Roberto Durán Samaniego is a Panamanian former professional boxer who competed from 1968 to 2001. He held world championships in four weight classes: lightweight, light middleweight and middleweight, as well as reigns as the undisputed and lineal lightweight champion, the lineal welterweight champion, he is the second boxer to have competed over a span of five decades, the first being Jack Johnson. Durán was known as a versatile, technical brawler and pressure fighter, which earned him the nickname of "Manos de Piedra" for his formidable punching power and excellent defense. In 2002, Durán was voted by The Ring magazine as the fifth greatest fighter of the last 80 years, while boxing historian Bert Sugar rated him as the eighth greatest fighter of all time; the Associated Press voted him as the best lightweight of the 20th century, with many considering him the greatest lightweight of all time. Durán retired in January 2002 at age 50 following a car crash in October 2001, with a professional record of 119 fights, 103 wins, 70 knockouts.
Up until his fight with Wilfred Benítez in 1982, he was trained by legendary boxing trainer Ray Arcel. Roberto Duran is ranked #1 greatest lightweight boxer of all time and #4 greatest boxer of all time by Boxing Action Magazine. Roberto Durán was born on June 1951 in Guararé, Panama, his mother, Clara Samaniego, was a native of Guararé, his father, Margarito Durán Sánchez, was from Arizona, United States, of Mexican descent. He was raised in the slums of El Chorrillo in the district "La Casa de Piedra" Panama, he began sparring with experienced boxers at the Neco de La Guardia gymnasium when he was only eight years old. He made his professional debut in 1968 at the age of 16. Duran won his first 31 consecutive fights, scored knockout victories over future Featherweight Champion Ernesto Marcel and former Super Featherweight Champion Hiroshi Kobayashi, culminating in his first title bout in June 1972, where he defeated Ken Buchanan in Madison Square Garden, New York for the WBA Lightweight Championship.
Durán, as a 2-to-1 underdog, scored a knockdown against the defending champion just fifteen seconds into the opening round and battered him throughout the bout. He was well ahead on all three cards as the bell rang to end the 13th round, at which time Durán continued to throw a couple of extra punches as Buchanan lay on the ropes; as Duran continued punching, the referee, Johnny LoBianco, grabbed him to pull him away. He pulled down on Duran's arms, which led to a accidental low blow. Buchanan dropped to the canvas in pain, his trainer Gil Clancy said he had believed the blow to have been caused by a knee. Duran was not disqualified from the bout. Columnist Red Smith of The New York Times wrote that LoBianco had to award the victory to Durán if the punch was a low blow, as "anything short of pulling a knife is regarded indulgently" in American boxing. Buchanan said he left the fight "with sore balls". Durán followed up on his title winning performance with several non-title matches; that year, in another non-title bout, he lost a ten-round decision to Esteban De Jesús.
Durán got back on track with successful title defenses against Jimmy Robertson, Hector Thompson and future Lightweight Champion Guts Ishimatsu. In 1974, Durán avenged his loss to De Jesus with a brutal eleventh round knock out. In 1976, he defeated future Light Welterweight Champion Saoul Mamby. Overall, Durán made twelve successful defenses of his title and amassed a record of 62–1, his last defense coming in 1978 when Durán fought a third bout with De Jesus in a unification match wherein Durán once again knocked out De Jesus and captured his WBC Lightweight Championship. Durán gave up the Undisputed Lightweight Championship in February 1979. Vacating the Lightweight title was a buildup for an attempt at the Welterweight title. Durán earned a pair of wins against former WBC Welterweight Champion Carlos Palomino and Zeferino Gonzales, setting the stage for a title bout against then-undefeated WBC Welterweight Champion Sugar Ray Leonard; the venue chosen was the Olympic Stadium in Montreal. Durán resented the fact that he was getting only one-fifth the money Leonard would make despite the fact that he was entering the bout with an incredible 71–1 record.
