BBC Three was a British television channel operated by the British Broadcasting Corporation. Launched on 9 February 2003 as a replacement for BBC Choice, the service's remit was to provide "innovative programming" to a target audience of viewers between 16 and 34 years old, leveraging technology as well as new talent. Unlike its commercial rivals, 90% of BBC Three's output originated from the United Kingdom. 70% was original, covering all genres, including animation, current affairs, drama. BBC Three had a unique 60 Seconds format for its news bulletins, adopted so that operation of the channel could be automated, without the complication of dealing with variable-length live news broadcasts; the former controller of the station, Zai Bennett, left to join Sky Atlantic in July 2014, at which point BBC Three commissioner Sam Bickley became acting controller. Until February 2016, the network broadcast on Freeview, digital cable, IPTV and Satellite television platforms, was on-air from 7 pm to around 4 am each night to share terrestrial television bandwidth with CBBC.
In March 2014, as a result of a planned £100 million budget cut across the BBC, it was proposed that BBC Three be discontinued as an'open' television service, be converted to an over-the-top Internet television service with a smaller programming budget and a focus on short-form productions. Despite significant public opposition, the proposal was provisionally approved by the BBC Trust in June 2015, with a new consultation open until 30 September of that year; the TV channel ceased operations on 16 February 2016. In late 2001, the BBC decided to reposition and rebrand their two digital channels so that they could be more linked to the well established BBC One and BBC Two, their plan was for BBC Knowledge to be replaced with BBC Four—which took place in 2002—and for BBC Choice to be replaced with BBC Three. However, questions were raised over the proposed format of the new BBC Three, as some thought the new format would be too similar to the BBC's commercial rivals, namely ITV2 and E4, would be unnecessary competition.
The channel was given the go ahead, eleven months after the original launch date, launched on 9 February 2003. The channel was launched by Stuart Murphy, who ran BBC Choice, before that UK Play, the now-discontinued UKTV music and comedy channel. At 33, Murphy was still the youngest channel controller in the country, a title he had held since launching UK Play at the age of 26. On 12 May 2011, BBC Three was added to the Sky EPG in the Republic of Ireland on channel 229, it was moved to channel 210 on 3 July 2012, to free up space for new channels. It was moved to 115. For the duration of the 2012 Summer Olympics, BBC Three increased its broadcasting hours to 24 hours to provide extra coverage of Olympic events. Broadcast hours were extended again for the 2014 Commonwealth Games with BBC Three broadcasting from 9:00 am to 4:00 am for the duration of the games. On 16 July 2013 the BBC announced that a high-definition simulcast of BBC Three would be launched by early 2014; the channel launched on 10 December 2013.
In February 2014, BBC Director-General Tony Hall announced that cuts of £100 million would have to be made at the corporation. On 5 March 2014, Hall announced a proposal to convert BBC Three to an online-only service, with an 50% cut in its programming budget, a larger emphasis on short form content due to the cut in funding; these changes formed part of a package of proposals from the BBC, including extending CBBC's hours, respending £30m on BBC One audiences for drama, launching a one-hour timeshift channel of BBC One. There was notable backlash against the measures, with celebrities including Greg James, Matt Lucas and Jack Whitehall speaking out. A petition against the move on change.org has gathered over 300,000 signatures. However, there was some support from media commentators, those who backed a "slimmer" BBC; when the BBC revealed the full detail in December 2014, it admitted there was widespread opposition from BBC Three viewers but said there was support for the wider package of proposals.
They believed the public welcomed a BBC One +1 as it admits "a vast majority of viewing still takes place on linear channels". The'Save BBC Three' campaign pointed out this was a contradiction to what the BBC said about BBC Three; the BBC Trust began a 28-day public consultation regarding the plans on 20 January 2015 and it ended with a protest outside Broadcasting House. As part of the consultation a letter of 750 names against the move from the creative industry was sent to the BBC Trust, this had the backing of a number of celebrities including Daniel Radcliffe, Aidan Turner, Olivia Colman and Lena Headey; the polling company ICM concluded a "large majority" of those that replied to the consultation were against the move with respondents concerned about those who cannot stream programming online, the effect of the content budget cuts, the BBC's own admission the audience numbers would drop. The Save BBC Three campaign has argued the transition period is too short and that programmes like Family Guy and Don't Tell the Bride have not performed as well on BBC One and BBC Two with the 16-34 year old audience, in comparison to BBC Three.
