Águilas is a municipality and seaport of southeastern Spain, in the province of Murcia. It is situated at the southern end of Murcia's Mediterranean coastline, otherwise known as the Costa Cálida, near the border with the Province of Almería; the municipality has a population of 35,000 people, an area of 253.7 km², with some 28 km of coastline. It is 105 km southwest of Murcia. Águilas is built on the landward side of a small peninsula, between two bays—the Puerto Poniente on the south-west, the Puerto Levante on the north-east. The Puerto de Aguilas, close to the centre of the city, is flanked on its western side by a large rocky hill. On its top sits the Castillo de San Juan de las Águilas castle, built in the 18th century on the site of a much older Carthaginian fortification. King Charles I ordered its refurbishment in 1530 to help protect the coast from Turkish and Algerian incursions; the rock cut from the south side of the castle's hill, which left it with an vertical wall up to the castle on that side, was used to expand Aguilas' port in the early 20th century.
The city sits at the end of the Murcia to Aguilas RENFE train service. Águilas has numerous beaches along a 25-kilometre stretch, including Cala de la Cueva de las Palomas, Cala de la Herradura, Playa Amarilla, Playa de Calabardina, Playa de Calacerrada or Playa de Los Cocedores, Playa de Cope, Playa de la Cañada del Negro, Playa de la Casica Verde, Playa de la Cola, Playa de la Colonia, Playa de la Galera, Playa de la Higuerica, Playa de la Rambla Elena, Playa de las Pulgas, Playa de Poniente, Playa del Arroz, Playa del Barranco de la Mar, Playa del Pozo de las Huertas, Playa del Pocico del Animal, Playa del Pozo, Playa El Rafal, Playa del Charco, Playa del Sombrerico, Playa Ensenada de la Fuente, Playa de Calabarrilla, Playa El Hornillo, Playa de Las Delicias, Playa de Levante, Playa del Matalentisco, Playa La Tortuga, Playa de Calarreona, Playa La Carolina and Playa del Pino. Most are intimate. Three kilometres northeast of Aguilas is la Isla del Fraile, so named thanks to the similarity of the island's silhouette to a monk's hood.
The island has a small rocky beach and a steep geography. The top of the island gives way to a sudden drop down to the sea on the island's south side; the island was inhabited by the Romans. The remains of a Roman wall are still visible, as are a couple of structures of the early 20th century built by an eccentric British lord who lived on the island and used it for contraband purposes. Adjacent to the island, on the mainland, is la Playa Amarilla, the coastal delineation of La Isla del Fraile residential development; this property was developed by Dr. Antonio Sáez Jimenez with basic infrastructure, including construction of the first road over the mountain and down to the beach, as well as the planting of thousands of trees. In the 1970s, graves from the Roman era were discovered on the property's coast. Known in Roman times as Aquilae and Aquila, Águilas belonged to the community of Bastetania and the province of Tarraconense. Various civilisations settled including the Alans, the Suebi and the Visigoths.
It formed part of Spanish Carthage until the Arab invasion of the Iberian Peninsula. It was known to the Arabs as آقِلَة, it belonged to the Córdoban caliphate and the Kingdom of Valencia coming under Almoravidan control ending up definitively included in the Kingdom of Murcia in the 18th century. During the second half of the 19th century, a vast British colony arrived in Aguilas, an important presence that still lingers. Many of the buildings and much of the infrastructure built by the British still stand, such as the British cemetery, the municipal annex, the Hornillo Pier facing the Isle of Fraile, the old home of an English merchant located on that island; the town as it is now was designed by King Charles III in the 18th century. Of particular note is the Castle of Saint John of the Águilas, used as a defence tower by various civilisations who settled there throughout history; the city was extended by the construction of its sister port, maritime walks, its bays of Levante and Poniente.
At the end stands the slender figure of the Chimenea de la Loma on the west side of town, a symbol of the mineral boom of the last century. During the Restoration, owing to the great investment by the British, a route was laid between Lorca, Baza and Águilas in order to transport esparto and other exported minerals, making the town one of the principal ports of the Mediterranean, it is in this period that the Hornillo Pier, a great architectural work of the time made of iron and concrete, was constructed. In the 19th century it was connected by rail to Huércal-Overa; the Águilas CF played their games in El Rubial Stadium. Águilas CF was replaced in 2010 by Águilas FC. The stadium seats 4000 spectators and is football´s oldest active stadium in Spain after “El Molinón”, its dimensions are 95x65 meters. Today, the economy of the locality depends principally on summertime tourism by middle-class visitors and the intensive agriculture of greenhouse vegetables; the construction of various luxury residential and hotel complexes is planned aimed at foreigners and high-value domestic purchasers.