On June 20, 1980, Durán captured the WBC Welterweight title by defeating Leonard via a 15-round unanimous decision. The fight became known as "The Brawl in Montreal". After defeating Leonard in Montreal, Duran gained iconic status in Panama. Leonard asked for the fight to be the following November. In their second fight, Leonard changed his tactics, using more footwork and movement than he had in their first fight, Duran was unable to get Leonard against the ropes. During the seventh round, after Leonard had gained a slight lead on the scorecards, he began taunting and mocking Duran. Halfway into the eighth round, Duran stopped fighting saying, "No más". In a 2016 interview, Duran claimed that what he said was, "No Sigo", he took some time to recover from that fight and gained more weight to contend for the WBC Light Middleweight title, but losing in his first attempt at a championship in that division on January 30, 1982, against Wilfred Benítez by a 15-round unanimous decision, this after having defeated Nino Gonzalez and Luigi Minchillo, two rated Light Middleweights, both by ten-roun
A punch is a striking blow with the fist. It is used in most martial arts and combat sports, most notably boxing, where it is the only type of offensive technique allowed. In sports, hand wraps or other padding such as gloves may be used to protect athletes and practitioners from injuring themselves; the use of punches varies between different martial arts and combat sports. Styles such as boxing, Suntukan or Russian fist fighting use punches alone, while others such as Kickboxing, Muay Thai, Lethwei or karate may use both punches and kicks. Others such as wrestling and judo do not use punches at all. There are many types of punches and as a result, different styles encompass varying types of punching techniques; this is not a comprehensive list of all punches, due to the large diversity of schools of practice whose techniques, employing arm, shoulder and leg work, may invariably differ. In boxing, punches are classified according to the direction of the strike. There are four primary punches in boxing: the jab, cross and uppercut.
Punching techniques in karate are called zuki. Contact is made with the first two knuckles. If any other part of the hand is used to strike with, such as the back of the fist or the bottom of the fist the blow is classified as a strike. Karate punches include the thrust punch oi-zuki made using the lead-hand, straight punch choku-zuki, reverse punch gyaku-zuki, made from the opposite hand, many other variations. Media related to Punches at Wikimedia Commons "One punch-The Wing Chun Warrior's Attack Strategy". Kung Fu Magazine
A computing platform or digital platform is the environment in which a piece of software is executed. It may be the hardware or the operating system a web browser and associated application programming interfaces, or other underlying software, as long as the program code is executed with it. Computing platforms have different abstraction levels, including a computer architecture, an OS, or runtime libraries. A computing platform is the stage. A platform can be seen both as a constraint on the software development process, in that different platforms provide different functionality and restrictions. For example, an OS may be a platform that abstracts the underlying differences in hardware and provides a generic command for saving files or accessing the network. Platforms may include: Hardware alone, in the case of small embedded systems. Embedded systems can access hardware directly, without an OS. A browser in the case of web-based software; the browser itself runs on a hardware+OS platform, but this is not relevant to software running within the browser.
An application, such as a spreadsheet or word processor, which hosts software written in an application-specific scripting language, such as an Excel macro. This can be extended to writing fully-fledged applications with the Microsoft Office suite as a platform. Software frameworks. Cloud computing and Platform as a Service. Extending the idea of a software framework, these allow application developers to build software out of components that are hosted not by the developer, but by the provider, with internet communication linking them together; the social networking sites Twitter and Facebook are considered development platforms. A virtual machine such as the Java virtual machine or. NET CLR. Applications are compiled into a format similar to machine code, known as bytecode, executed by the VM. A virtualized version of a complete system, including virtualized hardware, OS, storage; these allow, for instance, a typical Windows program to run on. Some architectures have multiple layers, with each layer acting as a platform to the one above it.
