Capetian House of Anjou
The Capetian House of Anjou was a royal house and cadet branch of the direct French House of Capet, part of the Capetian dynasty. It is one of three separate royal houses referred to meaning "from Anjou" in France. Founded by Charles I of Naples, the youngest son of Louis VIII of France, the Capetian king first ruled the Kingdom of Sicily during the 13th century; the War of the Sicilian Vespers forced him out of the island of Sicily, leaving him with the southern half of the Italian Peninsula — the Kingdom of Naples. The house and its various branches would go on to influence much of the history of Southern and Central Europe during the Middle Ages, until becoming defunct in 1435; the House ruled the counties of Anjou, Touraine and Forcalquier, the principalities of Achaea and Taranto, the kingdoms of Sicily, Hungary, Croatia and Poland. A younger son of House of Capet king Louis VIII of France the Lion, Charles was first given a noble title by his brother Louis IX of France who succeeded to the French throne in 1226.
Charles was named Count of Maine. Charles married the heiress of the County of Provence named Beatrice of Provence, she was a member of the House of Barcelona. After fighting in the Seventh Crusade, Charles was offered by Pope Clement IV the Kingdom of Sicily — which at the time included not only the island of Sicily but the southern half of the Italian Peninsula; the reason for Charles being offered the kingdom was because of a conflict between the Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire, the latter of whom were represented by the ruling House of Hohenstaufen. It was at the Battle of Benevento that the Guelph Capetians gained the Sicilian kingdom from the Ghibelline Swabians, this was cemented after victory at Tagliacozzo. In keeping with the political landscape of the period, Charles is described by scholars as shrewd and ambitious, he signed the Treaty of Viterbo in 1267 with Baldwin II of Courtenay and William II of Villehardouin, the political alliance gave many of the rights of the Latin Empire to Charles and a marriage alliance for his daughter Beatrice of Sicily.
The Byzantines had taken back the city of Constantinople in 1261 and this was a plan to take it back from Michael VIII Palaiologos. It recognised Charles' possession of Corfu and cities in the Balkans such as Durazzo, as well as giving him suzerainty over the Principality of Achaea and sovereignty of the Aegean islands aside from those held by the Republic of Venice. For a while Charles was preoccupied helping his French brother in the unsuccessful Eighth Crusade on Tunis. After this he once again focused on Constantinople, but his fleet was wrecked in a freak storm off the coast of Trapani. With the elevation of Pope Gregory X, there was a truce between Charles and Michael in the form of the Council of Lyons, as Christians focused on improving ecumenical relations, with hopes of regaining the Kingdom of Jerusalem back from the Muslims. Charles had solidified his rule over Durazzo by 1272, creating a small Kingdom of Albania for himself, out of Despotate of Epirus territory. Charles was driven out of Sicily in 1282, but his successors ruled Naples until 1435.
This House of Anjou included the branches of Anjou-Hungary, which ruled Hungary and Poland, Anjou-Taranto, which ruled the remnants of the Latin Empire and Anjou-Durazzo, which ruled Naples and Hungary. The senior line of the House of Anjou-Durazzo became extinct in the male line with the death of King Ladislaus of Naples in 1414, extinct with the death of his sister Joanna II in 1435. During Middle Ages, there were the House of Capet. Charles I, founder of the House of Anjou-Sicily, with his first wife, Beatrice of Provence fathered his eldest son, Charles II of Naples. In 1270, Charles II married Mary of Hungary, daughter of Stephen V of Hungary and Elizabeth the Cuman, they had fourteen children which provided the House of Anjou-Sicily with a secure position in Naples. The childless Ladislaus IV of Hungary, was succeeded by Andrew III as King of Hungary, he was the son of Stephen the Posthumous, considered by Stephen's much older half-brothers a bastard son of infidelity. For this reason, after the death of Ladislaus IV. some of the Árpád dynasty's cognates sought the family as extinct.
