Field of Mars (Saint Petersburg)

The Field of Mars is a large square in the centre of Saint Petersburg. Over its long history it has been alternately a meadow, pleasure garden, military parade ground, revolutionary pantheon and public meeting place; the space now covered by the Field of Mars was an open area of swampy land between the developments around the Admiralty, the imperial residence in the Summer Garden. It was drained by the digging of canals in the first half of the eighteenth century, served as parkland, hosting a tavern, post office and the royal menagerie. Popular with the nobility, several leading figures of Petrine society established their town houses around the space in the mid eighteenth century. Under Peter the Great it was laid out with paths for walking and riding, hosted military parades and festivals. During this period, under Peter's successors it was called the "Empty Meadow" and the "Great Meadow". Empresses Anna and Elizabeth built their Summer Palaces here, it was redeveloped into a pleasure park with pavilions and walkways for promenading.

Theatres were built on the land during this period, with the imperial patronage, the square became the "Tsaritsyn Meadow". New townhouses and palaces developed along the square's boundaries and across its frontage onto the Neva. During the reigns of Emperor Paul I and his son Alexander I, the square took on more of a martial purpose, with the construction of military monuments in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. In acknowledgement of this, its role in hosting military reviews and parades, it was renamed the "Field of Mars" in 1805; the square was part of the further development of the area by architect Carlo Rossi in the late 1810s, involving new buildings around the perimeter, the extension of streets and frontages. During the nineteenth century the Field of Mars alternately hosted large military reviews, public festivals. Sports and other leisure activities took place into the early twentieth century. After February 1917 the square became the ceremonial burial place of a number of those killed during the February Revolution.

Construction of a memorial, the Monument to the Fighters of the Revolution, took place between 1917 and 1919 at the centre of the Field of Mars. The monument became the centre of an early pantheon of those who died in the service of the nascent Soviet state, burials of some of the dead of the October Revolution and the Russian Civil War, as well as prominent figures in the government, took place between 1917 and 1933. Between 1918 and 1944 the Field of Mars was renamed the "Victims of the Revolution Square"; the square was laid out with vegetable gardens to help feed the city during the siege of Leningrad, hosted an artillery battery. Restorations took place after the war, including the installation of the first eternal flame in Russia. In the post-Soviet period the Field of Mars has become a popular location for demonstrations and protests; the square covers an area of nearly 9 hectares. Bordering the Field of Mars to the north are the Marble Palace, Suvorov Square, the Betskoy and the Saltykov Mansions, separated from the square by Millionnaya Street.

To the west are the former barracks of the Pavlovsky Regiment. The Moyka River forms the boundary to the south, across from, the Mikhailovsky Palace and Garden; the east side is bounded by the Swan Canal, which separates the Field of Mars from the Summer Garden. In the early 18th century the land which became the Field of Mars was a marshy area with trees and shrubs, lying between the Neva to the north, the Mya and Krivusha rivers to the south. With the establishment of the imperial residence in the Summer Garden in 1704, the area became a buffer zone separating the royal property from the rest of the city. Between 1711 and 1721 two canals, the Swan, the Red, were dug to the east and west with the purpose of draining the land; this created a rectangular parcel of land called Pustoi, meaning "Empty" - after the trees that grew here were felled, from the 1720s, the "Great Meadow". A tavern was built in the northwestern part of the land in 1712, being rebuilt in 1714 as a post office. Between 1713 and 1717 the area hosted the royal menagerie, containing various birds and animals, including an elephant.

With the construction of the Red Canal, the menagerie was transferred to Hamovaya Street. With the completion of the Red Canal in 1721, the western edge of the Big Meadow became a popular site for the nobility to construct large townhouses; those that settled in the area included Charles Frederick, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp, Alexander Rumyantsev, Adam Veyde, Pavel Yaguzhinsky, Peter the Great's daughter, Elizabeth Petrovna. With the canals dug to carry away water, the land was soon drained, on the orders of Peter the Great, it was levelled and sown with grass, with alleys laid out for walking and riding; the Great Meadow became a location for military festivals. Celebrations of the 1721 Treaty of Nystad were held here, with a triumphal arch built to commemorate the treaty; the area became known as "Amusement Field". The Gottorp Globe was installed on the field shortly after its arrival in Saint Petersburg, housed in the former elephant quarters. A special building was constructed for it, opened to the public for a time, before the globe was moved to the Kunstkamera on Vasilyevsky Island in summer 1726.