The ubiquity of these new developments in locations designated as'protected' by the European Union and the foreseeable construction of ancillary golf complexes, has generated much hostility amongst ecological, agricultural
Granada is the capital city of the province of Granada, in the autonomous community of Andalusia, Spain. Granada is located at the foot of the Sierra Nevada mountains, at the confluence of four rivers, the Darro, the Genil, the Monachil and the Beiro, it sits at an average elevation of 738 m above sea level, yet is only one hour by car from the Mediterranean coast, the Costa Tropical. Nearby is the Sierra Nevada Ski Station, where the FIS Alpine World Ski Championships 1996 were held. In the 2005 national census, the population of the city of Granada proper was 236,982, the population of the entire urban area was estimated to be 472,638, ranking as the 13th-largest urban area of Spain. About 3.3% of the population did not hold Spanish citizenship, the largest number of these people coming from South America. Its nearest airport is Federico García Lorca Granada-Jaén Airport; the Alhambra, an Arab citadel and palace, is located in Granada. It is the most renowned building of the Islamic historical legacy with its many cultural attractions that make Granada a popular destination among the tourist cities of Spain.
The Almohad influence on architecture is preserved in the Granada neighborhood called the Albaicín with its fine examples of Moorish and Morisco construction. Granada is well-known within Spain for the University of Granada which has an estimated 82,000 students spread over five different campuses in the city; the pomegranate is the heraldic device of Granada. The region surrounding what today is Granada has been populated since at least 5500 BC and experienced Roman and Visigothic influences; the most ancient ruins found in the city belong to an Iberian oppidum called Ilturir, in the region known as Bastetania. This oppidum changed its name to Iliberri, after the Roman conquest of Iberia, to Municipium Florentinum Iliberitanum; the Umayyad conquest of Hispania, starting in AD 711, brought large parts of the Iberian Peninsula under Moorish control and established al-Andalus. Granada's historical name in the Arabic language was غرناطة; the word Gárnata means "hill of strangers". Because the city was situated on a low plain and, as a result, difficult to protect from attacks, the ruler decided to transfer his residence to the higher situated area of Gárnata.
In a short time this town was transformed into one of the most important cities of al-Andalus. In the early 11th century, after the collapse of the Umayyad Caliphate, the Berber Zawi ben Ziri established an independent kingdom for himself, the Taifa of Granada, his surviving memoirs — the only ones for the Spanish "Middle Ages" — provide considerable detail for this brief period. The Zirid Taifa of Granada was a Jewish state in all but name, it is the only time between Biblical times and the twentieth century that a Jewish ruler commanded an army. It was the center of Jewish culture and scholarship. Early Arabic writers called it "Garnata al-Yahud".... Granada was in the eleventh century the center of Sephardic civilization at its peak, from 1027 until 1066 Granada was a powerful Jewish state. Jews did not hold the foreigner status typical of Islamic rule. Samuel ibn Nagrilla, recognized by Sephardic Jews everywhere as the quasi-political ha-Nagid, was king in all but name; as vizier he made policy and—much more unusual—led the army....
It is said that Samuel’s strengthening and fortification of Granada was what permitted it to survive as the last Islamic state in the Iberian peninsula. All of the greatest figures of eleventh-century Hispano-Jewish culture are associated with Granada. Moses Ibn Ezra was from Granada. Ibn Gabirol’s patrons and hosts were the Jewish viziers of Granada, Samuel ha-Nagid and his son Joseph; when Joseph took over after his father's death, he proved to lack his father's diplomacy, bringing on the 1066 Granada massacre, which ended the Golden Age of Jewish Culture in Spain. By the end of the 11th century, the city had spread across the Darro to reach the hill of the future Alhambra, included the Albaicín neighborhood; the Almoravids ruled Granada from 1090 and the Almohad dynasty from 1166. In 1228, with the departure of the Almohad prince Idris al-Ma'mun, who left Iberia to take the Almohad leadership, the ambitious Ibn al-Ahmar established the last and longest reigning Muslim dynasty in the Iberian peninsula, the Nasrids.
