century BC it was besieged by Gauls, the Clusines called upon Rome to intermediate. However, in the following negotiations, one of the Roman delegates, of the gens Fabia, killed a Gallic leader; when the Romans refused to hand over the Fabii and in fact appointed two members of the family as consuls for the next year, the enraged Gauls broke up their siege and under the leadership of Brennus they marched onto and subsequently sacked Rome. Tomb of Lars Porsena Livius.org: Clusium
Lars Porsena was an Etruscan king known for his war against the city of Rome. He ruled over the city of Clusium. There are no established dates for his rule, but Roman sources place the war at around 508 BC. Lars Porsena came into conflict with Rome after the revolution that overthrew the monarchy there in 509 BC, resulting in the exile of the semi-legendary last king of Rome, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus; the deposed monarch, whose family was of Etruscan origin and failed to retake the throne a number of times before appealing to Porsena for assistance. Lars Porsena agreed to help. At that time Clusium was said to be a powerful Etruscan city. At this point, the histories diverge. According to most mainstream Roman accounts, including Livy, Lars Porsena attacked and besieged Rome, but was sufficiently impressed by particular acts of Roman bravery in defending the city that he chose to make peace. Other accounts, suggest that Lars Porsena succeeded in subduing the city, that the Etruscans were only driven out some time afterwards.
None of the accounts, suggests that Tarquinius Superbus was returned to the throne. Thus, if Lars Porsena did indeed capture Rome, he may have done so with the intent of controlling it himself, not restoring the former dynasty. Accounts of the war include a number of matters directly concerning Porsena. One story tells that, during his siege of Rome, a Roman youth named Gaius Mucius sneaked into the Etruscan camp with the approval of the Senate, intent on assassinating Porsena. However, when Mucius came into the king's presence, he could not distinguish Porsena from his secretary, attired. Through misrecognition Mucius stabbed the secretary and tried to flee, he was captured by the Etruscans and brought before Porsena, whereupon Mucius bluntly declared his identity and his intent. He advised Porsena that he was the first of 300 Roman youths who would attempt such a deed, one after another until they succeeded. To prove his valour, Mucius thrust his right hand into a sacrificial fire, thereby earning for himself and his descendants the cognomen Scaevola.
Astonished and impressed by the young man's courage, Porsena gave Mucius his freedom and dismissed him from the camp. According to Livy, Porsena sought peace by treaty afterward. Another tale of the war concerns the Roman hostages taken by Porsena as part of the treaty. One of the hostages, a young woman named Cloelia, fled the Etruscan camp, leading away a group of Roman virgins. Porsena demanded that she be returned, the Romans consented. On her return, Porsena was so impressed by her bravery that he asked her to choose half the remaining hostages to be freed, she selected all the youngest Roman boys. Afterwards the Romans gave Cloelia the unusual honour of a statue at the top of the Via Sacra, showing Cloelia mounted on a horse—that is, as an eques. Livy recounts that during his own time, public auctions of goods at Rome were by tradition referred to as "selling the goods of king Porsena", that this somehow relates to the war with Clusium. Livy concludes most it is because, when Porsena departed Rome, he left behind as a gift for the Romans his stores of provisions.
In 507 BC, Porsena once again sent ambassadors to the Roman senate, requesting the restoration of Tarquinius to the throne. Legates were sent back to Porsena, to advise him that the Romans would never re-admit Tarquinius, that Porsena should out of respect for the Romans cease requesting Tarquinius' readmittance. Porsena agreed. Porsena restored to the Romans their hostages, the lands of Veii, taken from Rome by treaty. Livy records that, by these matters, a faithful peace between Rome was created. In 508 BC, after the siege of Rome, Porsena split his forces and sent part of the Clusian army with his son Aruns to besiege the Latin city of Aricia; the Clusians besieged Aricia. Porsena's tomb is described as having a 15 m high rectangular base with sides 90 m long, it was adorned by massive bells. Lars Porsena's tomb, together with the rest of the city of Clusium, was razed to the ground in 89 BC by the Roman general Cornelius Sulla; the story of Lars Porsenna and the Roman hostage Cloelia is the basis of the libretto Il trionfo di Clelia by Pietro Metastasio.