In Naples, Charles Martel of Anjou, the eldest son of Mary of Hungary announced his claim to the Hungarian crown, backed by his mother, the pope. He started to style himself king of Hungary, but he never managed to gain enough support from the Hungarian magnates to realize his claim. With Andrew III's childless death, the "last golden branch" of the tree of King Saint Stephen's family ended; the Hungarian diet was determined to keep the blood of Saint Stephen on the throne in the maternal line at least. In the upcoming years, a civil war followed between various claimants to the throne. After the short period of rule of Wenceslaus of Bohemia, Otto of Bavaria the civil war ended with Charles Robert's victory, the son of Charles Martel of Anjou, but he was forced to continue fighting against the powerful Hungarian l
Piedmont is a region in northwest Italy, one of the 20 regions of the country. It borders the Liguria region to the south, the Lombardy and Emilia-Romagna regions to the east and the Aosta Valley region to the northwest, it has an area of 25,402 square kilometres and a population of 4,377,941 as of 30 November 2017. The capital of Piedmont is Turin; the name Piedmont comes from medieval Latin Pedemontium or Pedemontis, i.e. ad pedem montium, meaning “at the foot of the mountains” attested in documents of the end of the 12th century. Other towns of Piedmont with more than 20,000 inhabitants sorted by population: Piedmont is surrounded on three sides by the Alps, including Monviso, where the Po rises, Monte Rosa, it borders with France and the Italian regions of Lombardy, Aosta Valley and for a small fragment with Emilia Romagna. The geography of Piedmont is 43.3 % mountainous, along with extensive areas of plains. Piedmont is the second largest of Italy's 20 regions, after Sicily, it is broadly coincident with the upper part of the drainage basin of the river Po, which rises from the slopes of Monviso in the west of the region and is Italy's largest river.
The Po drains the semicircle formed by the. From the highest peaks, the land slopes down to hilly areas, to the upper, to the lower great Padan Plain; the boundary between the two is characterised by resurgent springs—typical of the Padan Plain—which supply fresh water to the rivers and a dense network of irrigation canals. The countryside is diverse: from the rugged peaks of the massifs of Monte Rosa and of Gran Paradiso, to the damp rice paddies of Vercelli and Novara, from the gentle hillsides of the Langhe and of Montferrat to the plains. 7.6% of the entire territory is considered protected area. There are 56 different national or regional parks, one of the most famous is the Gran Paradiso National Park located between Piedmont and the Aosta Valley. Piedmont was inhabited in early historic times by Celtic-Ligurian tribes such as the Taurini and the Salassi, they were subdued by the Romans, who founded several colonies there including Augusta Taurinorum and Eporedia. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the region was successively invaded by the Burgundians, the Ostrogoths, East Romans and Franks.
In the 9th -- 10th centuries there were further incursions by the Saracens. At the time Piedmont, as part of the Kingdom of Italy within the Holy Roman Empire, was subdivided into several marches and counties. In 1046, Oddo of Savoy added Piedmont with a capital at Chambéry. Other areas remained independent, such as the powerful comuni of Asti and Alessandria and the marquisates of Saluzzo and Montferrat; the County of Savoy was elevated to a duchy in 1416, Duke Emanuele Filiberto moved the seat to Turin in 1563. In 1720, the Duke of Savoy became King of Sardinia, founding what evolved into the Kingdom of Sardinia and increasing Turin's importance as a European capital; the Republic of Alba was created in 1796 as a French client republic in Piedmont. A new client republic, the Piedmontese Republic, existed between 1798 and 1799 before it was reoccupied by Austrian and Russian troops. In June 1800 a third client republic, the Subalpine Republic, was established in Piedmont, it fell under full French control in 1801 and it was annexed by France in September 1802.
