A full-rigged ship or rigged ship is a sailing vessel's sail plan with three or more masts, all of them square-rigged. A full-rigged ship is said to be ship-rigged. Sometimes such a vessel will be called a ship in 18th- to early-19th-century and earlier usage, to distinguish it from other large three-masted blue-water working vessels such as barques, fluyts etc; this full or ship-rig sail plan thus is a term of art that differentiates such vessels as well from other working or cargo vessels with diverse alternative sail-plans such as galleons, sloops, schooners and carracks. The ship-rig sail plan differs drastically from the large panoply of one and two masted vessels found as working and recreational sailboats. Alternatively, a full-rigged ship may be referred to by its function instead, as in collier or frigate, rather than being called a ship. In many languages the word frigate or frigate rig refers to a full-rigged ship; the masts of a full-rigged ship, from bow to stern, are: Foremast, the second tallest mast Mainmast, the tallest Mizzenmast, the third tallest Jiggermast, which may not be present but will be fourth tallest if soThere is no standard name for a fifth mast on a ship-rigged vessel.
Only one five-masted full-rigged ship had been built until recent years, when a few modern five-masted cruise sailing ships have been launched. A fourth mast is rare for full-rigged ships. Ships with five and more masts are not fully rigged and their masts may be numbered rather than named in extreme cases. If the masts are of wood, each mast is in three or more pieces, they are: The lowest piece is called the mast or the lower. Topmast Topgallant mast Royal mast, if fittedOn steel-masted vessels, the corresponding sections of the mast are named after the traditional wooden sections; the lowest and largest sail on a mast is the course sail of that mast, is referred to by the mast name: Foresail, mizzen sail, jigger sail or more forecourse etc. Note that a full-rigged ship did not have a lateral course on the mizzen mast below the mizzen topmast. Instead, the lowest sail on the mizzen was a fore/aft sail—originally a lateen sail, but a gaff sail called a spanker or driver; the key distinction between a "ship" and "barque" is that a "ship" carries a square-rigged mizzen topsail whereas the mizzen mast of a barque has only fore-and-aft rigged sails.
The cross-jack yard was the lowest yard on a ship's mizzen mast. Unlike the corresponding yards on the fore and main mast it did not have fittings to hang a sail from: its purpose was to control the lower edge of the topsail. In the rare case that the cross-jack yard did carry a square sail, this sail would be called the cross-jack rather than the mizzen course. Above the course sail, in order, are: Topsail, or Lower topsail, if fitted. Upper topsail, if fitted. Topgallant sail, or Lower topgallant sail, if fitted. Upper topgallant sail, if fitted. Royal sail, if fitted. Skysail, if fitted. Moonraker, if fitted; the division of a sail into upper and lower sails was a matter of practicality, since undivided sails were larger and more difficult to handle. Larger sails necessitated hiring, paying, a larger crew. Additionally, the great size of some late-19th and 20th century vessels meant that their correspondingly large sails would have been impossible to handle had they not been divided. Jibs are carried forward of the foremast, are tacked down on the bowsprit or jib-boom and have varying naming conventions.
Staysails may be carried between any other mast and the one in front of it or from the foremast to the bowsprit. They are named after the mast from which they are hoisted, so for example a staysail hoisted to the top of the mizzen topgallant on a stay running to the top of the main topmast would be called the mizzen topgallant staysail. In light winds studding sails may be carried on either side of any or all of the square rigged sails except royals and skysails, they are named after the adjacent sail and the side of the vessel on which they are set, for example main topgallant starboard stu'nsail. One or more spritsails may be set on booms set athwart and below the bowsprit. One or two spankers are carried aft of the aftmost mast, if two they are called the upper spanker and lower spanker. A fore-and-aft topsail may be carried above the upper or only spanker, is called the gaff sail. To stop a full-rigged ship except when running directly down wind, the sails of the foremast are oriented in the direction perpendicular to those of the mainmast.