With the Reconquista in full swing after the conquest of Córdoba in 1236, the Nasrids aligned themselves with Fernando III of Castile becoming the Emirate of Granada in 1238. According to some historians, Granada was a tributary state to the Kingdom of Castile since that year, it provided connections with Muslim and Arab trade centers for gold from sub-Saharan Africa and the Maghreb, exported silk and dried fruits produced in the area. The Nasrids supplied troops from the Emirate and mercenaries from North Africa for service to Castile. Ibn Battuta, a famous traveller and an authentic historian, visited the Kingdom of Granada in 1350, he described it as a powerful and self-sufficient kingdom in its own right, although embroiled in skirmishes with the Kingdom of Castile. In his journal, Ibn Battuta called Granada the “metropolis of Andalusia and the bride of its cities.”During the Moor rule, Granada was a city with adherents to many religions and ethnicities who lived in separate quarters. During this Nasrid period there were 137 Muslim mosques in the Medina of Granada.
On January 2, 1492, the last Muslim ruler in Iberia
Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great known as Constantine I, was a Roman Emperor who ruled between 306 and 337 AD. Born in Naissus, in Dacia Ripensis, town now known as Niš, he was the son of Flavius Valerius Constantius, a Roman Army officer, his mother was Empress Helena. His father became Caesar, the deputy emperor in the west, in 293 AD. Constantine was sent east, where he rose through the ranks to become a military tribune under Emperors Diocletian and Galerius. In 305, Constantius was raised to the rank of Augustus, senior western emperor, Constantine was recalled west to campaign under his father in Britannia. Constantine was acclaimed as emperor by the army at Eboracum after his father's death in 306 AD, he emerged victorious in a series of civil wars against Emperors Maxentius and Licinius to become sole ruler of both west and east by 324 AD. As emperor, Constantine enacted administrative, financial and military reforms to strengthen the empire, he restructured the government, separating military authorities.
To combat inflation he introduced the solidus, a new gold coin that became the standard for Byzantine and European currencies for more than a thousand years. The Roman army was reorganised to consist of mobile field units and garrison soldiers capable of countering internal threats and barbarian invasions. Constantine pursued successful campaigns against the tribes on the Roman frontiers—the Franks, the Alamanni, the Goths, the Sarmatians—even resettling territories abandoned by his predecessors during the Crisis of the Third Century. Constantine was the first Roman emperor to convert to Christianity. Although he lived much of his life as a pagan, as a catechumen, he joined the Christian faith on his deathbed, being baptised by Eusebius of Nicomedia, he played an influential role in the proclamation of the Edict of Milan in 313, which declared religious tolerance for Christianity in the Roman empire. He called the First Council of Nicaea in 325, which produced the statement of Christian belief known as the Nicene Creed.
The Church of the Holy Sepulchre was built on his orders at the purported site of Jesus' tomb in Jerusalem and became the holiest place in Christendom. The Papal claim to temporal power in the High Middle Ages was based on the forged Donation of Constantine, he has been referred to as the "First Christian Emperor", he did promote the Christian Church. Some modern scholars, debate his beliefs and his comprehension of the Christian faith itself; the age of Constantine marked a distinct epoch in the history of the Roman Empire. He renamed the city Constantinople after himself, it became the capital of the Empire for more than a thousand years, with the eastern Roman Empire now being referred to as the Byzantine Empire by historians. His more immediate political legacy was that he replaced Diocletian's tetrarchy with the principle of dynastic succession by leaving the empire to his sons, his reputation for centuries after his reign. The medieval church upheld him as a paragon of virtue, while secular rulers invoked him as a prototype, a point of reference, the symbol of imperial legitimacy and identity.
Beginning with the Renaissance, there were more critical appraisals of his reign, due to the rediscovery of anti-Constantinian sources. Trends in modern and recent scholarship have attempted to balance the extremes of previous scholarship. Constantine was a ruler of major importance, he has always been a controversial figure; the fluctuations in his reputation reflect the nature of the ancient sources for his reign. These are abundant and detailed, but they have been influenced by the official propaganda of the period and are one-sided; the nearest replacement is Eusebius's Vita Constantini—a mixture of eulogy and hagiography written between 335 AD and circa 339 AD—that extols Constantine's moral and religious virtues. The Vita creates a contentiously positive image of Constantine, modern historians have challenged its reliability; the fullest secular life of Constantine is the anonymous Origo Constantini, a work of uncertain date, which focuses on military and political events to the neglect of cultural and religious matters.