In the congress of Vienna, the Kingdom of Sardinia was restored, furthermore received the Republic of Genoa to strengthen it as a barrier against France. Piedmont was a springboard for Italy's unification in 1859–1861, following earlier unsuccessful wars against the Austrian Empire in 1820–1821 and 1848–1849; this process is sometimes referred to as Piedmontisation. However, the efforts were countered by the efforts of rural farmers; the House of Savoy became Kings of Italy, Turin became the capital of Italy. However, when the Italian capital was moved to Florence, to Rome, the administrative and institutional importance of Piedmont was reduced and the only remaining recognition to Piedmont's historical role was that the crown prince of Italy was known as the Prince of Piedmont. After Italian unification, Piedmont was one of the most important regions in the first Italian industrialization. Lowland Piedmont is a fertile agricultural region; the main agricultural products in Piedmont are cereals, including rice, representing more than 10% of national production, grapes for wine-making and milk.
With more than 800,000 head of cattle in 2000, livestock production accounts for half of final agricultural production in Piedmont. Piedmont is one of the great winegrowing regions in Italy. More than half of its 700 square kilometres of vineyards are registered with DOC designations, it produces prestigious wines as Barolo, from the Langhe near Alba, the Moscato d'Asti as well as the sparkling Asti from the vineyards around Asti. Indigenous grape varieties include Nebbiolo, Dolcetto, Freisa and Brachetto; the region contains major industrial centres, the main of, Turin, home to the FIAT automobile works. Olivetti, once a major electronics industry whose plant was in Scarmagno, near Ivrea, has now turned into a small-sc
Guelphs and Ghibellines
The Guelphs and Ghibellines were factions supporting the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor in the Italian city-states of central and northern Italy. During the 12th and 13th centuries, rivalry between these two parties formed a important aspect of the internal politics of medieval Italy; the struggle for power between the Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire had arisen with the Investiture Controversy, which began in 1075 and ended with the Concordat of Worms in 1122. The division between the Guelphs and Ghibellines in Italy, fuelled by the imperial Great Interregnum, persisted until the 15th century. Guelph is an Italian form of the name of the House of the family of the dukes of Bavaria; the Welfs were said to have used the name as a rallying cry during the Siege of Weinsberg in 1140, in which the rival Hohenstaufens of Swabia used "Wibellingen", the name of a castle today known as Waiblingen, as their cry. The names were introduced to Italy during the reign of Frederick Barbarossa; when Frederick conducted military campaigns in Italy to expand imperial power there, his supporters became known as Ghibellines.
The Lombard League and its allies were defending the liberties of the urban communes against the Emperor's encroachments and became known as Guelphs. The Ghibellines were thus the imperial party. Broadly speaking, Guelphs tended to come from wealthy mercantile families, whereas Ghibellines were predominantly those whose wealth was based on agricultural estates. Guelph cities tended to be in areas where the Emperor was more of a threat to local interests than the Pope, Ghibelline cities tended to be in areas where the enlargement of the Papal States was the more immediate threat; the Lombard League defeated Frederick at the Battle of Legnano in 1176. Frederick recognized the full autonomy of the cities of the Lombard league under his nominal suzerainty; the division developed its own dynamic in the politics of medieval Italy, it persisted long after the direct confrontation between Emperor and Pope had ceased. Smaller cities tended to be Ghibelline if the larger city nearby was Guelph, as Guelph Republic of Florence and Ghibelline Republic of Siena faced off at the Battle of Montaperti, 1260.
Pisa maintained a staunch Ghibelline stance against her fiercest rivals, the Guelph Republic of Genoa and Florence. Adherence to one of the parties could therefore be motivated by regional political reasons. Within cities, party allegiances differed from guild to guild, rione to rione, a city could change party after internal upheaval. Moreover, sometimes traditionally Ghibelline cities allied with the Papacy, while Guelph cities were punished with interdict. Contemporaries did not use the terms Guelph and Ghibellines much until about 1250, only in Tuscany, with the names "church party" and "imperial party" preferred in some areas. At the beginning of the 13th century, Philip of Swabia, a Hohenstaufen, his son-in-law Otto of Brunswick, a Welf, were rivals for the imperial throne. Philip was supported by the Ghibellines as a relative of Frederick I, while Otto was supported by the Guelphs. Philip's heir, Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, was an enemy of both Otto and the Papacy, during Frederick's reign the Guelphs became more associated with the Papacy while the Ghibellines became supporters of the Empire, of Frederick in particular.