Thus, the masts cancel out of their push on the ship. This allows the crew to stop and restart the ship without retracting and lowering the sails, to dynamically compensate for the push of the wind on the masts themselves and the yards. Running downwind. Glossary of nautical terms Rigging Sail Sail-plan Types of sailing ships Yard Willaumez, Jean-Baptiste-Philibert. Dictionnaire de marine. Bachelier. Rousmaniere, John; the Illustrated Dictionary of Boating Terms: 2000 Essential Terms for Sailors and Powerboaters. W. W. Norton & Company. P. 174. ISBN 0393339181. ISBN 978-0393339185 The Development of the Full-Rigged Ship From the Carrack to the Full-Rigger Example of full-rigged ship: Stad Amsterdam Christian Radich
The mast of a sailing vessel is a tall spar, or arrangement of spars, erected more or less vertically on the centre-line of a ship or boat. Its purposes include carrying sail and derricks, giving necessary height to a navigation light, look-out position, signal yard, control position, radio aerial or signal lamp. Large ships have several masts, with the configuration depending on the style of ship. Nearly all sailing masts are guyed; until the mid-19th century all vessels' masts were made of wood formed from a single or several pieces of timber which consisted of the trunk of a conifer tree. From the 16th century, vessels were built of a size requiring masts taller and thicker than could be made from single tree trunks. On these larger vessels, to achieve the required height, the masts were built from up to four sections, known in order of rising height above the decks as the lower, top and royal masts. Giving the lower sections sufficient thickness necessitated building them up from separate pieces of wood.
Such a section was known as a made mast, as opposed to sections formed from single pieces of timber, which were known as pole masts. Those who specialised in making masts were known as mastmakers. For square-sail carrying ship, the masts, given their standard names in bow to stern order, are: Sprit topmast: a small mast set on the end of the bowsprit. Shorter than the fore-mast. Sections: mizzen-mast lower—mizzen topmast—mizzen topgallant mastSome names given to masts in ships carrying other types of rig are: Bonaventure mizzen: the fourth mast on larger sixteenth century galleons lateen-rigged and shorter than the main mizzen. Jigger-mast: where it is the shortest, the aftmost mast on vessels with more than three masts. Sections: jigger-mast lower—jigger topmast—jigger topgallant mast Most types of vessels with two masts are supposed to have a main-mast and a smaller mizzen-mast, although both brigs and two-masted schooners carry a fore-mast and a main-mast instead. On a two-masted vessel with the main-mast forward and a much smaller second mast, such as a ketch, or a yawl, the terms mizzen and jigger are synonymous.
Although two-masted schooners may be provided with masts of identical size, the aftmost is still referred to as the main-mast, has the larger course. Schooners have been built with up to seven masts with several six-masted examples. On square-rigged vessels, each mast carries several horizontal yards from which the individual sails are rigged. Folding mast ships use a tabernacle anchor point—"the open socket or double post on the deck, into which a mast is fixed, with a pivot near the top so that the mast can be lowered", "large bracket attached to the deck, to which the foot of the mast is fixed. A two-masted merchant vessel with a sizable foresail rigged on a inclined foremast is depicted in an Etruscan tomb painting from 475–450 BC. An artemon the same size as the galley's mainsail can be found on a Corinthian krater as early as the late 6th century BC; the foremast became common on Roman galleys, inclined at an angle of 45°, it was more akin to a bowsprit, the foresail set on it, reduced in size, seems to be used rather as an aid to steering than for propulsion.
While most of the ancient evidence is iconographic, the existence of foremasts can be deduced archaeologically from slots in foremast-feets located too close to the prow for a mainsail. Artemon, along with mainsail and topsail, developed into the standard rig of seagoing vessels in imperial times, complemented by a mizzen on the largest freighters; the earliest recorded three-masters were the giant Syracusia, a prestige object commissioned by king Hiero II of Syracuse and devised by the polymath Archimedes around 240 BC, other Syracusan merchant ships of the time. The imperial grain freighters travelling the routes between Alexandria and Rome included three-masted vessels. A mosaic in Ostia depicts a freighter with a three-masted rig entering Rome's harbour. Special craft could carry many more masts: Theophrastus records how the Romans imported Corsican timber by way of a huge raft propelled by as many as fifty masts and sails. Throughout antiquity, both foresail and mizzen remained secondary in terms of canvas size, although large enough to require full running rigging.