It did not consider the proposals cost-effective because the BBC will need to spend on a new brand and triple advertising budgets to increase awareness of the new service. Nonetheless, the BBC Trust issued its final decision to approve the transition in November 2015, citing the fact th
A game show is a type of radio, television, or stage show in which contestants, individually or as teams, play a game which involves answering questions or solving puzzles for money or prizes. Alternatively, a gameshow can be a demonstrative program about a game. In the former, contestants may be invited from a pool of public applicants. Game shows reward players with prizes such as cash and goods and services provided by the show's sponsor prize suppliers. Game shows began to appear on television in the late 1930s; the first television game show, Spelling Bee, as well as the first radio game show, Information Please, were both broadcast in 1938. Q. a radio quiz show that began in 1939. Truth or Consequences was the first game, its first episode aired in 1941 as an experimental broadcast. Over the course of the 1950s, as television began to pervade the popular culture, game shows became a fixture. Daytime game shows would be played for lower stakes to target stay-at-home housewives. Higher-stakes programs would air in primetime.
During the late 1950s, high-stakes games such as Twenty-One and The $64,000 Question began a rapid rise in popularity. However, the rise of quiz shows proved to be short-lived. In 1959, many of the higher stakes game shows were discovered to be rigged and ratings declines led to most of the primetime games being canceled. An early variant of the game show, the panel game, survived. On shows like What's My Line?, I've Got A Secret, To Tell the Truth, panels of celebrities would interview a guest in an effort to determine some fact about them. Panel games had success in primetime until the late 1960s, when they were collectively dropped from television because of their perceived low budget nature. Panel games made a comeback in American daytime television in the 1970s through comedy-driven shows such as Match Game and Hollywood Squares. In the UK, commercial demographic pressures were not as prominent, restrictions on game shows made in the wake of the scandals limited the style of games that could be played and the amount of money that could be awarded.
Panel have continued to thrive. The focus on quick-witted comedians has resulted in strong ratings, combined with low costs of production, have only spurred growth in the UK panel show phenomenon. Game shows remained a fixture of US daytime television through the 1960s after the quiz show scandals. Lower-stakes games made a slight comeback in daytime in the early 1960s. Let's Make a Deal began in 1963 and the 1960s marked the debut of Hollywood Squares, The Dating Game, The Newlywed Game. Though CBS gave up on daytime game shows in 1968, the other networks did not follow suit. Color television was introduced to the game show genre in the late 1960s on all three networks; the 1970s saw a renaissance of the game show as new games and massive upgrades to existing games made debuts on the major networks. The New Price Is Right, an update of the 1950s-era game show The Price Is Right, debuted in 1972 and marked CBS's return to the game show format in its effort to draw wealthier, suburban viewers; the Match Game became "Big Money" Match Game 73, which proved popular enough to prompt a spin-off, Family Feud, on ABC in 1976.
The $10,000 Pyramid and its numerous higher-stakes derivatives debuted in 1973, while the 1970s saw the return of disgraced producer and host Jack Barry, who debuted The Joker's Wild and a clean version of the rigged Tic-Tac-Dough in the 1970s. Wheel of Fortune debuted on NBC in 1975; the Prime Time Access Rule, which took effect in 1971, barred networks from broadcasting in the 7–8 p.m. time slot preceding prime time, opening up time slots for syndicated programming. Most of the syndicated programs were "nighttime" adaptations of network daytime game shows; these game shows aired once a week, but by the late 1970s and early 1980s most of the games had transitioned to five days a week. Game shows were the lowest priority of television networks and were rotated out every thirteen weeks if unsuccessful. Most tapes were destroyed until the early 1980s. Over the course of the late 1980s and early 1990s, as fewer new hits were produced, game shows lost their permanent place in the daytime lineup. ABC transitioned out of the daytime game show format in the mid-1980s.
