Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
Valencia Club de Fútbol referred to as Valencia CF or Valencia, is a Spanish football club based in Valencia. They play in La Liga. Valencia have won six La Liga titles, seven Copa del Rey titles, two Inter-Cities Fairs Cups, one UEFA Cup, one UEFA Cup Winners' Cup and two UEFA Super Cups, they reached two UEFA Champions League finals in a row, losing to La Liga rivals Real Madrid in 2000 and German club Bayern Munich on penalties after a 1–1 draw in 2001. Valencia were members of the G-14 group of leading European football clubs and since its end has been part of the original members of the European Club Association. In total, Valencia have reached seven major European finals. Valencia were founded in 1919 and have played their home games at the 49,500-seater Mestalla since 1923, they were due to move into the new 75,000-seater Nou Mestalla in the northwest of the city in 2013, but the final move date has been postponed while the stadium remains under construction. Valencia have a fierce rivalry with fellow Valencian club Villarreal, with whom they contest the Derbi de la Comunitat.
The rivalry is further fueled by the fact. Valencia have a long-standing rivalry with Levante located in the city of Valencia, with two other clubs in the Valencian region, Hércules and Castellón. Valencia is the third-most supported football club in Spain, behind heavyweights Real Madrid and Barcelona, it is one of the biggest clubs in the world in terms of number of associates, with more than 50,000 season ticket holders and another 20,000+ season ticket holders on the waiting list, who can be accommodated in the new 75,000-seater stadium. Over the years, the club has achieved a global reputation for their prolific youth academy, or "cantera." Products of their academy include world-class talents such as Raúl Albiol, Andrés Palop, Miguel Ángel Angulo, David Albelda, Gaizka Mendieta and David Silva. Current stars of the game to have graduated in recent years include Isco, Jordi Alba, Juan Bernat, José Gayà and Paco Alcácer; the club was established on 5 March 1919 and approved on 18 March 1919, with Octavio Augusto Milego Díaz as its first president.
The club played its first competitive match away from home on 21 May 1919 against Valencia Gimnástico, losing 1–0. Valencia moved into the Mestalla Stadium in 1923, having played its home matches at the Algirós ground since 7 December 1919; the first match at Mestalla ended a 0 -- 0 draw. In another match the day after, Valencia won against the same opposition, 1–0. Valencia won the Regional Championship in 1923, was eligible to play in the domestic Copa del Rey cup competition for the first time in its history; the Spanish Civil War halted Valencia's progress until 1941, when they won the Copa del Rey, defeating Espanyol in the final. In the 1941–42 season, the club won its first La Liga championship title, although winning the Copa del Rey was more reputable than the championship at the time; the club maintained its consistency to capture the league title again in the 1943–44 season, as well as the 1946–47 league edition. In the 1950s, the club failed to simulate the success of the 1940s though it grew as a club.
A restructuring of Mestalla resulted in an increase in spectator capacity to 45,000, while the club had a number of Spanish and foreign stars. Players such as Spanish international Antonio Puchades and Dutch forward Faas Wilkes graced the pitch at Mestalla. In the 1952 -- 53 season, the club finished behind Barcelona. In the following season, the club won its third Copa del Rey known as the Copa del Generalísimo. Valencia beat holders Barça 3–0 in the final in front of over 110,000 spectators at the Estadio Chamartín the home ground of Real Madrid; the 1950s saw the retirement of club greats like Salvador Monzó, Vicente Asensi, Amadeo Ibáñez, Antonio Puchades and Pasieguito. While managing indifferent league form in the early 1960s, the club had its first European success in the form of the Inter-Cities Fairs Cup. In the 1961–62 season, Valencia defeated Barcelona in the final; the 1962–63 edition of the Inter-Cities Fairs Cup final pitted Valencia against Yugoslavian club Dinamo Zagreb, which the Valencians won.
Valencia were again present in the Inter-Cities Fairs Cup final in the 1963–64 season, but were defeated 2–1 by Real Zaragoza. Former two-time European Footballer of the Year award winner Alfredo Di Stéfano was hired as head coach in 1970, inspired his new club to their fourth La Liga championship and first since 1947; this secured Valencia its first qualification for the prestigious European Cup, contested by the various European domestic champions. Valencia reached the third round of the 1971–72 competition before losing both legs to Hungarian champions Újpesti Dózsa. In 1972, the club finished runners-up both in La Liga and the domestic cup, losing to Real Madrid and Atlético Madrid respectively; the most notable players of the 1970s era include Austrian midfielder Kurt Jara, forward Johnny Rep of the Netherlands, West German midfielder Rainer Bonhof and Argentinian forward Mario Kempes, who became the La Liga topscorer for two consecutive seasons in 1976–77 and 1977–78. Valencia would go on to win the Copa del Rey again in the 1978–79 season, capture the European Cup Winners' Cup the next season, after beating English club Arsenal in the final, with Kempes spearheading Valencia's success in Europe.