In late antiquity, the foremast lost most of
On boats and ships, the keel is either of two parts: a structural element that sometimes resembles a fin and protrudes below a boat along the central line, or a hydrodynamic element. These parts overlap; as the laying down of the keel is the initial step in the construction of a ship, in British and American shipbuilding traditions the construction is dated from this event. Only the ship's launching is considered more significant in its creation; the word can be used as a synecdoche to refer to a complete boat, such as a keelboat. The adjustable centerboard keel traces its roots to the medieval Chinese Song dynasty. Many Song Chinese junk ships had a ballasted and bilge keel that consisted of wooden beams bound together with iron hoops. Maritime technology and the technological know-how allowed Song dynasty ships to be used in naval warfare between the Southern Song Dynasty, the Jin dynasty, the Mongols. A structural keel is the bottom-most structural member; the keel runs from the bow to the stern.
The keel is the first part of a ship's hull to be constructed, laying the keel, or placing the keel in the cradle in which the ship will be built may mark the start time of its construction. Large, modern ships are now built in a series of pre-fabricated, complete hull sections rather than being built around a single keel, so shipbuilding process commences with cutting the first sheet of steel; the most common type of keel is the "flat plate keel", this is fitted in the majority of ocean-going ships and other vessels. A form of keel found on smaller vessels is the "bar keel", which may be fitted in trawlers and smaller ferries. Where grounding is possible, this type of keel is suitable with its massive scantlings, but there is always a problem of the increased draft with no additional cargo capacity. If a double bottom is fitted, the keel is inevitably of the flat plate type, bar keels being associated with open floors, where the plate keel may be fitted. Duct keels are provided in the bottom of some vessels.
These run from the forward engine room bulkhead to the collision bulkhead and are utilized to carry the double bottom piping. The piping is accessible when cargo is loaded; the keel surface on the bottom of the hull gives the ship greater directional stability. In non-sailing hulls, the keel helps the hull to move forward, rather than slipping to the side. In traditional boat building, this is provided by the structural keel, which projects from the bottom of the hull along most or all of its length. In modern construction, the bar keel or flat-plate keel performs the same function. There are many types of fixed keels, including full keels, long keels, fin keels, winged keels, bulb keels, bilge keels among other designs. Deep-draft ships will have a flat bottom and employ only bilge keels, both to aid directional control and to damp rolling motions In sailboats, keels use the forward motion of the boat to generate lift to counteract the leeward force of the wind; the rudimentary purpose of the keel is to convert the sideways motion of the wind when it is abeam into forward motion.
A secondary purpose of the keel is to provide ballast. Keels are different from centreboards and other types of foils in that keels are made of heavy materials to provide ballast to stabilize the boat. Keels may be fixed, or non-movable. Retracting keels may pivot or slide upwards to retract, are retracted with a winch due to the weight of the ballast. Since the keel provides far more stability when lowered than when retracted, the amount of sail carried is reduced when sailing with the keel retracted. Types of non-fixed keels include canting keels. Canting keels can be found on racing yachts, such as those competing in the Volvo Ocean Race, they provide more righting moment as the keel moves out to the windward-side of the boat while using less weight. The horizontal distance from the weight to the pivot is increased, which generates a larger righting moment; the word "keel" comes from Old English cēol, Old Norse kjóll, = "ship" or "keel". It has the distinction of being regarded by some scholars as the first word in the English language recorded in writing, having been recorded by Gildas in his 6th century Latin work De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae, under the spelling cyulae.
Carina is the origin of the term careen. An example of this use is Careening Cove, a suburb of Sydney, where careening was carried out in early colonial days. Coin ceremony Kelson False keel Daggerboard Leeboard Bilgeboard Bruce foil Keelhauling – an archaic maritime punishment Rousmaniere, The Annapolis Book of Seamanship, Simon & Schuster, 1999 Chapman Book of Piloting, Hearst Corporation, 1999 Herreshoff, The Sailor’s Handbook, Little Brown and Company Seidman, The Complete Sailor, International Marine, 1995 Jobson, Sailing Fundamentals, Simon & Schuster, 1987
St Andrews is a town on the east coast of Fife in Scotland, 10 miles southeast of Dundee and 30 miles northeast of Edinburgh. St Andrews has a recorded population of 16,800 in 2011, making it Fife's fourth largest settlement and 45th most populous settlement in Scotland; the town is home to the University of St Andrews, the third oldest university in the English-speaking world and the oldest in Scotland. According to some rankings, it is ranked as the third best university in the United Kingdom, behind Oxbridge; the University is an integral part of the burgh and during term time students make up one third of the town's population. The town is named after Saint Andrew the Apostle. There has been an important church in St Andrews since at least the 747 AD when it was mentioned in the Annals of Tigernach, a bishopric since at least the 11th century; the settlement grew to the west of St Andrews cathedral with the southern side of the Scores to the north and the Kinness burn to the south. The burgh soon became the ecclesiastical capital of Scotland, a position, held until the Scottish Reformation.