Frederick II introduced this division to the Crusader states in the Levant during the Sixth Crusade. After the Sixth Crusade, Frederick II quelled a rebellion led by his son Henry in Germany and soon invaded Lombardy with a large Army. Pope Gregory IX failed. Frederick defeated the Lombard League in the Battle of Cortenuova and refused any Peace treaty with any of the Guelph States, he laid siege to Brescia but was forced to lift it. He was excommunicated by the Pope, in response expelled the friars from Lombardy and placed his son Enzo as Imperial vicar in Italy, he annexed Romagna and the Duchy of Spoleto as well as part of the Papal States. In the meantime Frederick marched through Tuscany hoping to capture Rome, however he was forced to retreat, sacking the city of Benevento. Soon however the Ghibelline city of Ferrara fell and Frederick once more marched into Italy capturing Ravenna and Faenza; the Pope called a council but an Imperial-Pisan fleet defeated a Papal fleet carrying Cardinals and prelates from Genoa in the Battle of Giglio and Frederick continued marching towards Rome.
However Pope Gregory soon died and Frederick, seeing the war being directed against the Church and not the Pope, withdrew his forces, releasing two cardinals from Capua, although Frederick did again march against Rome over and over throughout 1242 and 1243. A new Pope Innocent IV was elected. At first Frederick was content with the election; however the new Pope turned against Frederick. When the City of Viterbo rebelled, the pope backed the Guelphs. Frederick marched to Italy and besieged Viterbo; the Pope signed a Peace treaty with the Emperor. However, after the Emperor left the Cardinal Raniero Capocci, as the leader of Viterbo, had the garrison massacred; the Pope made another treaty but he broke it and continued to back the Guelphs, supporting Henry Raspe, Landgrave of Thuringia as King of the Romans and soon plo
Lombardy is one of the twenty administrative regions of Italy, in the northwest of the country, with an area of 23,844 square kilometres. About 10 million people, forming one-sixth of Italy's population, live in Lombardy and about a fifth of Italy's GDP is produced in the region, making it the most populous and richest region in the country and one of the richest regions in Europe. Milan, Lombardy's capital, is the largest metropolitan area in Italy; the word Lombardy comes from Lombard, which in turn is derived from Late Latin Longobardus, derived from the Proto-Germanic elements *langaz + *bardaz. Some sources derive the second element instead from Proto-Germanic *bardǭ, *barduz, related to German Barte. During the early Middle Ages "Lombardy" referred to the Kingdom of the Lombards, a kingdom ruled by the Germanic Lombards who had controlled most of Italy since their invasion of Byzantine Italy in 568; as such "Lombardy" and "Italy" were interchangeable. The Kingdom was divided between Longobardia Major in the north and Langobardia Minor in the south, which were until the 8th century separated by the Byzantine Exarchate of Ravenna and the Papacy.
During the late Middle Ages, after the fall of the northern part of the Kingdom to Charlemagne, the term shifted to mean Northern Italy.. The term was used until around 965 in the form Λογγοβαρδία as the name for the territory covering modern Apulia which the Byzantines had recovered from the Lombard rump Duchy of Benevento. With a surface of 23,861 km2, Lombardy is the fourth-largest region of Italy, it is bordered by Switzerland and by the Italian regions of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol and Veneto, Emilia-Romagna, Piedmont. Three distinct natural zones can be easily distinguished in Lombardy: mountains and plains—the latter being divided in Alta and Bassa; the orography of Lombardy is characterised by the presence of three distinct belts: a northern mountainous belt constituted by the Alpine relief, a central piedmont area of pebbly soils of alluvial origin, the Lombard section of the Padan plain in the southernmost part of the region. The most important mountainous area is an Alpine zone including the Lepontine and Rhaetian Alps, the Bergamo Alps, the Ortler Alps and the Adamello massif.