Lactantius' De Mortibus Persecutorum, a political Christian pamphlet on the reigns of Diocletian and the Tetrarchy, provides valuable but tendentious detail on Constantine's predecessors and early life. The ecclesiastical histories of Socrates and Theodoret describe the ecclesiastic disputes of Constantine's reign. Written during the reign of Theodosius II, a century after Constantine's reign, these ecclesiastic historians obscure the events and theologies of the Constantinian period through misdirection, misrepresentation, deliberate obscurity; the contemporary writings of the orthodox Christian Athanasius and the ecclesiastical history of the Arian Philostorgius survive, though their biases are no less firm. The epitomes of Aurelius Victor, Eutropius and the anonymous author of the Epitome de Caesaribus offer compressed secular political and military histories of the period. Although not Christian, the epitomes paint a favourable image of Constantine but omit reference to Constantine's religious policies.
The Panegyrici Latini, a collection of panegyrics
Province of Valencia
Valencia or València is a province of Spain, in the central part of the Valencian Community. Of the province's 2,547,986 people, one-third live in the capital, the capital of the autonomous community and the 3rd biggest city in Spain, with a metropolitan area of 2,522,383 it's one of the most populated cities of Southern Europe. There are 265 municipalities in the province. Although the Spanish Constitution of 1812 loosely created the province of València, a stable administrative entity does not arise until the territorial division of Spain in 1833, remaining today without major changes; the Provincial Council of Valencia dates from that period. After the Valencian Statute of Autonomy of 1982, the province became part of the Valencian Community. Together with Spanish, Valencian is the co-official language, it is bordered by the provinces of Alicante, Cuenca, Castellón, the Mediterranean Sea. The northwestern side of the province is in the mountainous Sistema Ibérico area. Part of its territory, the Rincón de Ademuz, is an exclave sandwiched between the provinces of Cuenca and Teruel.
The province is subdivided into the comarques of Camp de Túria, Camp de Morvedre, Canal de Navarrés, Hoya de Buñol, Horta de València, Horta Nord, Horta Oest, Horta Sud, Requena-Utiel, Rincón de Ademuz, Ribera Alta, Ribera Baixa, Los Serranos, Vall d'Albaida and Valle de Cofrentes. The province of Valencia, like the rest of the region, is mountainous in the interior in the north and west, with the Sistema Central running from north to south and the foothills of Andalusia from west to east; this mountainous interior features deep and steep valleys formed by the major rivers running through it. The plain of Valencia, is the second largest coastal plain of the country, located in the low region between the Júcar and Turia river valleys, it is twenty wide. In 1843 it was cited as "one of the most fertile and best cultivated spots in Europe"; the other main rivers include the Serpis. The Altiplano de Requena-Utiel range, in the interior of the Valencia region, has an average height of about 750 m.
The principal mountains in the province are Cerro Calderón, Sierra del Caroche, Sierra del Benicadell, Serra Calderona, Sierra Martés, Sierra de Utiel, Sierra de Enguera, the Sierra de Mondúver. The València plains are known for their olive, ilex, algaroba and palm trees, with the appearance of an "immense garden"; such is the fertility of the soil, that two and three crops in the year are obtained, the greater part of the land returns eight per cent. The rice crops are the most valuable, are chiefly produced in the tract, irrigated by the Albufera, a large lake in the neighbourhood of València. Rice being the principal food of the lower classes, the crop is consumed in the province, with the exception of a small quantity which finds its way into Castile and Andalusia; the other chief product is the white mulberry, once the source of great wealth: it was worked in the silk-factories of València. In 1828, the produce of silk from the vega of València amounted to one million of pounds yearly, the greater part of, exported in its raw state, but the produce has increased since, owing to demands from the manufacturers of Lyon and other towns in the south of France.