The famous cathedral, the largest in Scotland, now lies in ruins. St Andrews is known worldwide as the "home of golf"; this is in part because The Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews, founded in 1754, which until 2004 exercised legislative authority over the game worldwide. It is because the famous St Andrews Links are the most frequent venue for The Open Championship, the oldest of golf's four major championships. Visitors travel to St Andrews in great numbers for several courses ranked amongst the finest in the world, as well as for the sandy beaches; the Martyrs Memorial, erected to the honour of Patrick Hamilton, George Wishart, other martyrs of the Reformation epoch, stands at the west end of the Scores on a cliff overlooking the sea. The civil parish has a population of 18,421; the town contains numerous museums, a botanic garden and an aquarium. The earliest recorded name of the area is Cennrígmonaid; this is Old Gaelic and composed of the elements ríg and monaid. This was Scoticised to Kilrymont.
The modern Gaelic spelling is Cill Rìmhinn. The name St Andrews derives from the town's claim to be the resting place of bones of the apostle Andrew. According to legend, St Regulus brought the relics to Kilrymont, where a shrine was established for their safekeeping and veneration while Kilrymont was renamed in honour of the saint; this is the origin of a third name for the town Kilrule. The first inhabitants who settled on the estuary fringes of the rivers Tay and Eden during the mesolithic came from the plains in Northern Europe between 10,000 and 5,000 BCE; this was followed by the nomadic people who settled around the modern town around 4,500 BCE as farmers clearing the area of woodland and building monuments. In the mid-eighth century a monastery was established by the Pictish king Oengus I, traditionally associated with the relics of Saint Andrew, a number of bones supposed to be the saints's arm, three fingers and a tooth believed to have been brought to the town by St Regulus. In AD 877, king Causantín mac Cináeda built a new church for the Culdees at St Andrews and the same year was captured and executed after defending against Viking raiders.
In AD 906, the town became the seat of the bishop of Alba, with the boundaries of the see being extended to include land between the River Forth and River Tweed. In 940 Constantine III took the position of abbot of the monastery of St Andrews; the establishment of the present town began around 1140 by Bishop Robert on an L-shaped vill on the site of the ruined St Andrews Castle. According to a charter of 1170, the new burgh was built to the west of the Cathedral precinct, along Castle Street and as far as what is now known as North Street; this means that the lay-out may have led to the creation of two new streets from the foundations of the new St Andrews Cathedral filling the area inside a two-sided triangle at its apex. The northern boundary of the burgh was the southern side of the Scores with the southern by the Kinness Burn and the western by the West Port; the burgh of St Andrews was first represented at the great council at Scone Palace in 1357. St Andrews, in particular the large cathedral built in 1160, was the most important centre of pilgrimage in medieval Scotland and one of the most important in Europe.