In general, a component only has to be adapted to the layer beneath it. For instance, a Java program has to be written to use the Java virtual machine and associated libraries as a platform but does not have to be adapted to run for the Windows, Linux or Macintosh OS platforms. However, the JVM, the layer beneath the application, does have to be built separately for each OS. AmigaOS, AmigaOS 4 FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD IBM i Linux Microsoft Windows OpenVMS Classic Mac OS macOS OS/2 Solaris Tru64 UNIX VM QNX z/OS Android Bada BlackBerry OS Firefox OS iOS Embedded Linux Palm OS Symbian Tizen WebOS LuneOS Windows Mobile Windows Phone Binary Runtime Environment for Wireless Cocoa Cocoa Touch Common Language Infrastructure Mono. NET Framework Silverlight Flash AIR GNU Java platform Java ME Java SE Java EE JavaFX JavaFX Mobile LiveCode Microsoft XNA Mozilla Prism, XUL and XULRunner Open Web Platform Oracle Database Qt SAP NetWeaver Shockwave Smartface Universal Windows Platform Windows Runtime Vexi Ordered from more common types to less common types: Commodity computing platforms Wintel, that is, Intel x86 or compatible personal computer hardware with Windows operating system Macintosh, custom Apple Inc. hardware and Classic Mac OS and macOS operating systems 68k-based PowerPC-based, now migrated to x86 ARM architecture based mobile devices iPhone smartphones and iPad tablet computers devices running iOS from Apple Gumstix or Raspberry Pi full function miniature computers with Linux Newton devices running the Newton OS from Apple x86 with Unix-like systems such as Linux or BSD variants CP/M computers based on the S-100 bus, maybe the earliest microcomputer platform Video game consoles, any variety 3DO Interactive Multiplayer, licensed to manufacturers Apple Pippin, a multimedia player platform for video game console development RISC processor based machines running Unix variants SPARC architecture computers running Solaris or illumos operating systems DEC Alpha cluster running OpenVMS or Tru64 UNIX Midrange computers with their custom operating systems, such as IBM OS/400 Mainframe computers with their custom operating systems, such as IBM z/OS Supercomputer architectures Cross-platform Platform virtualization Third platform Ryan Sarver: What is a platform
The Geto Boys are an American rap group from Fifth Ward, Texas, consisting of Scarface, Bushwick Bill and Willie D. The Geto Boys have earned notoriety for their lyrics covering controversial topics such as misogyny, psychotic experiences, necrophilia; the group enjoyed success in the 1990s with singles. About.com ranked them No. 10 on its list of the 25 Best Rap Groups of All-Time, describing them as "southern rap pioneers who paved the way for future southern hip-hop acts." The original Ghetto Boys consisted first of Raheem, The Sire Jukebox, Sir Rap-A-Lot. When Raheem and Sir Rap-A-Lot left, the group added DJ Ready Red, Prince Johnny C, Little Billy; the first single the group released was "Car Freak" in 1986, which followed with two LPs "You Ain't Nothin'/I Run This" in 1987, "Be Down" in 1988. The group released their debut album in 1988, entitled Making Trouble. With the release receiving little attention, the group broke up shortly thereafter and a new line-up was put together with the inclusion of Scarface and Willie D, both aspiring solo artists.
This new line-up recorded the 1989 album, Grip It! On That Other Level; the group's 1990 self-titled album, The Geto Boys, caused Def American Recordings, the label to which the group was signed at the time, to switch distributors from Geffen Records to Warner Bros. Records because of controversy over the lyrics. In the early 1990s, several American politicians attacked rap artists associated with the subgenre gangsta rap, including the Geto Boys. A high-profile incident in which Bushwick Bill lost an eye in a shooting helped boost sales of the group's 1991 album We Can't Be Stopped; the album cover features a graphic picture of the injured Bushwick being carted through a hospital by Scarface and Willie D. On the album's title track, the group responded to Geffen Records ending its distribution deal with Def American; the album featured the single, "Mind Playing Tricks on Me", which became a hit and charted at No. 23 on the Billboard Hot 100. After Willie D left the group and Bushwick Bill continued with the Geto Boys with the addition of Big Mike who made his debut appearance with the group on 1993's album Till Death Do Us Part.