NBC's game block lasted until 1991, but the network attempted to bring them back in 1993 before cancelling its game show block again in 1994. CBS phased out most of its game shows, except for The Price Is Right, by 1993. To the benefit of the genre, the moves of Wheel of Fortune and a modernized revival of Jeopardy! to syndication in 1983 and 1984 was and remains successful. Cable television allowed for the debut of game shows such as Supermarket Sweep, Trivial Pursuit and Family Challenge, Double Dare, it opened up a underdeveloped ma
Trevor Ricardo Nelson, MBE is a British DJ and presenter. Born in the Metropolitan Borough of Hackney to a family of St Lucian heritage, Nelson attended Central Foundation Boys' Grammar School in Cowper Street, London EC2, Westminster Kingsway College, his first job was in a shoe shop, but his love of music meant a part-time role as a DJ. Nelson found daytime work at a record importer in 1985, widened his DJ experience putting on "warehouse parties" at the weekends, he went on to work in A&R for record labels Cooltempo and EMI, promoting artistes such as D'Angelo, Mica Paris and Lynden David Hall. As a pioneer in the urban scene, Nelson started his broadcasting career at pirate station Kiss in 1985. In 1990 it gained a broadcasting licence to become Kiss 100 London, it was here that Nelson became director of the station and daytime DJ. Behind the decks Nelson cut his teeth as a DJ with Soul II Soul and promoted numerous club nights including Lick. With a stint behind the scenes in A&R at Cooltempo, EMI, Nelson was instrumental in the careers of D’Angelo, Mica Paris and Lynden David Hall.
In 1996, Nelson moved to BBC Radio 1 to present the first national RNB show' The Rhythm Nation' and a year began a Saturday afternoon programme which resulted in his winning a MOBO Award in 1997 as Best DJ, stayed with Radio 1 until 2013. Nelson broadcasts across two radio networks, he presented weekdays, Monday to Friday 10:00am until 13:00 show on BBC Radio 1Xtra, he started presenting Rhythm Nation on Saturday evenings on BBC Radio 2 in July 2016, replacing his Wednesday evening soul show. In November 2016 it was announced that Nelson would be leaving his weekday 10 am – 1 pm show on 1Xtra and moving to Saturday and Sundays 4 – 7 pm, showcasing the best in new and old R&B music, with DJ Ace taking over his slot, he has held this slot since 2011 after leaving the 1Xtra breakfast show which he presented with Gemma Cairney and Zena McNally. In 2010 he was awarded with the special gold lifetime achievement award for his services to broadcasting, at the Sony Radio Academy Awards. Nelson continues to DJ around the UK and Europe and is now in his tenth summer residency in Global Room nightclub in Pacha, Ibiza.
He has released seven compilation albums, INCredible Sound of Trevor Nelson, The Soul Nation and Lick compilations. His most recent compilation album is The Trevor Nelson Collection. Picking up where his Lick compilations left off, he shares his favourite R&B, Soul and Rap classics from over the decades. On 21 March 2017 he was a presenter for the Sara Cox Red Nose Day danceathon from 2 am to 5 am. In August 2017, April 2018, again in August 2018, Trevor sat in for Ken Bruce on his Radio 2 show. On 29 October 2018 it was announced Sara Cox would take over drivetime on Radio 2; as a result, from January 2019 Trevor Nelson's Rhythm Nation would move to Monday-Thursday 22:00-0:00. Trevor will continue with his 1Xtra shows. Nelson first appeared on television in 1998 on MTV UK and presenting The Lick on MTV Base off the back of his first RNB show on Radio 1. Nelson appeared as a judge on the 2006 show Just the Two of Us |Just the Two of Us, again in 2007. From 12 September 2009 Nelson co-presented NFL UK, a weekly American Football highlights magazine show on Channel 5 with Natalie Pinkham.
Trevor has worked on numerous BBC shows that include: "Holiday:you call the shots" / "Trevor Nelson's Urban Choice" / "The Players club" series and more he presented the coverage of the FIFA World Cup concert in South Africa for BBC2 in 2010. Trevor holds the distinction of being the first black person to appear on Channel 5, appearing at 10:37pm on The Jack Docherty Show. Nelson appears as a pundit on programmes where celebrities recall their detailed memories of popular culture, he provided commentary on the 2012 Summer Olympics Opening Ceremony and 2012 Summer Olympics Closing Ceremony, criticised in the media. A divorced father of two children and cat owner, Nelson lives in London, is a fan of Chelsea Football Club, he has a home in St Lucia. He was appointed Member of the Order of the British Empire in 2002 for his contribution to the Millennium Volunteers programme. Outside of Radio, Nelson owns & promotes his touring club brands including'Soul Nation' & Classics, which launched at Ministry of Sound.