Pilgrims from all over Scotland came in large numbers hoping to be blessed, in many cases to be cured, at the shrine of Saint Andrew. The presence of the pilgrims brought about increased development. Recognised as the ecclesiastical capital of Scotland, the town now had vast economic and political influence within Europe as a cosmopolitan town. In 1559, the town fell into decay after the violent Scottish Reformation and the Wars of the Three Kingdoms losing the status of ecclesiastical capital of Scotland; the University of St Andrews was considering relocating to Perth around 1697 and 1698. Under the authorisation of the bishop of St Andrews, the town was made a burgh of barony in 1614. Royal Burgh was granted as a charter by King James VI in 1620. In the 18th century, the town was still in decline, but despite this the town was becoming known for having links'well known to golfers'. By the 19th century, the town began to expand beyond the original medieval boundaries with streets of new houses and town vi
A Bermuda rig, Bermudian rig, or Marconi rig is a configuration of mast and rigging for a type of sailboat and is the typical configuration for most modern sailboats. This configuration was developed in Bermuda in the 17th century; the rig consists of a triangular sail set aft of the mast with its head raised to the top of the mast. Developed for smaller Bermudian vessels, adapted to the larger, ocean-going Bermuda sloop, the Bermuda sail is set as the mainsail on the main mast; the Bermuda rigging has replaced the older gaff rigged fore-and-aft sails, except notably on schooners. The traditional design as developed in Bermuda features tall, raked masts, a long bowsprit, may or may not have a boom. In some configurations such as the Bermuda Fitted Dinghy vast areas of sail are achieved with this rig. Elsewhere, the design has omitted the bowsprit, has otherwise become less extreme. A Bermuda rigged sloop with a single jib is known as a Bermuda sloop, a Marconi sloop, or a Marconi rig. A Bermuda sloop may be a more specific type of vessel such as a small sailing ships traditional in Bermuda which may or may not be Bermuda rigged.
The foot of a Bermuda sail may be attached to the boom along its length, or in some modern rigs the sail is attached to the boom only at its ends. This modern variation of a Bermuda mainsail is known as a loose-footed main. In some early Bermudian vessels, the mainsails were attached only to the mast and deck, lacking booms; this is the case on two of the three masts of the newly built Spirit of Bermuda, a replica of an 1830s British Royal Navy sloop-of-war. Additional sails were often mounted on traditional Bermudian craft, when running down wind, which included a spinnaker, with a spinnaker boom, additional jibs; the main controls on a Bermuda sail are: The cunningham tightens the luff of a boom-footed sail by pulling downward on a cringle in the luff of a mainsail above the tack. The halyard used to raise the head, sometimes to tension the luff; the outhaul used to tension the foot by hauling the clew towards the end of the boom. The sheet used to haul the boom down and towards the center of the boat.
The vang or kicking strap which runs between a point partway along the boom and the base of the mast, is used to haul the boom down when on a run. The development of the rig is thought to have begun with fore-and-aft rigged boats built by a Dutch-born Bermudian in the 17th Century; the Dutch were influenced by Moorish lateen rigs introduced during Spain's rule of their country. The Dutch modified the design by omitting the masts, with the yard arms of the lateens being stepped in thwarts. By this process, the yards became raked masts. Lateen sails mounted; the Dutch called. A bezaan jacht is visible in a painting of King Charles II arriving in Rotterdam in 1660. After sailing on such a vessel, Charles was so impressed that his eventual successor, the Prince of Orange presented him with a copy of his own, which Charles named Bezaan; the rig had been introduced to Bermuda some decades before this. Captain John Smith reported that Captain Nathaniel Butler, the governor of Bermuda from 1619 to 1622, employed the Dutch boat builder, Jacob Jacobsen, one of the crew of a Dutch frigate, wrecked on Bermuda, who established a leading position among Bermuda's boat makers building and selling more than a hundred boats within the space of three years.
A poem published by John H. Hardie in 1671 described Bermuda's boats such: With tripple corner'd Sayls they always float, About the Islands, in the world there are, None in all points that may with them compare. Ships with somewhat similar rigs were in fact recorded in Holland during the 17th century; these early Bermuda rigged boats evidently lacked jibs or booms, the masts appear not to have been as robust as they were to become. In 1675, Samuel Fortrey, of Kew, wrote to the naval administrator and Member of Parliament, Samuel Pepys, a treatise entitled Of Navarchi, suggesting the improvement of the Bermoodn rig with the addition of a boom, but evidently nothing came of this. Bermudian builders did introduce these innovations themselves, though when they first appeared has been lost to record. By the 19th century, the design of Bermudian vessels had dispensed with square topsails and gaff rig, replacing them with triangular main sails and jibs; the Bermuda rig had traditionally been used on vessels with two or more masts, with the gaff rig favoured for single-masted vessels.