Till Death Do. The album spawned one top 40 hit in "Six Feet Deep" which peaked at #40 on the Billboard Hot 100. Subsequently, Big Mike was dropped and Willie D returned for 1996's critically acclaimed The Resurrection, the 1998 followup Da Good Da Bad & Da Ugly, of which Bushwick Bill was not a part. After three years on hiatus, the group reunited in 2002 to record its seventh album, The Foundation, released on January 25, 2005; the Geto Boys were featured on Scarface's My Homies Part 2 album. The song "Street Life" from Till Death Do. A video clip for the song with footage from the film was released. Although the band releases albums or perform together, the group came together for a reunion at Cypress Hill's SmokeOut festival in San Bernardino, California on October 23, 2009. In 2010, Bushwick Bill was threatened with deportation to Jamaica. In a 2015 DJ Vlad interview, Scarface stated that he will not be involved in another Geto Boys album. On August 24, 2018, founder member DJ Ready Red died at the age of 53, from an apparent heart attack.
The group's name, Geto Boys, comes from a deliberate misspelling of the word "ghetto". For its first two albums, Making Trouble and Grip It! On That Other Level, the spelling was the English standard "Ghetto Boys". For their third album, The Geto Boys, they changed it to the "Geto" spelling, which the group has used since; the Geto Boys' lyrics push gangsta rap themes to extremes, sometimes focus on murder, explicit sex, violence. The group is credited for putting Southern hip hop on the hip hop music map and inspired a legion of acts, including 2Pac, The Notorious B. I. G. Eminem, UGK, T. I. Goodie Mob, Outkast, 50 Cent, Jay-Z, Lil Wayne, Rick Ross, Young Jeezy, Mystikal and Insane Clown Posse. Insane Clown Posse's Violent J described the Geto Boys as the first rappers to perform horrorcore, with their song "Assassins", released on their debut album, Making Trouble. Bruce says that the Geto Boys continued to pioneer the style with their second release Grip It! On That Other Level, with songs such as "Mind of a Lunatic" and "Trigga-Happy Nigga".
The Geto Boys' popularity was boosted somewhat in 1999 by the prominent use of two songs—"Damn It Feels Good to Be a Gangsta" and "Still" —in Mike Judge's comedy satire film Office Space. The song "Mind of a Lunatic" has been covered by many recording acts including Marilyn Manson in 2003, as a B-side off the album The Golden Age of Grotesque; the single "Damn It Feels Good to Be a Gangsta" has been covered by the band Aqueduct and country singer Carter Falco. Their song "Mind Playing Tricks on Me" was featured in the video game Grand Theft Auto V and in the Netflix series Maniac; the Geto Boys are heavily influenced by the social politics of the day. Their lyrics have included themes ranging from police brutality to concerns over the negative impact of violence on the urban community. Making Trouble Grip It! On That Other Level We Can't Be Stopped Till Death Do Us Part The Resurrection Da Good da Bad & da Ugly The Foundation The Geto Boys Uncu
Armando Christian Pérez, known by the stage name Pitbull, is an American rapper. His first recorded mainstream performance was on a solo track from Lil Jon's 2002 album Kings of Crunk. In 2004, Pitbull released his debut album M. I. A. M. I. Under TVT Records, it included production producers Jim Jonsin. Pitbull released his second album El Mariel, in 2006 and his third, The Boatlift, in 2007, his fourth album, included his breakthrough hit single "I Know You Want Me", which peaked at number two on the US Billboard Hot 100. After rebranding himself as a pop artist, Pitbull's next album, Planet Pit, featured his first US number one single "Give Me Everything", his 2013 track "Timber", topped the charts in twenty nations, including the US and UK. He performed the song "We Are One" along with Jennifer Lopez and Claudia Leitte, which served as the official theme of the 2014 FIFA World Cup. Armando Christian Perez was born on January 1981 to Cuban expatriates in Miami, Florida; when he was 3, he could recite the works of poet, José Martí, in Spanish.