The plains of Lombardy, formed by alluvial deposits, can be divided into the Alta—an upper, permeable ground zone in the north and a lower zone—and the Bassa—dotted by the so-called line of fontanili, spring waters rising from impermeable ground. Inconsistent with the three distinctions above made is the small subregion of Oltrepò Pavese, formed by the Apennine foothills beyond the Po River; the mighty Po river marks the southern border of the region for a length of about 210 km. In its progress it receives the waters of the Ticino River, which rises in the Bedretto valley and joins the Po near Pavia; the other streams which contribute to the great river are, the Olona, the Lambro, the Adda, the Oglio and the Mincio. The numerous lakes of Lombardy, all of glacial origin, lie in the northern highlands. From west to east these are Lake Maggiore, Lake Lugano, Lake Como, Lake Iseo, Lake Idro Lake Garda, the largest in Italy. South of the Alps lie the hills characterised by a succession of low heights of morainic origin, formed during the last Ice Age and small fertile plateaux, with typical heaths and conifer woods.
A minor mountainous area, the Oltrepò Pavese, lies south of the Po, in the Apennines range. In the plains, intensively cultivated for centuries, little of the original environment remains; the most commons trees are elm, sycamore, poplar and hornbeam. In the area of the foothills lakes, grow olive trees and larches, as well as varieties of subtropical flora such as magnolias, acacias. Numerous species of endemic flora in the Prealpine area include some kinds of saxifrage, the Lombard garlic, groundsels bellflowers and the cottony bellflowers; the highlands are characterised by the typical vegetation of the whole range of the Italian Alps. At a lower levels oak woods or broadleafed trees grow. Shrubs such as rhododendron, dwarf pine and juniper are native to the summital zone. Lombardy counts many protected areas: the most important are the Stelvio National Park, with alpine wildlife: red deer, roe deer, chamois, foxes and golden eagles. L
Genoa is the capital of the Italian region of Liguria and the sixth-largest city in Italy. In 2015, 594,733 people lived within the city's administrative limits; as of the 2011 Italian census, the Province of Genoa, which in 2015 became the Metropolitan City of Genoa, counted 855,834 resident persons. Over 1.5 million people live in the wider metropolitan area stretching along the Italian Riviera. Located on the Gulf of Genoa in the Ligurian Sea, Genoa has been one of the most important ports on the Mediterranean: it is the busiest in Italy and in the Mediterranean Sea and twelfth-busiest in the European Union. Genoa has been nicknamed la Superba due to its glorious impressive landmarks. Part of the old town of Genoa was inscribed on the World Heritage List in 2006 as Genoa: Le Strade Nuove and the system of the Palazzi dei Rolli; the city's rich cultural history in art and cuisine allowed it to become the 2004 European Capital of Culture. It is the birthplace of Christopher Columbus, Andrea Doria, Niccolò Paganini, Giuseppe Mazzini, Renzo Piano and Grimaldo Canella, founder of the House of Grimaldi, among others.
Genoa, which forms the southern corner of the Milan-Turin-Genoa industrial triangle of Northwest Italy, is one of the country's major economic centers. The city has hosted massive shipyards and steelworks since the 19th century, its solid financial sector dates back to the Middle Ages; the Bank of Saint George, founded in 1407, is among the oldest in the world and has played an important role in the city's prosperity since the middle of the 15th century. Today a number of leading Italian companies are based in the city, including Fincantieri, Selex ES, Ansaldo Energia, Ansaldo STS, Edoardo Raffinerie Garrone, Piaggio Aerospace, Mediterranean Shipping Company and Costa Cruises; the flag of Genoa is a red cross on a white field. The English Monarch paid an annual tribute to the Doge of Genoa for this privilege." The patron saint of Genoa was Saint Lawrence until at least 958, but the Genoese transferred their allegiance to Saint George at some point during the 11th or 12th century, most with the rising popularity of the military saint during the Crusades.