The province of València is a notable producer of satins, silk ribbons, velvets. The export of fruit from Valencia is considerable of raisins; the raisins are of two kinds, the muscatel, an inferior and smaller raisin, called pasa de legia. The export of figs and wine from the province and ports of València is considerable, with a wine known as Beni Carlo, which as of 1843 was shipped to Cette. Mercury, sulphur, argentiferous lead, coal, etc. are among the mineral products, but they are procured only in small quantities. Today, tourism is a major source of income, with the city of Valencia and the resort towns along the coast being the primary earners during the summer months; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Penny Cyclopaedia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, by C. Knight
A barbarian is a human, perceived to be either uncivilized or primitive. The designation is applied as generalization based on a popular stereotype. Alternatively, they may instead be romanticised as noble savages. In idiomatic or figurative usage, a "barbarian" may be an individual reference to a brutal, cruel and insensitive person; the term originates from the Greek: βάρβαρος. In Ancient Greece, the Greeks used the term towards those who did not speak Greek and follow classical Greek customs. In Ancient Rome, the Romans used the term towards tribal non-Romans such as the Germanics, Gauls, Thracians, Berbers and Sarmatians. In the early modern period and sometimes the Byzantine Greeks used it for the Turks, in a pejorative manner; the Ancient Greek name βάρβαρος, "barbarian", was an antonym for πολίτης, "citizen". The earliest attested form of the word is the Mycenaean Greek, pa-pa-ro, written in Linear B syllabic script; the Greeks used the term barbarian for all non-Greek-speaking peoples, including the Egyptians, Persians and Phoenicians, emphasizing their otherness.
According to Greek writers, this was because the language they spoke sounded to Greeks like gibberish represented by the sounds "bar..bar... However, in various occasions, the term was used by Greeks the Athenians, to deride other Greek tribes and states but fellow Athenians, in a pejorative and politically motivated manner. Of course, the term carried a cultural dimension to its dual meaning; the verb βαρβαρίζω in ancient Greek meant to behave or talk like a barbarian, or to hold with the barbarians. Plato rejected the Greek–barbarian dichotomy as a logical absurdity on just such grounds: dividing the world into Greeks and non-Greeks told one nothing about the second group, yet Plato used the term barbarian in his seventh letter. In Homer's works, the term appeared only once, in the form βαρβαρόφωνος, used of the Carians fighting for Troy during the Trojan War. In general, the concept of barbaros did not figure in archaic literature before the 5th century BC, it has been suggested that the "barbarophonoi" in the Iliad signifies not those who spoke a non-Greek language but those who spoke Greek badly.
A change occurred in the connotations of the word after the Greco-Persian Wars in the first half of the 5th century BC. Here a hasty coalition of Greeks defeated the vast Persian Empire. Indeed, in the Greek of this period'barbarian' is used expressly to refer to Persians, who were enemies of the Greeks in this war; the Romans used the term barbarus for uncivilised people, opposite to Greek or Roman, in fact, it became a common term to refer to all foreigners among Romans after Augustus age, including the Germanic peoples, Gauls and Carthaginians. The Greek term barbaros was the etymological source for many words meaning "barbarian", including English barbarian, first recorded in 16th century Middle English. A word barbara- is found in the Sanskrit of ancient India, with the primary meaning of "stammering" implying someone with an unfamiliar language; the Greek word barbaros is related to Sanskrit barbaras. This Indo-European root is found in Latin balbus for "stammering" and Czech blblati "to stammer".
In Aramaic, Old Persian and Arabic context, the root refers to "babble confusedly". It appears as barbary or in Old French barbarie, itself derived from the Arabic Barbar, an ancient Arabic term for the North African inhabitants west of Egypt; the Arabic word might be from Greek barbaria. The Oxford English Dictionary defines five meanings of the noun barbarian, including an obsolete Barbary usage. 1. Etymologically, A foreigner, one whose language and customs differ from the speaker's. 2. Hist. a. One not a Greek. B. One living outside the pale of the Roman Empire and its civilization, applied to the northern nations that overthrew them. C. One outside the pale of Christian civilization. D. With the Italians of the Renaissance: One of a nation outside of Italy. 3. A rude, uncivilized person. B. Sometimes distinguished from savage. C. Applied by the Chinese contemptuously to foreigners. 4. An uncultured person, or one who has no sympathy with literary culture. †5. A native of Barbary. Obs. †b. Barbary pirates & A Barbary horse.