In 1982, the club appo
The tippler is a breed of domestic pigeon bred to participate in endurance competitions. Flying results of up to 22 hours have been reported; the pigeon evolved from the rock pigeon, endemic to the region between the Mediterranean and China. Some pigeon breeds are believed to have originated from the Middle East, although the origin of the tippler is uncertain; the predominant theory is that the tippler was a cross breed, between the homing pigeon and the cumulet. This cross-breeding was thought to allow a larger flight range, it is proposed that selection for this long-term flying ability helped to eliminate its progenitor's tumbling flight behavior. The breed is believed to have originated in 1845, near the silk milling towns of Congleton and Macclesfield in East Cheshire, England; the breeder's aim was to perfect the "butterfly action" of the wings. The ease and grace of the wings enabled the tippler to attain its long flight duration. Levi, in The Pigeon, cites a reference from Hepworth who interviewed W. Jolly of Mill Green, who claimed that he had been breeding tipplers for fifty-six years.
That would take the origin back to at least 1837. Levi commented that the breed was developed around the towns of Rainow and Macclesfield, it further mentions, "Macclesfield tipplers", as a strain or type of tippler and that they were named after the region in which they were developed. Tippler "types" were named after their original location. Most of these types can stay aloft for over 19 hours. "Hughes" were bred by Gordon Hughes in Derby, with a flying record of 18:07 in 1976. The "Boden" were bred by Jack Boden in Handsworth, achieving a flying time of 20:40 in 1975."Sam Billingham", Arthur Newton, Joe Davies, Jack Holland were among England's top breeders. Other popular types include "Merredith", Shannon and Sheffield. Tipplers can be trained to fly long hours and drop only when asked; the homing pigeon flies to race home, the Roller pigeon flies to roll, but the tippler just flies. Tippler fanciers can compete anywhere in the world without traveling. A "kit" of tipplers consists of three or more birds.
Each tippler club has defined flying rules. The aim is for the whole kit to fly as long as possible; when one lands, or if the fancier gives the landing sign, the competition ends. The birds must be seen every hour by the referee to make sure that they are indeed flying. Most clubs base their flying rules on the "NTU flying rules"; the two categories of competition are old birds. A young bird is one hatched during the current year. Any other bird is regarded as an old bird, regardless of its actual age; the first old bird race is about the middle of April, with others at two week intervals. The most important competition occupies the so-called Long Day; the longest day of the year. In Pakistan many fanciers and associations organize endurance competitions. In the Rawalpindi-Islamabad area, the All Pakistan Pigeons Lovers Association organizes two competitions one in September or October and one in May; each fancier comes with a team of seven to eleven birds. In May, the competition starts at 4:50 am.
The total time scored by each team is calculated at the end and prizes are awarded. These competitions are not only a source of amusement but an opportunity for social interaction. International Results 2007 Homing pigeon List of pigeon breeds 36 stages for the Flying Tippler Novice, W. Matthews, N. T. U. Yearbook 1987. Retrieved December 27, 2005. N. T. U. Yearbook 1990/1991. Retrieved November 5, 2006. "Flight Performance and Water Turnover of Tippler Pigeons with a Harness and Dorsal Load", JA Gessaman, GW Workman, MR Fuller, 1991. The secrets of Tippler Pigeon Flying with 18 Invaluable Receipts by J Stanway Origins of the English Flying Tipplers by Jack Prescott, February 2006. Levi, Wendell; the Pigeon. Sumter, S. C.: Levi Publishing Co, Inc. ISBN 0-85390-013-2. CURLEY, J. T. 1961. The time-flying tippler pigeon sport. Howell Book House, New York, NY. International Tipplers Articles by Jack Prescott Tipplers.com BBC: Tippler Pigeon fans' fury over falcon threat
Squid are cephalopods in the superorder Decapodiformes with elongated bodies, large eyes, eight arms and two tentacles. Like all other cephalopods, squid have a distinct head, bilateral symmetry, a mantle, they are soft-bodied, like octopuses, but have a small internal skeleton in the form of a rod-like gladius or pen, made of chitin. Squid diverged from other cephalopods during the Jurassic and occupy a similar role to teleost fish as open water predators of similar size and behaviour, they play an important role in the open water food web. The two long tentacles are used to grab the eight arms to hold and control it; the beak cuts the food into suitable size chunks for swallowing. Squid are rapid swimmers, moving by jet propulsion, locate their prey by sight, they are among the most intelligent of invertebrates, with groups of Humboldt squid having been observed hunting cooperatively. They are preyed on by sharks, other fish, sea birds and cetaceans sperm whales. Squid can change colour for signalling.