Genoa had a banner displaying a cross since at latest 1218 as early as 1113. But the cross banner was not associated with the saint. A depiction of this flag is shown in the Genoese annals under the year 1227; the Genoese flag with the red cross was used alongside this "Saint George's flag", from at least 1218, known as the insignia cruxata comunis Janue. The saint's flag was the city's main war flag, but the cross flag was used alongside it in the 1240s; the Saint George's flag remained the main flag of Genoa at least until the 1280s. The flag now known as the "St. George's Cross" seems to have replaced it as Genoa's main flag at some point during the 14th century; the Book of Knowledge of All Kingdoms shows it, inscribed with the word iustiçia, described as: And the lord of this place has as his ensign a white pennant with a red cross. At the top it is inscribed in this manner; the city of Genoa covers an area of 243 square kilometres between the Ligurian Sea and the Apennine Mountains. The city stretches along the coast for about 30 kilometres from the neighbourhood of Voltri to Nervi, for 10 kilometres from the coast to the north along the valleys Polcevera and Bisagno.
The territory of Genoa is popularly divided into 5 main zones: the centre, the west, the east, the Polcevera and the Bisagno Valley. Genoa is adjacent to two popular Ligurian vacation spots: Portofino. In the metropolitan area of Genoa lies Aveto Natural Regional Park. Genoa has a humid subtropical climate in the Köppen climate classification, since only one summer month has less than 40 millimetres of rainfall, preventing it from being classified as oceanic or Mediterranean; the average yearly temperature is around 19 °C during 13 °C at night. In the coldest months: December and February, the average temperature is 12 °C during the day and 6 °C at night. In the warmest months – July and August – the average temperature is 27.5 °C during the day and 21 °C at night. The daily temperature range is limited, with an average range of about 6 °C between high and low temperatures. Genoa sees significant moderation from the sea, in stark contrast to areas behind the Ligurian mountains such as Parma, where summers are hotter and winters are quite cold.
Annually, the average 2.9 of nights recorded temperatures of ≤0 °C. The coldest temperature recorded was −8 °C on the night of February 2012. Average annual number of days with temperatures of ≥30 °C is about 8, average four days in July and August. Average annual temperature of the sea is 17.5 °C, from 13 °C in the period January–March to 25 °C in August. In the period from June to October, the average sea temperature exceeds
Umbria is a region of central Italy. It includes Lake Trasimeno and Marmore Falls, is crossed by the River Tiber; the regional capital is Perugia. Umbria is known for its landscapes, history, culinary delights, artistic legacy, influence on culture; the region is characterized by hills, mountains and historical towns such as the university centre of Perugia, Assisi, a World Heritage Site associated with St. Francis of Assisi, the Basilica of San Francesco and other Franciscan sites, works by Giotto and Cimabue, Terni; the hometown of Santa Rita, the hometown of St. Valentine, the hometown of St. Benedict, Città di Castello, main center of the early Renaissance situated in the Tiber High Valley, the hometown of St. Ubaldo, Orvieto, Castiglione del Lago, Narni and other small cities. Umbria is bordered by Tuscany to Marche to the east and Lazio to the south. Hilly and mountainous, flat and fertile owing to the valley of the Tiber, its topography includes part of the central Apennines, with the highest point in the region at Monte Vettore on the border of the Marche, at 2,476 metres.