Sounds Like London: 100 Years of Black Music in the Capital, 2013. Official website Trevor Nelson at BBC Programmes Trevor Nelson's Rhythm Nation at BBC Programmes
Game Boy Advance
The Game Boy Advance is a 32-bit handheld video game console developed and marketed by Nintendo as the successor to the Game Boy Color. It was released in Japan on March 21, 2001, in North America on June 11, 2001, in Australia and Europe on June 22, 2001, in mainland China on June 8, 2004 as iQue Game Boy Advance; the GBA was part of the sixth generation. The original model was not backlit and Nintendo addressed that with the release of the redesigned Game Boy Advance SP in 2003. Another redesign, the Game Boy Micro, was released in 2005; as of June 30, 2010, the Game Boy Advance series has sold 81.51 million units worldwide. Its successor, the Nintendo DS, was released in November 2004 and is compatible with Game Boy Advance software. Contrary to the previous Game Boy models, which were all following the "portrait" form factor of the original Game Boy, the Game Boy Advance was designed in a "landscape" form factor, putting the buttons to the sides of the device instead of below the screen; the Game Boy Advance was designed by the French designer Gwénaël Nicolas and his Tokyo-based design studio Curiosity Inc.
In 1996, magazines including Electronic Gaming Monthly, Next Generation, issues 53 and 54 of Total! and the July 1996 issue of Game Informer featured reports of a new Game Boy, codenamed Project Atlantis. Although Nintendo's expectations of releasing the system in at least one territory by the end of 1996 would make that machine seem to be the Game Boy Color, it was described as having a 32-bit RISC processor, a 3-by-2-inch color LCD screen, a link port—a description that more matches the Game Boy Advance, it may have referred to the unnamed, unreleased Game Boy Color successor prototype, revealed at 2009's Game Developers Conference. It was announced that Nintendo of Japan was working on a game for the system called "Mario's Castle". Nintendo tabled the project in 1997, since the original Game Boy was still too popular to merit the release of a successor; the technical specifications of the original Game Boy Advance are, as provided by Nintendo: Backward compatibility for Game Boy and Game Boy Color games is provided by a custom 4.194/8.388 MHz Z80-based coprocessor, while a link port at the top of the unit allows it to be connected to other devices using a Game Link cable or GameCube link cable.
When playing Game Boy or Game Boy Color games on the Game Boy Advance, the L and R buttons can be used to toggle between a stretched widescreen format and the original screen ratio of the Game Boy. Game Boy games can be played using the same selectable color palettes as on the Game Boy Color; every Nintendo handheld system following the release of the Game Boy Advance SP has included a built-in light and rechargeable battery. The Game Boy Advance and Nintendo DS 2D graphics hardware have scaling and rotation for traditional tiled backgrounds in its modes 1 and 2 and scaling and rotation for bitmaps in modes 3 through 5. On each machine supporting this effect, it is possible to change the scaling and rotation values during the horizontal blanking period of each scanline to draw a flat plane in a perspective projection. More complex effects such as fuzz are possible by using other equations for the position and rotation of each line; the "character mode" supports up to 4 tile map background layers per frame, with each tile being 8x8 pixels in size and having 16 or 256 colors.
The "character mode" supports up to 128 hardware sprites per frame, with any sprite size from 8x8 to 64x64 pixels and with 16 or 256 colors per sprite. With hardware comparable to the Super NES, the Game Boy Advance represents progress for sprite-based technology; the Game Boy Advance has platformers, SNES-style role-playing video games, classic games ported from various 8-bit and 16-bit systems of the previous generations. This includes the Super Mario Advance series, as well as the system's backward compatibility with all earlier Game Boy titles. All titles were GBA-exclusive and none of these were backwards compatible with older Game Boy systems, it featured a warning message, refuse to play on classic Game Boy. Final Fantasy VI Advance was the final licensed Japanese GBA game release. Released November 2006, it was the final Nintendo-published game for the system. 2 Games in 1: Columns Crown & ChuChu Rocket! was the final European GBA game, released November 2008. Samurai Deeper Kyo was the final North American GBA game, released in February 2008.