The reason for this was the increased height necessary for a single mast, which led to too much canvas. The solid wooden masts at that height were too heavy, not sufficiently strong; this changed. H. G. Hunt, a naval officer concluded in the 1820s that a single-masted sloop would be superior to the schooner he had been racing and was proved correct when the yacht he had commissioned won a secre
Fife is a council area and historic county of Scotland. It is situated between the Firth of Tay and the Firth of Forth, with inland boundaries to Perth and Kinross and Clackmannanshire. By custom it is held to have been one of the major Pictish kingdoms, known as Fib, is still known as the Kingdom of Fife within Scotland. Fife is one of the six local authorities part of the South East Scotland city region, it is a lieutenancy area, was a county of Scotland until 1975. It was occasionally known by the anglicisation Fifeshire in old documents and maps compiled by English cartographers and authors. A person from Fife is known as a Fifer. Fife was a local government region divided into three districts: Dunfermline and North-East Fife. Since 1996 the functions of the district councils have been exercised by the unitary Fife Council. Fife is Scotland's third largest local authority area by population, it has a resident population of just under 367,000, over a third of whom live in the three principal towns of Dunfermline and Glenrothes.
The historic town of St Andrews is located on the northeast coast of Fife. It is well known for the University of St Andrews, one of the most ancient universities in the world and is renowned as the home of golf. Fife, bounded to the north by the Firth of Tay and to the south by the Firth of Forth, is a natural peninsula whose political boundaries have changed little over the ages; the Pictish king list and De Situ Albanie documents of the Poppleton manuscript mention the division of the Pictish realm into seven sub-kingdoms or provinces, one being Fife, though this is now regarded as a medieval invention. The earliest known reference to the common epithet The Kingdom of Fife dates from only 1678, in a proposition that the term derives from the quasi-regal privileges of the Earl of Fife; the notion of a kingdom may derive from a misinterpretation of an extract from Wyntoun. The name is recorded as Fib in A. D. 1150 and Fif in 1165. It was associated with Fothriff; the hill-fort of Clatchard Craig, near Newburgh, was occupied as an important Pictish stronghold between the sixth and eighth centuries AD.
Fife was an important royal and political centre from the reign of King Malcolm III onwards, as the leaders of Scotland moved southwards away from their ancient strongholds around Scone. Malcolm had his principal home in Dunfermline and his wife Margaret was the main benefactor of Dunfermline Abbey; the Abbey replaced Iona as the final resting place of Scotland's royal elite, with Robert I amongst those to be buried there. The Earl of Fife was until the 15th century considered the principal peer of the Scottish realm, was reserved the right of crowning the nation's monarchs, reflecting the prestige of the area. A new royal palace was constructed at Falkland the stronghold of Clan MacDuff, was used by successive monarchs of the House of Stuart, who favoured Fife for its rich hunting grounds. King James VI of Scotland described Fife as a "beggar's mantle fringed wi gowd", the golden fringe being the coast and its chain of little ports with their thriving fishing fleets and rich trading links with the Low Countries.
Wool, linen and salt were all traded. Salt pans heated by local coal were a feature of the Fife coast in the past; the distinctive red clay pan tiles seen on many old buildings in Fife arrived as ballast on trading boats and replaced the thatched roofs. In 1598, King James VI employed a group of 12 men from Fife, who became known as the Fife adventurers, to colonise the Isle of Lewis in an attempt to begin the "civilisation" and de-gaelicisation of the region; this endeavour lasted until 1609 when the colonists, having been opposed by the native population, were bought out by Kenneth Mackenzie, the clan chief of the Mackenzies. Fife became a centre of heavy industry in the 19th century. Coal had been mined in the area since at least the 12th century, but the number of pits increased ten-fold as demand for coal grew in the Victorian period. Rural villages such as Cowdenbeath swelled into towns as thousands moved to Fife to find work in its mines; the opening of the Forth and Tay rail bridges linked Fife with Dundee and Edinburgh and allowed the rapid transport of goods.
Modern ports were constructed at Methil and Rosyth. Kirkcaldy became the world centre for the production of linoleum. Postwar Fife saw the development of Glenrothes. To be based around a coal mine, the town attracted a high number of modern Silicon Glen companies to the region. Fife Council and Fife Constabulary centre their operations in Glenrothes. There are numerous notable historical buildings in Fife, some of which are managed by the National Trust for Scotland or Historic Scotland, they include Dunfermline Abbey, the palace in Culross, Ravenscraig Castle in Kirkcaldy, Dysart Harbour area, Balgonie Castle near Coaltown of Balgonie, Falkland Palace, Kellie Castle near Pittenweem, Hill of Tarvit, St. Andrews Castle, St. Andrews Cathedral and St. Rule's Tower. Fife is represented by five constituency members of the Scottish Parliament and four members of the United Kingdom parliament who are sent to Holyrood and the British Parliament respectively. Following the 2015 General Election, all four of the MPs constituencies were held by the Scottish National Party.