It is the only Italian region having a common border with other countries. The comune of Città di Castello has an exclave named Monte Ruperto within Marche. Contained within Umbria is the hamlet of Cospaia, a tiny republic from 1440 to 1826, created by accident. Umbria is crossed by two valleys: the Umbrian valley, stretching from Perugia to Spoleto, the Tiber Valley and west of the first one, from Città di Castello to the border with Lazio; the Tiber River forms the approximate border with Lazio, although its source is just over the Tuscan border. The Tiber's three principal tributaries flow southward through Umbria; the Chiascio basin is uninhabited as far as Bastia Umbra. About 10 kilometres farther on, it joins the Tiber at Torgiano; the Topino, cleaving the Apennines with passes that the Via Flaminia and successor roads follow, makes a sharp turn at Foligno to flow NW for a few kilometres before joining the Chiascio below Bettona. The third river is the Nera, flowing into the Tiber further south, at Terni.
The upper Nera cuts ravines in the mountains. In antiquity, the plain was covered by a pair of shallow, interlocking lakes, the Lacus Clitorius and the Lacus Umber, they were drained by the Romans over several hundred years. An earthquake in the 4th century and the political collapse of the Roman Empire resulted in the refilling of the basin, it was drained a second time a thousand years during a 500-year period: Benedictine monks started the process in the 13th century, the draining was completed by an engineer from Foligno in the 18th century. The eastern part of the region, being crossed by many faults, has been hit by earthquakes: the last ones have been that of 1997 and those of 2016. In literature, Umbria is referred to The green heart of Italy; the phrase is taken from a poem by Giosuè Carducci, the subject of, the source of the Clitunno River in Umbria. The region is named for the Umbri people, an Italic people, absorbed by the expansion of the Romans; the Umbri's capital city was Gubbio, where today is housed the longest and most important document of any of the Osco-Umbrian group of languages, the Iguvine Tablets.
Pliny the Elder recounted a fanciful derivation for the tribal name from the Greek ὄμβρος "a shower", which had led to the confused idea that they had survived the Deluge familiar from Greek mythology, giving them the claim to be the most ancient race in Italy. In fact, they belonged to a broader family of neighbouring peoples with similar roots, their language was one of the Italic languages, related to Latin and Oscan. The northern part of the region was occupied by Gallic tribes; the Umbri sprang, like neighboring peoples, from the creators of the Terramara, Proto-Villanovan culture in northern and central Italy, who entered north-eastern Italy at the beginning of the Bronze Age. The Etruscans were the chief enemies of the Umbri; the Etruscan invasion went from the western seaboard towards the north and east from about 700 to 500 BC driving the Umbrians towards the Apennine uplands and capturing 300 Umbrian towns. The Umbrian population does not seem to have been eradicated in the conquered districts.
The border between Etruria and Umbria was the Tiber river: the ancient name of Todi, remembers that. After the downfall of the Etruscans, Umbrians aided the Samnites in their struggle against Rome. Communications with Samnium were impeded by the Roman fortress of Narnia. Romans defeated their Gallic allies in the battle of Sentinum. Allied Umbrians and Etruscans had to return to their territories to defend against simultaneous Roman attacks, so were unable to help the Samnites in the battle of Sentinum; the Roman victory at Sentinum started a period of integration under the Roman rulers, who established some colonies and built the via Flaminia. The via Flaminia became a principal vector for Roman development in Umbria. During Hannibal's invasion in the second Punic war, the battle of Lake Trasimene was fought in Umbria, but the local people did not aid the invader. During the Roman civil war between Mark Antony and Octavian, the city of Perugia supported Antony
Andrea Doria was an Italian condottiero and admiral of the Republic of Genoa. Doria was born at Oneglia from the ancient Genoese family, the Doria di Oneglia branch of the old Doria, de Oria or de Auria family, his parents were related: Ceva Doria, co-lord of Oneglia, Caracosa Doria, of the Doria di Dolceacqua branch. Orphaned at an early age, he became a soldier of fortune, serving first in the papal guard and under various Italian princes. In 1503, he fought in Corsica in the service of the Genoese navy, at that time under French vassalage, he took part in the rising of Genoa against the French, whom he compelled to evacuate the city. From that time onwards, he became famous as a naval commander. For several years he scoured the Mediterranean in command of the Genoese fleet, waging war on the Turks and the Barbary pirates and defeating them at Pianosa. In the meanwhile Genoa had been recaptured by the French, in 1522 by the armies of the Holy Roman Emperor, but Doria joined the French or popular faction and entered the service of King Francis I of France, who made him captain-general.