The last Nintendo-developed game released for the system was the Japan-only rhythm game Rhythm Tengoku, which went on to form the popular Rhythm Heaven series. An accessory for the GameCube, known as the Game Boy Player, was released in 2003 as the successor to the Super Game Boy peripheral for the Super Nintendo Entertainment System; the accessory allows Game Boy Advance games, as well as Game Boy and Game Boy Color games, to be played on the GameCube. However, some games may have compatibility issues due to certain features. Game Boy Advance games are compatible with the Nintendo DS and Nintendo DS Lite handheld consoles, which feature a cartridge slot at the bottom, they are not, compatible with the Nintendo DSi, as it does not feature a cartridge slot. As part of an Ambassador Program for early adopters of the Nintendo 3DS system, ten Game Boy Advance games were made available free for players who bought a system before August 2011. Unlike other Virtual Console games for the system, players were not able to use features such
The PlayStation 2 is a home video game console, developed by Sony Computer Entertainment. It is the successor to the original PlayStation console and is the second iteration in the PlayStation lineup of consoles, it was released in 2000 and competed with Sega's Dreamcast, Nintendo's GameCube and Microsoft's Xbox in the sixth generation of video game consoles. Announced in 1999, the PlayStation 2 offered backwards compatibility for its predecessor's DualShock controller, as well as for its games; the PlayStation 2 is the best-selling video game console of all time, selling over 155 million units, with 150 million confirmed by Sony in 2011. More than 3,874 game titles have been released for the PS2 since launch, more than 1.5 billion copies have been sold. Sony manufactured several smaller, lighter revisions of the console known as Slimline models in 2004. In 2006, Sony announced and launched its successor, the PlayStation 3. With the release of its successor, the PlayStation 2 remained popular well into the seventh generation and continued to be produced until January 4, 2013, when Sony announced that the PlayStation 2 had been discontinued after 12 years of production – one of the longest runs for a video game console.
Despite the announcement, new games for the console continued to be produced until the end of 2013, including Final Fantasy XI: Seekers of Adoulin for Japan, FIFA 13 for North America, Pro Evolution Soccer 2014 for Europe. Repair services for the system in Japan ended on September 7, 2018. Though Sony has kept details of the PlayStation 2's development secret, work on the console began around the time that the original PlayStation was released. Insiders stated that it was developed in the U. S. West Coast by former members of Argonaut Software. By 1997 word had leaked to the press that the console would have backwards compatibility with the original PlayStation, a built-in DVD player, Internet connectivity. Sony announced the PlayStation 2 on March 1, 1999; the video game console was positioned as a competitor to Sega's Dreamcast, the first sixth-generation console to be released, although the main rivals of the PS2 were Nintendo's GameCube and Microsoft's Xbox. The Dreamcast itself launched successfully in North America that year, selling over 500,000 units within two weeks.
Soon after the Dreamcast's North American launch, Sony unveiled the PlayStation 2 at the Tokyo Game Show on September 20, 1999. Sony showed playable demos of upcoming PlayStation 2 games including Gran Turismo 2000 and Tekken Tag Tournament – which showed the console's graphic abilities and power; the PS2 was launched in March 2000 in Japan, October in North America, November in Europe. Sales of the console and accessories pulled in $250 million on the first day, beating the $97 million made on the first day of the Dreamcast. Directly after its release, it was difficult to find PS2 units on retailer shelves due to manufacturing delays. Another option was purchasing the console online through auction websites such as eBay, where people paid over a thousand dollars for the console; the PS2 sold well on the basis of the strength of the PlayStation brand and the console's backward compatibility, selling over 980,000 units in Japan by March 5, 2000, one day after launch. This allowed the PS2 to tap the large install base established by the PlayStation – another major selling point over the competition.
Sony added new development kits for game developers and more PS2 units for consumers. The PS2's built-in functionality expanded its audience beyond the gamer, as its debut pricing was the same or less than a standalone DVD player; this made the console a low cost entry into the home theater market. The success of the PS2 at the end of 2000 caused Sega problems both financially and competitively, Sega announced the discontinuation of the Dreamcast in March 2001, just 18 months after its successful launch; the PS2 remained as the only active sixth generation console for over 6 months, before it would face competition from newer rivals. Many analysts predicted a close three-way matchup among the three consoles. While the PlayStation 2 theoretically had the weakest specification of the three, it had a head start due to its installed base plus strong developer commitment, as well as a built-in DVD player. While the PlayStation 2's initial games lineup was considered mediocre, this changed during the 2001 holiday season with the release of several blockbuster games that maintained the PS2's sales momentum and held off its newer rivals.
Sony countered the Xbox by temporarily securing PlayStation 2 exclusives for anticipated games such as the Grand Theft Auto series and Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty. Sony cut the price of the console in May 2002 from US$299 to $199 in North America, making it the same price as the GameCube and $100 less than the Xbox, it planned to cut the price in Japan around that time. It cut the price twice in Japan in 2003. In 2006, Sony cut the cost of the console in anticipation of the release of the PlayStation 3. Sony, unlike Sega with its Dreamcast placed little emphasis on online gaming during its first few years, although that changed upon the launch of the online-capable Xbox. Coinciding with the release of Xbox Live, Sony released the PlayStation Network Adapter in late 2002, with several online first–party titles released alongside it, such as SOCOM: U. S. Navy SEALs to demon