Growing up, he was influenced by the Miami bass genre of pop music and has cited Celia Cruz and Willy Chirino as sources of inspiration for his music. Pérez's parents separated when he was young, he was raised by his mother, he attended South Miami Senior High School before graduating from Miami Coral Park High School, where he focused his career on rapping. He said; the dog is too stupid to lose. And they're outlawed in Dade County. They're everything that I am. It's been a constant fight". After meeting Lil Jon in Miami, Pitbull was featured on Lil Jon and the East Side Boyz' album Kings of Crunk in 2002. Pitbull's song "Oye" was featured on the soundtrack to the film 2 Fast 2 Furious the following year. In addition, Pitbull released several mixtapes, composed of freestyles and remixes of popular rap music. Pitbull worked with Uncle Luke during his early career, being featured on Luke's 2001 album Somethin' Nasty, including the single "Lollipop" along with Lil' Zane. In 2001, Pitbull was signed to Luther Campbell's Luke Records by Jullian Boothe the label's vice-president of A&R.
In 2001, Pitbull was introduced to Robert Fernandez of Famous Artist Music & Management, an independent label and management company specializing in developing artists, by the Diaz Brothers, a producer duo signed to the company. Fernandez "saw the eagerness and hunger he had" and, with the Luke Records deal ending, began working to develop Pitbull. Together they focused on creating a more radio-friendly sound. Fernandez told HitQuarters: "At that time his music had a lot of verses and took a long time to get into the hook, so we took time in getting the songs catchier and less on the rap side."Fernandez introduced Pitbull to Lil Jon, hoping to secure the rapper a small guest intro spot on Lil Jon's upcoming album Kings of Crunk. According to Fernandez, Jon offered him a track on the album; this track helped raise the young rapper's profile. In 2004, Pitbull released his debut album M. I. A. M. I. With the lead single being "Culo" produced by the Diaz Brothers, it peaked at No. 32 on No. 11 on the Hot Rap Tracks chart.
Other singles included "Dammit Man", "Back Up", "Toma", "That's Nasty". He joined the 2000 hip-hop concert tour headlined by Eminem and 50 Cent. Pitbull appeared on the Ying Yang Twins' single "Shake", which peaked at No.41 on the Hot 100 and No.12 on the rap chart, Adassa's chart topping single "Kamasutra" & Twista's "Hit the Floor". Remix album Money Is Still a Major Issue was released in November 2005. TVT Records, Pitbull's label at the time, Slip-n-Slide Records disputed over the release of Welcome to the 305, an unreleased album by Slip-n-Slide that Pitbull had recorded in 2001. A Miami judge ruled that Slip-n-Slide had a legal right to release the album as it was recorded when Pitbull was a Slip-N-Slide artist, prior to him signing with TVT Records. A U. S. District Court judge affirmed the decision further. TVT was ordered in March 2007 to pay Slip-n-Slide $9.1 million for attempting to block the album's release to record stores and digital download entities. In 2005 Pitbull and rapper Sean'Diddy' Combs co-founded Bad Boy Latino, a subsidiary of Combs' Bad Boy Records label.
It focuses on Latin hip hop, Latin soul, Latin pop and other tropical music and has offices in New York and Miami, Florida. Along with co-founding it, Pérez heads the A&R division of the label. In January 2006, Pitbull guest-starred in UPN's South Beach. Pitbull recorded "Nuestro Himno" in collaboration with Wyclef Jean, Carlos Ponce, Olga Tañón. On Listennn... the Album, the debut album by Terror Squad member and Miami radio personality DJ Khaled, Pitbull performed on three singles: "Holla at Me" and "Born-N-Raised" alongside other Southern-based rappers. He dedicated the album to his father. Along with the usual party-oriented tracks, Pitbull included politically themed tracks in El Mariel; the album was released on October 31, 2006, included singles "Bojangles", "Ay Chico", "Fuego", duet with Puerto Rican singer Ken-Y, "Dime". El Mariel topped the Billboard independent albums chart and peaked at No. 17 on the Billboard 200 and No. 2 on the rap chart. Pitbull's third album, titled The Boatlift, was
Flushing is a neighborhood in the New York City borough of Queens in the United States. While much of the neighborhood is residential, Downtown Flushing, centered on the northern end of Main Street in Queens, is a large commercial and retail area and is the fourth largest central business district in New York City. Flushing's diversity is reflected by the numerous ethnic groups that reside there, including people of Asian, Middle Eastern and African-American ancestry, it is part of New York's Sixth Congressional District, located within Queens County. Flushing is served by five railroad stations on the Long Island Rail Road Port Washington Branch, as well as the New York City Subway's IRT Flushing Line, which has its terminus at Main Street; the intersection of Main Street and Roosevelt Avenue is the third busiest intersection in New York City, behind Times and Herald Squares. The neighborhood of Flushing is part of Queens Community Board 7 and the broader district of Flushing in Queens County.