During the reign of Empress Catherine I, the field was termed the "Meadow in front of the Summer Palace", during the reigns of her successors Empress Anna an

Biffo the Bear

Biffo the Bear is a British comic strip from The Beano about the eponymous bear, created in 1948 by Dudley D. Watkins. Biffo's creator, Dudley D. Watkins worked for Beano's friendly rival The Dandy, as well as other DC Thomson children's comics, such as Adventure in the 1920s and The Sunday Post's Oor Wullie comic, noted by Beano creator R. D. Low for his talent of social realist humour. Watkins participated in comic strips for The Beano as well, drawing for Lord Snooty, The White Mouse Will Get You, the title panels for The King's Got a Tail!. At the time of the development of Biffo the Bear, rumours circulated that Beano readers were losing interest in the comic strip Big Eggo because he was not relatable to them anymore in the same way a mammal would. Biffo the Bear debuted as cover star on the 327th issue and remained so until issue 1677. R. D. Low preferred cover star characters to be monochrome because they would stand out in a colourful world, since the front covers of his comics were in color.

This was the same technique he used for Korky the Cat, the first cover star of The Dandy, Big Eggo. Although a strong resemblance to Mickey Mouse, it has not been confirmed whether Biffo's design is based on the Disney character. A lot of Biffo's stories would be based on his anthropomorphism, such as owning a cafe, working as a ticket seller for camel and elephant rides at the zoo, or busking. Despite his human characteristics, Biffo spoke and most of the comic strip panels would have no speech bubbles. In 1969, Lord Snooty found Biffo's family tree at the Beanotown museum and Biffo uses it to tell stories of his family history to the readers and flashbacks would show how his ancestors interacted with famous historical events; this was written by Watkins with the help of Ian Gray. In issue 575, his human friend Buster appeared in his stories and had a one-off tale with Biffo in Biffo and Buster; when Watkins died in August 1969, David Sutherland continued the series until the 1970s, Jimmy Glen took over.

Biffo remained as cover star until issue 1677, dethroned by Dennis the Menace, but appeared inside The Beano until issue 2310, however, he would have three one-off strips in the "Readers' Request" feature. One of R. D. Low's "new big five" comics, but failed due to paper rationing, The Magic Comic from 1939 was revived in late-January 1976 and ended in 1979. Spin-off stories of Biffo the Bear were printed, aimed at a younger audience than The Beano, were about Biffo visiting his nephews Cuddly and Dudley; these were designed by Turnbull. Biffo was the star of pocket-sized Twinkle books in the 1980s, drawn by Bill Ritchie; the series returned in issue 2445, drawn by Sid Burgon, finished in issue 2954. The format had been revamped to three or four frames over a page with no speech depicting Biffo in fantastical, surreal situations; some stories were reprinted in 2007 in the Fun Size Comics section. Trevor Metcalfe contributed a few stories as well, including in The Beano Book 1994. In The Beano Book 1999, Milly O'Naire from Jackpot made a guest appearance with her father, most a nod to Burgon's previous work on her comic strip.

Biffo was seen in a four-part special leading a group of retired characters, Pansy Potter, Keyhole Kate and Desert Island Dick, to return The Beano to an earlier form. Biffo returned in The Beano 2007 Christmas special, his next guest appearance was in the 70 Years Anniversary Beano, drawn by David Sutherland. As the issue was edited by Nick Park, animals in the zoo could be seen that bore a close resemblance to that of his 1989 short film, Creature Comforts. Biffo made an appearance in the 2010 Beano Annual drawn by Sutherland. In 2013 Biffo appeared in the Funsize Funnies pages of the Beano. Drawn by Wayne Thompson, he returned the following year, this time drawn by Paul Palmer, it continued through to the 80th anniversary in 2018 along with Big Eggo. Biffo appeared in the 2019 Beano Annual in the inner cover artwork with 254 other characters from The Beano's history and was in the time-travelling comic feature "Doctor Whoops!"