In the 2017 General Election Kirkcaldy and Cowdenbeath was regained by Labour. At the same election, the seat of North East Fife became the closest seat in the country with the SNP holding a majority of 2 over the Liberal Democrats Three of
Gaff rig is a sailing rig in which the sail is four-cornered, fore-and-aft rigged, controlled at its peak and its entire head by a spar called the gaff. Because of the size and shape of the sail, a gaff rig will have running backstays rather than permanent backstays; the gaff enables aft sail to be four sided, rather than triangular. A gaff rig carries 25 percent more sail than an equivalent bermudian rig for a given hull design. A sail hoisted from a gaff is called a gaff-rigged sail. Gaff rig remains the most popular fore-aft rig for schooner and barquentine mainsails and other course sails, spanker sails on a square rigged vessel are always gaff rigged. On other rigs the sloop and yawl, gaff rigged sails were once common but have now been replaced by the Bermuda rig sail, which, in addition to being simpler than the gaff rig allows vessels to sail closer to the direction from which the wind is blowing; the gaff is hoisted by two halyards: The throat halyard hoists the throat of the sail at the forward end of the gaff and bears the main weight of the sail and the tension of the luff.
The peak halyard bears the leech tension. Small craft attach the peak halyard to the gaff with a wire span with eyes at both ends looped around the gaff and held in place with small wooden chocks, larger craft have more than one span. Peak halyards pull upwards. Additionally, a gaff vang may be fitted, it is a line attached to the end of the gaff. Gaff vangs are difficult to rig on the aft-most sail, so are only found on schooners or ketches, only on the foresail or mainsail. A triangular fore-and-aft sail called a jib-headed topsail may be carried between the gaff and the mast. Gunter-rigged boats are similar, smaller vessels on which a spar is raised until it is nearly vertical, parallel to the mast and close adjacent to it. Topsails are never carried on gunter rigs; the Spritsail is another rig with a four-sided fore-aft sail. Unlike the gaff rig where the head hangs from a spar along its edge, this rig supports the leech of the sail by means of a spar named a sprit; the forward end of the sprit is attached to the mast but bisects the face of the sail, with the after end of the sprit attaching to the peak and/or the clew of the sail.
For a given sail area a gaff rig has a shorter mast than a bermudian rig. In short-ended craft with full body, heavy displacement and moderate ballast ratio, it is difficult to set enough sail area in the bermudian rig without a mast of excessive height and a center of effort too high for the limited stability of the hull; because of its low aspect ratio, the gaff rig is less prone to stalling if oversheeted than something taller and narrower. Whilst reaching, the CE being set further back, will encourage a small craft to bear up into the wind, i.e. strong weather helm. The boat builder can compensate for this at design stage, e.g. by shifting the keel aft, or having two jibs to counter the effect. The gaff-cutter is in fact a popular sailplan for small craft; the helmsman can reduce weather helm simply by sheeting out the mainsail. Sheeting out may appear to create an inefficient belly in the sail, but it is a pragmatic alternative to having a heavy helm. A swing keel lifted halfway is the perfect treatment for weather helm on a gaffer.
The usual adjustments to mast rake, or bowsprit length may be made to a gaffer with persistent heavy weather helm. On a gaff-rigged vessel, any heading where the wind is within 20 degrees of dead aft is considered a run; when running with a gaff-rig, the CE of the mainsail may be overboard of the hull, in a stiff wind the craft may want to broach. Running goose winged with a balloon staysail poled out to windward will balance the CE. In light winds, or when racing, a watersail may be set. Gunter Parts of a sail Spritsail Lug sail Rousmaniere, John; the Illustrated Dictionary of Boating Terms: 2,000 Essential Terms for Sailors & Powerboaters. W. W. Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-04649-6