The broader area is bounded by Flushing Meadows–Corona Park to the west, Kissena Boulevard to the east, the Long Island Expressway to the south, Willets Point Boulevard to the north. Flushing was inhabited by the Matinecoc Indians prior to colonialization and European settlement. On October 10, 1645, Flushing was established on the eastern bank of Flushing Creek under charter of the Dutch West India Company and was part of the New Netherland colony; the settlement was named after the city of Vlissingen, in the southwestern Netherlands, the main port of the company. However, by 1657, the residents called the place "Vlishing." "Flushing", the British name for Vlissingen, was used. Despite being a Dutch colony, many of the early inhabitants were British; the original name is derived from the Dutch word "fles" which means "bottle". Unlike all other towns in the region, the charter of Flushing allowed residents freedom of religion as practiced in Holland "without the disturbance of any magistrate or ecclesiastical minister."
However, in 1656, New Amsterdam Director-General Peter Stuyvesant issued an edict prohibiting the harboring of Quakers. On December 27, 1657, the inhabitants of Flushing approved a protest known as The Flushing Remonstrance; this petition contained religious arguments mentioning freedom for "Jews and Egyptians," but ended with a forceful declaration that any infringement of the town charter would not be tolerated. Subsequently, a farmer named John Bowne held Quaker meetings in his home and was arrested for this and deported to Holland, he persuaded the Dutch West India Company to allow Quakers and others to worship freely. As such, Flushing is claimed to be a birthplace of religious freedom in the New World. Landmarks remaining from the Dutch period in Flushing include the John Bowne House on Bowne Street and the Old Quaker Meeting House on Northern Boulevard; the Remonstrance was signed at a house on the site of the former State Armory, now a police facility, on the south side Northern Boulevard between Linden Place and Union Street.
In 1664, the English took control of New Amsterdam, ending Dutch control of the colony, renamed it the Province of New York. When Queens County was established in 1683, the "Town of Flushing" was one of the original five towns which the county comprised. Many historical references to Flushing are to this town, bounded from Newtown on the west by Flushing Creek, from Jamaica on the south by the watershed, from Hempstead on the east by what became the Nassau County line; the town was dissolved in 1898 when Queens became a borough of New York City, the term "Flushing" today refers to a much smaller area, for example the former Village of Flushing. Flushing was a seat of power as the Province of New York up to the American Revolution was led by Governor Cadwallader Colden, based at his Spring Hill estate. Flushing was the site of the first commercial tree nurseries in North America, the most prominent being the Prince and Parsons nurseries. A 14-acre tract of Parsons's exotic specimens was preserved on the north side of Kissena Park.
The nurseries are commemorated in the names of west-east avenues that intersect Kissena Boulevard. Flushing supplied trees to the Greensward Project, now known as Central Park in Manhattan. Well into the 20th century, Flushing contained many horticultural greenhouses. During the American Revolution, along with most settlements in present-day Queens County, favored the British and quartered British troops, though one battalion of Scottish Highlanders is known to have been stationed at Flushing during the war. Following the Battle of Long Island, Nathan Hale, an officer in the Continental Army, was apprehended near Flushing Bay while on what was an intelligence gathering mission and was hanged; the 1785 Kingsland Homestead the residence of a wealthy Quaker merchant, now serves as the home of the Queens Historical Society. During the 19th century, as New York City continued to grow in population and economic vitality, so did Flushing, its proximity to Manhattan was critical in its transformation into a fashionable residential area.