Foley Hoag

Foley Hoag LLP is a law firm headquartered in Boston, with additional offices in New York City and Washington, D. C; the firm represents public and private clients in a wide range of disputes and transactions worldwide. It offers regional and international legal services. Represented industries include life sciences, technology, energy & cleantech, investment advisers & private funds, professional services and education. Foley Hoag specializes in international litigation & arbitration, business counseling, privacy & data security, intellectual property, labor & employment, real estate & development and state government strategies and corporate social responsibility services; the firm was founded on April 1943 when Henry Elliot Foley teamed with Garrett Scattergood Hoag. The two founders began their firm in a three-room office at 10 Post Office Square in Boston's Financial District; the firm was involved in Boston's early civil rights struggle and the Boston busing crisis when it represented the plaintiffs in a 1970s lawsuit that brought desegregation to Boston Public Schools.

This legal victory resulted in the firm establishing the Foley Hoag Foundation, which focuses on improving race relations in Boston. Foley Hoag is involved in the Boston-area entrepreneurial community, providing counsel local technology startup companies. In 2002, the firm moved its main office to its current location in the Seaport District in South Boston. Foley Hoag opened its first office outside of Massachusetts in Washington, D. C. on June 6, 1966, focusing on international arbitration practices. The firm's corporate social responsibility, government strategies and healthcare practices are based in D. C. In June 2011, the firm opened an office in Paris to serve overseas companies and sovereign states in international arbitration and litigation matters. In May 2015, the firm opened its first office in New York to expand its intellectual property and international litigation practices. Foley Hoag has industry-focused practices in energy and cleantech, life sciences, investment advisers and private funds, professional services, sovereign states and technology.

The firm has an international litigation and arbitration practice group which represents both corporations and foreign governments. In 2008 the firm represented the government of Bolivia in a challenge to the nationalization of a telecom company. Since 2010, the firm's CSR Practice has served as the Secretariat for the Voluntary Principles on Security and Human Rights. Alicia Barton, president and CEO, New York State Energy Research and Development Authority. Martha Coakley, former Attorney General of Massachusetts. Vickie L. Henry, associate justice, Massachusetts Appeals Court. Joseph P. Liu, professor of intellectual property at Boston College Law School. Hans F. Loeser, retired senior partner, civil rights lawyer and Vietnam War opponent. Sandra Lea Lynch, judge on the United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit. Michael Rustad, professor of law at Suffolk University Law School. Paul Tsongas, former United States Senator from Massachusetts. Barry B. White, former United States Ambassador to Norway.

James Boyd White, professor at University of Michigan Law School. Gloria Cordes Larson, former president of Bentley University; some Foley Hoag attorneys appear annually in compendiums such as Chambers USA, Chambers Global, Best Lawyers and Legal 500. Several of its practices have been noted in publications such as U. S. News & World Report and Corporate CounselThe firm has been listed in various business and legal industry rankings as a premiere workplace. Vault's 2015 "Top Best Firms to Work For" list named Foley Hoag the third-best law firm to work for nationally; the firm placed first nationally in firm culture, LGBT diversity, was ranked in the top 10 in many other individual categories, including training and mentoring, pro bono work, transparency. Foley Hoag has been in the Vault top 10 for several years, coming in at fifth for 2012, sixth for both 2013 and 2014, ninth in 2018. In 2011, 2012 and 2013, the firm was recognized by the Boston Globe's "Top Places to Work" survey as a leading place of employment in Massachusetts.

In 2014 the firm was ranked ninth nationally in The American Lawyer 2014 Mid-Level Associates Satisfaction survey. Law360 named Foley Hoag a 2018 Regional Powerhouse, an accolade awarded to law firms handling some of the biggest deals and most high-profile courtroom battles that make a lasting impact on the law at the state and local level Homepage Foley Hoag Technology & Entrepreneurship Collaborative Corporate Social Responsibility and the Law Chambers USA profile Profile on