Obs. The OED barbarous entry summarizes the semantic history. "The sense-development in ancient times was'foreign, non-Hellenic,' later'outlandish, brutal'. Greek attitudes towards "barbarians" developed in parallel with the growth of chattel slavery - in Athens. Although the enslavement of Greeks for non-payment of debts continued in most Greek states, Athens banned this practice under Solon in the early 6th century BC. Under the Athenian democracy established ca. 50
Almuñécar is a municipality in the Spanish Autonomous Region of Andalusia on the Costa Tropical between Nerja and Motril. It has a subtropical climate. Almuñécar lies in the province of Granada, has around 27,700 citizens. Since 1975, the town has become one of the most important tourist towns in Granada province and on the Costa Tropical. Almuñécar is an important setting in Laurie Lee's account of the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War in As I Walked Out One Midsummer Morning, referred to as "Castillo" to disguise people's identities. Almuñécar's coat of arms, which shows the turbaned heads of three Barbary pirates floating in the sea, was granted to the town by King Carlos I in 1526 for its having destroyed a Berber raiding force. Trinidad Herrera is the first woman to be elected mayor of Almuñecar. Although Juan Carlos Benavides' Covergencia Andaluza party won the most popular votes, he failed to form a coalition; the city council elected Herrera, local leader of the Partido Popular, on 11 June 2011.
Almuñécar began as a Phoenician colony named Sexi, today, some of its inhabitants still call themselves Sexitanos. Under the Moors, Almuñécar blossomed as the fishing town of Ḥiṣn-al-Munakkab. Although the Phoenician and Roman history of the district was known from Greek and Roman sources it was not until the 1950s that significant archaeological evidence was discovered; the Phoenicians first established a colony in Almuñécar in about 800 BC and this developed for six hundred years into an important port and town with the name of Ex or Sexi and with a large fish salting and curing industry, a major supplier of Greece and Rome. They supplied a prized fish paste called garum made from the intestines of small fishes by a process of fermentation. Archaeological evidence comes chiefly from Phoenician cemeteries, the earlier Laurita necropolis on the hillside at Cerro San Cristobal and the necropolis at Punte de Noy. An extensive collection of Phoenician grave goods and other artifacts is on display in the town museum located at the Castle of San Miguel and in the'Cueva de Siete Palacios'.
The Romans came to southern Spain at the time of the Second Punic War between Rome and Carthage in 218 BC as part of their campaign to subdue the Phoenician settlements along the coast. During 700 years of Roman colonial rule the town and its industry prospered, in 49 BC the municipality was given the title Firmium Julium Sexi in recognition of the town's loyalty to Rome. Major evidence of the fish salting and curing industry was uncovered during excavations in the 1970s and 1980s in the extensive Majuelo Botanical Gardens; these revealed the great extent of the rebuilding and modernising of the industry under Roman influence. A segment of the site has been conserved, giving some idea of the size of the industry; this industry required not only large quantities of fish and sea salt, produced in many places along the coast, but a constant supply of fresh running water. To meet this demand the Romans built in the 1st century AD four miles of water conduit in the valleys of the Rio Seco and the Rio Verde, including five significant aqueducts.
All, are still standing and four of them are still in use after 2,000 years – adapted by the Moors over the centuries to serve the needs of crop irrigation. The Roman water supply served the town and recent excavations in the town centre have uncovered the fifth aqueduct and the Roman baths; the Romans were the first to fortify the Castle of Saint Miguel, although frequent rebuilding has obliterated most of the extensive Roman fortifications. These included a bridge from the castle to the'Peñon del Santo' with a massive 100 foot high arch that survived until at least 1800. Just below the castle on the landward side is the'Cueva de Siete Palacios', which translates as'Cave of the Seven Palaces'. However, it is not a cave, rather it is the largest remnant of a Roman palace yet found in Almuñécar, having survived for hundreds of years as'social housing' until the'cave dwellers' were re-housed in the 1970s. Only did its true origins become apparent, it now houses the town museum. Other important Roman remains in the district include a Roman bridge at Cotobro and Roman tombs in several locations.
With the decline of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century, Germanic peoples, including the Visigoths, crossed the Pyrenees mountain range into the Iberian peninsula. By 456 the Visigoths emerged as the dominant power, expanded their territory onto the southwestern Mediterranean coast. However, Hispania remained Romanized under their rule; the Visigoths adopted Roman culture and language, maintained many of the old Roman institutions, although much of the economic structure collapsed, at Almuñécar the fish curing industry declined rapidly. The Catholic bishops were the rivals of Visigothic power and culture until the end of the 6th and beginning of the 7th century—the period of transition from Arianism to Catholicism in the Visigothic kingdom; the first Muslim invasion of southern Spain came in 711 AD near Gibraltar. At Almuñécar, the town remembers 15 August 755 when Umayyad Abd ar-Rahman I of Damascus, the founder of the Emirate of Cordoba, arrived from North Africa to establish his Moorish kingdom.