The French writer Madeleine de Scudéry wrote Clélie in 1661. Lays of Ancient Rome by Thomas Babington Macaulay tells the legendary story of the Roman Horatius defending the bridge into Rome against Lars Porsena's oncoming Etruscan army. Evans, John Karl. Plebs Rustica; the Peasantry of Classical Italy I: the Peasantry in Modern Scholarship. Evans, John Karl. War and Children in Ancient Rome. Routledge
Lucius Tarquinius Superbus
Lucius Tarquinius Superbus was the legendary seventh and final King of Rome, reigning from 535 BC until the popular uprising in 509 that led to the establishment of the Roman Republic. He is known as Tarquin the Proud, from his cognomen Superbus. Ancient accounts of the regal period mingle legend. Tarquin was said to have been the son or grandson of Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, the fifth king of Rome, to have gained the throne through the murders of both his wife and his elder brother, followed by the assassination of his predecessor, Servius Tullius, his reign is described as a tyranny. Tarquin was said to be the son or grandson of Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, the fifth king of Rome, Tanaquil. Tanaquil had engineered her husband's succession to the Roman kingdom on the death of Ancus Marcius; when the sons of Marcius subsequently arranged the elder Tarquin's assassination in 579 BC, Tanaquil placed Servius Tullius on the throne, in preference to her own sons. According to an Etruscan tradition, the hero Macstarna equated with Servius Tullius and killed a Roman named Gnaeus Tarquinius, rescued the brothers Caelius and Aulus Vibenna from captivity.
This may recollect an otherwise forgotten attempt by the sons of Tarquin the elder to reclaim the throne. To forestall further dynastic strife, Servius married his daughters, known to history as Tullia Major and Tullia Minor, to Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, the future king, his brother Arruns. Tarquin's sister, married Marcus Junius Brutus, was the mother of Lucius Junius Brutus, one of the men who would lead the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom; the elder sister, Tullia Major, was of mild disposition, yet married the ambitious Tarquin. Her younger sister, Tullia Minor, was of fiercer temperament, she came to despise him, conspired with Tarquin to bring about the deaths of Tullia Major and Arruns. After the murder of their spouses and Tullia were married. Together, they had three sons: Titus and Sextus, a daughter, who married Octavius Mamilius, the prince of Tusculum. Tullia encouraged her husband to advance his own position persuading him to usurp Servius. Tarquin solicited the support of the patrician senators those from families who had received their senatorial rank under Tarquin the Elder.
He bestowed presents upon them, spread criticism of Servius the king. In time, Tarquin felt ready to seize the throne, he went to the senate-house with a group of armed men, sat himself on the throne, summoned the senators to attend upon King Tarquin. He spoke to the senators, denigrating Servius as a slave born of a slave; when word of this brazen deed reached Servius, he hurried to the curia to confront Tarquin, who leveled the same accusations against his father-in-law, in his youth and vigor carried the king outside and flung him down the steps of the senate-house and into the street. The king's retainers fled, as he made his way and unattended, toward the palace, the aged Servius was set upon and murdered by Tarquin's assassins on the advice of his own daughter. Tullia, drove in her chariot to the senate-house, where she was the first to hail her husband as king, but Tarquin bade her return home, concerned. As she drove toward the Urbian Hill, her driver stopped horrified at the sight of the king's body, lying in the street.
But in a frenzy, Tullia herself seized the reins, drove the wheels of her chariot over her father's corpse. The king's blood spattered against the chariot and stained Tullia's clothes, so that she brought a gruesome relic of the murder back to her house; the street where Tullia disgraced the dead king afterward became known as the Vicus Sceleratus, the Street of Crime. Tarquin commenced his reign by refusing to bury the dead Servius, putting to death a number of leading senators, whom he suspected of remaining loyal to Servius. By not replacing the slain senators, not consulting the senate on matters of government, he diminished both the size and the authority of the senate. In another break with tradition, Tarquin judged capital crimes without the advice of counselors, causing fear amongst those who might think to oppose him, he made a powerful ally when he betrothed his daughter to Octavius Mamilius of Tusculum, among the most eminent of the Latin chiefs. Early in his reign, Tarquin called a meeting of the Latin leaders to discuss the bonds between Rome and the Latin towns.
The meeting was held at a grove sacred to the goddess Ferentina. At the meeting, Turnus Herdonius inveighed against Tarquin's arrogance, warned his countrymen against trusting the Roman king. Tarquin bribed Turnus' servant to store a large number of swords in his master's lodging. Tarquin called together the Latin leaders, accused Turnus of plotting his assassination; the Latin leaders accompanied Tarquin to Turnus' lodging and, the swords being discovered, the Latin's guilt was speedily inferred. Turnus was condemned to be thrown into a pool of water in the grove, with a wooden frame, or cratis, placed over his head, into which stones were thrown, drowning him; the meeting of the Latin chiefs continued, T