His ships, under the command of his nephew, Filippino Doria crushed a Spanish squadron on April 28, 1528 at the Battle of Capo d'Orso. Dissatisfied with his treatment at the hands of Francis, mean about payment, he resented the king's behavior in connection with Savona, which he delayed handing back to the Genoese as he had promised. On the expiration of Doria's contract he entered the service of Emperor Charles V. Doria ordered his nephew Filippino, blockading Naples in alliance with a French army, to withdraw, he reformed the constitution in an aristocratic sense, most of the nobility being Imperialists, put an end to the factions which divided the city, by creating 28 Alberghi or "clans". The 28 Alberghi that formed this new ruling class included the Cybo, Fieschi, Grimaldi, Imperiale and Spinola families, he refused offers to take the lordship of Genoa and the dogeship, but accepted the position of "perpetual censor", exercised predominant influence in the councils of the republic until his death.
The title "censor" in this context was modeled on its meaning in the Roman Republic, i.e. a respected senior public official, rather than its modern meaning having to do with censorship. He was given two palaces, many privileges, the title of Liberator et Pater Patriae; as imperial admiral, he commanded several expeditions against the Ottoman Empire between 1530 and 1541. He captured Koroni and Patras, co-operated with the emperor himself in the capture of Tunis. Charles found him an invaluable ally in the wars with Francis I, through him extended his domination over the whole of Italy. In February 1538, Pope Paul III succeeded in assembling a Holy League against the Ottomans, but Hayreddin Barbarossa defeated its combined fleet, commanded by Andrea Doria, at the Battle of Preveza in September 1538; this victory secured Turkish dominance over the eastern Mediterranean for the next 33 years, until the Battle of Lepanto in 1571. Doria accompanied Charles V on the ill-fated Algiers expedition of 1541, of which he disapproved, which ended in disaster.
For the next five years he continued to serve the emperor in various wars, in which he was successful and always active, although now over seventy years old. After the Peace of Crépy between Francis and Charles in 1544, Doria hoped to end his days in quiet. However, his great wealth and power, as well as the arrogance of his nephew and heir Giannettino Doria, had made him many enemies, in 1547 the Fieschi conspiracy to dislodge his family from power took place. Giannettino was killed, but the conspirators were defeated, Doria showed great vindictiveness in punishing them, seizing many of their fiefs for himself, he was implicated in the murder of Pier Luigi Farnese, duke of Parma and Piacenza, who had helped Fieschi. Other conspiracies followed, of which the most important was that of Giulio Cybo. Although Doria was ambitious and harsh, he was a patriot and opposed Emperor Charles's repeated attempts to have a citadel built in Genoa and garrisoned by Spaniards. Nor did age lessen his energy, for in 1550, aged 84, he again put to sea to confront the Barbary pirates, but with no great success.
In 1552 the Ottoman fleet under the command of Turgut Reis defeated the Spanish-Italian fleet of Charles V under the command of Andrea Doria in the Battle of Ponza. War between France and the Empire having broken out once more, the French seized Corsica in the Invasion of Corsica administered by the Genoese Bank of Saint George. Doria was again summoned, he spent two years on the island fighting the French with varying fortune, he returned to Genoa for good in 1555, being old and infirm, he gave over the command of the galleys to his great-nephew Giovanni Andrea Doria, the son of Giannettino Doria, who conducted an expedition against Tripoli, but proved more unsuccessful than his great-uncle had been at Algiers escaping with his life after losing the Battle of Djerba against the Turkish fleet of Piyale Pasha and Turgut Reis. Andrea Doria l