Some species are bioluminescent, using their light for counter-illumination camouflage, while many species can eject a cloud of ink to distract predators. Squid are used for human consumption with commercial fisheries in Japan, the Mediterranean, the southwestern Atlantic, the eastern Pacific and elsewhere, they are used in cuisines around the world known as "calamari". Squid have featured in literature since classical times in tales of giant squid and sea monsters. Squid are members of the class Cephalopoda, subclass Coleoidea; the squid orders Myopsida and Oegopsida are in the superorder Decapodiformes. Two other orders of decapodiform cephalopods are called squid, although they are taxonomically distinct from squids and differ recognizably in their gross anatomical features, they are the bobtail squid of order Sepiolida and the ram's horn squid of the monotypic order Spirulida. The vampire squid, however, is more related to the octopuses than to any squid; the cladogram, not resolved, is based on Sanchez et al, 2018.
Their molecular phylogeny used nuclear DNA marker sequences. If it is accepted that Sepiidae cuttlefish are a kind of squid the squids, excluding the vampire squid, form a clade as illustrated. Orders are shown in boldface. Crown coleoids diverged in the Permian. Squid diverged during the Jurassic. Both the coleoids and the teleost fish were involved in much adaptive radiation at this time, the two modern groups resemble each other in size, habitat and behaviour, however some fish moved into fresh water while the coleoids remained in marine environments; the ancestral coleoid was nautiloid-like with a strait septate shell that became immersed in the mantle and was used for buoyancy control. Four lines diverged from this, the cuttlefishes, the squids and the octopuses. Squid have differentiated from the ancestral mollusc such that the body plan has been condensed antero-posteriorly and extended dorso-ventrally. What may have been the foot of the ancestor is modified into a complex set of appendages around the mouth.
The sense organs are developed and include advanced eyes similar to those of vertebrates. The ancestral shell has been lost, with pen, remaining; the pen, made of a chitin-like material, is a feather-shaped internal structure that supports the squid's mantle and serves as a site for muscle attachment. The cuttlebone or sepion of the Sepiidae is calcareous and appears to have evolved afresh in the Tertiary. Squid are soft-bodied molluscs whose forms have been modified to adopt an active predatory lifestyle; the head and foot of the squid are at one end of a long body, this end is functionally anterior, leading the animal as it moves through the water. The foot has been transformed into a set of eight arms and two distinctive tentacles, which surround the mouth; the suckers may be stalked. Their rims may contain minute toothlike denticles; these features, as well as strong musculature, a small ganglion beneath each sucker to allow individual control, provide a powerful adhesion to grip prey. Hooks are present on the arms and tentacles in some species.
The two tentacles are retractile. Suckers are limited to the spatulate tip of the tentacle, known as the manus. In the mature male, the outer half of one of the left arms is hectocotylised – and ends in a copulatory pad rather than suckers; this is used for depositing a spermatophore inside the mantle cavity of a female. A ventral part of the foot has been converted into a funnel through which water exits the mantle cavity; the main body mass is enclosed in the mantle. These fins are not the main source of locomotion in most species; the mantle wall is muscled and internal. The visceral mass, covered by a thin, membranous epidermis, forms a cone-shaped posterior region known as the "visceral hump"; the mollusc shell is reduced to an internal, longitudinal chitinous "pen" in the functionally dorsal part of the animal. On the functionally ventral part of the body is an opening to the m
Valencia València, on the east coast of Spain, is the capital of the autonomous community of Valencia and the third-largest city in Spain after Madrid and Barcelona, with around 800,000 inhabitants in the administrative centre. Its urban area extends beyond the administrative city limits with a population of around 1.6 million people. Valencia is Spain's third largest metropolitan area, with a population ranging from 1.7 to 2.5 million depending on how the metropolitan area is defined. The Port of Valencia is the 5th busiest container port in Europe and the busiest container port on the Mediterranean Sea; the city is ranked at Beta-global city in World Cities Research Network. Valencia is integrated into an industrial area on the Costa del Azahar. Valencia was founded as a Roman colony by the consul Decimus Junius Brutus Callaicus in 138 BC, called Valentia Edetanorum. In 714 Moroccan and Arab Moors occupied the city, introducing their language and customs. Valencia was the capital of the Taifa of Valencia.