The Moors sustained the fishing industry. The castle remained the stronghold of the city and the seat of government and its walls were strengthened. Extensive dungeons were built for those out of favour with local
Region of Murcia
The Region of Murcia, is an autonomous community of Spain located in the southeast of the state, between Andalusia and Valencian Community, on the Mediterranean coast. The autonomous community consists of a single province, unlike most autonomous communities, which have several provinces within the same territory; because of this, the autonomous community and the province are operated as one unit of government. The city of Murcia is the capital of the region and seat of government organs, except for the parliament, the Regional Assembly of Murcia, located in Cartagena; the autonomous community and province is subdivided into municipalities. The Region of Murcia is bordered by Andalusia, Castile–La Mancha, the Valencian Community, the Mediterranean Sea; the community has a population of 1.4 million. About one-third of its population lives in the capital, its highest mountain is Los Obispos. The region is a major producer of fruits and flowers for the rest of Spain and Europe. Wineries have developed near the towns of Bullas and Jumilla, as well as olive oil near Moratalla.
Murcia is a warm region which has made it suitable for agriculture. However the precipitation level is low and water supply is a hot subject today since, in addition to the traditional water demand for crops, there is now a demand of water for the booming tourist developments. Water is supplied by the Segura River and, since the 1970s, by the Tajo transvasement, a major civil engineering project which, under some environmental and sustainability restraints, brings water from the Tajo into the Segura; the region is located in the eastern part of the Cordilleras Béticas mountains and it is influenced by their orography. These mountain ranges are divided as well in the Prebética, Subbética and Penibética mountain ranges. Traditionally it has been considered that the peak of Revolcadores, in the range of the same name, was the highest point in the Region of Murcia, with a height of 2,027 meters. 27% of the Murcian territory can be described as mountainous, 38% as intramountainous depressions and running valleys, the remaining 35% as flat lands and plateaux.
The Region of Murcia enjoys a Mediterranean climate of semi-arid type, with mild winters and warm summers. The average annual temperature is 18 °C. With little precipitation of about 300 to 350 mm per year, the region has between 120 and 150 days in the year where the sky is clear. April and October are the months with the most precipitation, there being frequent heavy downpours in a single day; the distance to the sea and the relief causes a thermal difference between the coast and the interior, specially in winter, when the temperature descends below 10 °C on the coast, while in the interior regions the minimum does not rise above 6 °C and the precipitation level is higher. The city of Murcia holds the record temperature of the 20th century in Spain, it reached 46.1 °C on July 4, 1994. The winter of 2005 was the coldest in a long time, with snow falling on the Murcian coast; the hydrographic network of the region is made up of the Segura river and its affluents: Mundo, it is the one that contributes to the Segura with the greatest volume.
Alhárabe and its affluent, the Benamor. Mula river. Guadalentín, Sangonera or Reguerón. Due to the water supplying incapacity of the Segura river basin, contributions to this river basin are made, originated from the basin of the Tajo river, by means of the Tajo-Segura transvasement; the greatest natural lake of Spain can be found in the region: the Mar Menor lagoon. It is a salt water lagoon, adjacent to the Mediterranean Sea, its special ecological and natural characteristics make the Mar Menor a unique natural place and the largest saltwater lake in Europe. With a semicircular shape, it is separated from the Mediterranean Sea by a sand strip 22 km in length and between 100 and 1200 m wide, known as La Manga del Mar Menor; the lagoon has been designated by the United Nations as a Specially Protected Zone of Importance for the Mediterranean. Its coastal perimeter accounts for 73 km of coast in which beaches follow one another with crystal clear shallow water; the lake has an area of 170 square kilometers.
The Carthaginians established a permanent trading port on the coast at Cartagena, which the Romans called Carthago Nova. For the Carthaginian traders, the mountainous territory was the Iberian hinterland of their seacoast empire. During The Roman period Murcia did not exist but its current borders could have been inside of the province of Hispania Carthaginensis. Under the Moors, who introduced the large-scale irrigation on which Murcian agriculture depends, the province was known as Todmir; the Kingdom of Murcia became independent as a taifa centered on the Moorish city of Murcia after the fall of the Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba. Moorish Taifa of Murcia included Albacete and part of Almería