In 1238 the Christian king James I of Aragon conquered the city and divided the land among the nobles who helped him conquer it, as witnessed in the Llibre del Repartiment. He created a new law for the city, the Furs of Valencia, which were extended to the rest of the Kingdom of Valencia. In the 18th century Philip V of Spain abolished the privileges as punishment to the kingdom of Valencia for aligning with the Habsburg side in the War of the Spanish Succession. Valencia was the capital of Spain when Joseph Bonaparte moved the Court there in the summer of 1812, it served as capital between 1936 and 1937, during the Second Spanish Republic. The city is situated on the banks of the Turia, on the east coast of the Iberian Peninsula, fronting the Gulf of Valencia on the Mediterranean Sea, its historic centre is one of the largest in Spain, with 169 ha. Due to its long history, this is a city with numerous popular celebrations and traditions, such as the Fallas, which were declared as Fiestas of National Tourist Interest of Spain in 1965 and Intangible cultural heritage by UNESCO in November 2016.
From 1991 to 2015, Rita Barberá Nolla was the mayor of the city, yet in 2015, Joan Ribó from Coalició Compromís, became mayor. The original Latin name of the city was Valentia, meaning "strength", or "valour", the city being named according to the Roman practice of recognising the valour of former Roman soldiers after a war; the Roman historian Livy explains that the founding of Valentia in the 2nd century BC was due to the settling of the Roman soldiers who fought against an Iberian rebel, Viriatus. During the rule of the Muslim kingdoms in Spain, it had the nickname Medina at-Tarab according to one transliteration, or Medina at-Turab according to another, since it was located on the banks of the River Turia, it is not clear if the term Balansiyya was reserved for the entire Taifa of Valencia or designated the city. By gradual sound changes, Valentia has in Castilian and València in Valencian. In Valencian, the grave accent ⟨è⟩ /ɛ/ contrasts with the acute accent ⟨é⟩ /e/—but the word València is an exception to this rule.
It is spelled according to Catalan etymology. Valencia stands on the banks of the Turia River, located on the eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula and the western part of the Mediterranean Sea, fronting the Gulf of Valencia. At its founding by the Romans, it stood on a river island in 6.4 kilometres from the sea. The Albufera, a freshwater lagoon and estuary about 11 km south of the city, is one of the largest lakes in Spain; the City Council bought the lake from the Crown of Spain for 1,072,980 pesetas in 1911, today it forms the main portion of the Parc Natural de l'Albufera, with a surface area of 21,120 hectares. In 1976, because of its cultural and ecological value, the Generalitat Valenciana declared it a natural park. Valencia has a subtropical Mediterranean climate with short mild winters and long and dry summers, its average annual temperature is 18.4 °C. In the coldest month, the maximum temperature during the day ranges from 14 to 21 °C, the minimum temperature at night ranges from 5 to 11 °C.
In the warmest month – August, the maximum temperature during the day ranges from 28–34 °C, about 22 to 23 °C at night. Similar temperatures to those experienced in the northern part of Europe in summer last about 8 months, from April to November. March is transitional, the temperature exceeds 20 °C, with an average temperature of 19.3 °C during the day and 10.0 °C at night. December and February are the coldest months, with average temperatures around 17 °C during the day and 8 °C at night. Valencia has one of the mildest winters in Europe, owing to its southern location on the Mediterranean Sea and the Foehn phenomenon; the January average is comparable to temperatures expected for May and September in the major cities of northern Europe. Sunshine duration hours are 2,696 per year, from 15
The Ilercavones were an ancient Iberian people of the Iberian peninsula. They are believed to have spoken an Iberian language; the name Ilercavonia to refer to the territory occupied by this Iberian tribe appears in ancient Greek and Roman texts and documents and it was still mentioned in medieval texts. The northern limits of this territory were in Serra de la Llena, the northeastern in Coll de Balaguer, the western in Mequinensa and the southern in Sagunt; the Ilercavones were religious as a people. They did not have temples; the Ilercavones as a nation or tribe were mentioned by Pliny the Elder, who said that they inhabited the lands between river Udiva and further north of the Ebro, by Ptolemy, who named the cape and the harbor where they lived Tenebri. They were mentioned as well as by Livy in his texts describing the first phase of the Roman invasion of Iberia. After the Roman conquest the Ilercavones became romanized, much like the other Iberian tribes in the peninsula, they became assimilated into the Roman population after acquiring the Latin language as their own vernacular.
The most important archaeological sites are in the following places: Castellet de Banyoles in Tivissa Coll del Moro in Gandesa Below the Castle of La Suda in Tortosa Mianes in Tortosa Below the Templar castle in Miravet La Ferradura in Ulldecona Moleta del Remei in Alcanar Puig de la Nau in Benicarló Sant Antoni Iberian village in Calaceite Ilercavonia Iberians Pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsula Romanization Detailed map of the Pre-Roman Peoples of Iberia Nonasp Antiguo, The Ilercavones in Matarranya Els Ports - Archaeology