On April 15, 1837, the Village of Flushing was incorporated within the Town of Flushing. The official seal was the words, "Village of Flushing", surrounded by nondescript flowers. No other emblem or flag is known to have been used; the Village of Flushing included the neighborhoods of Flushing Highlands, Bowne Park, Murray Hill and Flushing Park. By the mid-1860s, Queens County had 30,429 residents; the Village of Co
The Nintendo GameCube is a home video game console released by Nintendo in Japan and North America in 2001 and Europe and Australia in 2002. The sixth-generation console is the successor to the Nintendo 64, designed to compete with Sony's PlayStation 2 and Microsoft's Xbox; the GameCube is the first Nintendo console to use optical discs as its primary storage medium. The discs are in the miniDVD format and the system was not designed to play full-sized DVDs or audio CDs, unlike its competitors, focused on gaming instead; the console supports online gaming for a small number of games via a GameCube broadband or modem adapter and can connect to a Game Boy Advance with a link cable, which allows players to access exclusive in-game features using the handheld as a second screen and controller. The GameCube uses composite video cables to display games on the television; the models produced before May 2004 had the ability to use digital component AV cables and progressive scan and a second serial port.
The nameplate on the top of the console with the words "Nintendo GameCube" could be removed. This model was known as DOL-001. All those features were removed in GameCube consoles produced between 2004-2007; the newer model had firmware that disabled Action Replay cheats and cheat codes and the disc-reading laser was improved in many ways, though it did not last as long. The newer model came with a 48-watt AC adapter to power the console, while the original was 46 watts. Reception of the GameCube at the time was positive; the console was praised for its controller, extensive software library and high-quality games, but was criticized for its exterior design and lack of features. Nintendo sold 21.74 million GameCube units worldwide before the console was discontinued in 2007. Its successor, the seventh-generation Wii, was released in November 2006. In 1997, a graphics hardware design company called ArtX was launched, staffed by twenty engineers who had worked at SGI on the design of the Nintendo 64's graphics hardware.
The team was led by Dr. Wei Yen, SGI's head of Nintendo Operations, the department responsible for the Nintendo 64's fundamental architectural design. Partnering with Nintendo in 1998, ArtX began the complete design of the system logic and of the graphics processor of Nintendo's sixth-generation video game console bearing the early internal code name of "N2000". At Nintendo's press conference in May 1999, the console was first publicly announced as "Project Dolphin", the successor to the Nintendo 64. Subsequently, Nintendo began providing development kits to game developers such as Rare and Retro Studios. Nintendo formed a strategic partnership with IBM, who created the Dolphin's CPU, named "Gekko". ArtX was acquired by ATI in April 2000, whereupon the Flipper graphics processor design had been completed by ArtX and was not overtly influenced by ATI. In total, ArtX team cofounder Greg Buchner recalled that their portion of the console's hardware design timeline had arced from inception in 1998 to completion in 2000.
Of ATI's acquisition of ArtX, an ATI spokesperson said, "ATI now becomes a major supplier to the game console market via Nintendo. The Dolphin platform is reputed to be king of the hill in terms of graphics and video performance with 128-bit architecture."The console was announced as the GameCube at a press conference in Japan on August 24, 2000, abbreviated as "NGC" in Japan and "GCN" in North America. Nintendo unveiled its software lineup for the sixth-generation console at E3 2001, focusing on fifteen launch games, including Luigi's Mansion and Star Wars Rogue Squadron II: Rogue Leader. Several games scheduled to launch with the console were delayed, it is the first console in the company's history not to accompany a Super Mario platform game at launch. Long before the console's launch, Nintendo had developed and patented an early prototype of motion controls for the GameCube, with which developer Factor 5 had experimented for its launch games. An interview quoted Greg Thomas, Sega of America's VP of Development as saying, "What does worry me is Dolphin's sensory controllers because there's an example of someone thinking about something different."
These motion control concepts would not be deployed to consumers for several years, until the Wii Remote. Prior to the GameCube's release, Nintendo focused resources on the launch of the Game Boy Advance, a handheld game console and successor to the original Game Boy and Game Boy Color; as a result, several games destined for the Nintendo 64 console were postponed in favor of becoming early releases on the GameCube. The last first-party game in 2001 for the Nintendo 64 was released in May, a month before the Game Boy Advance's launch and six months before the GameCube's, emphasizing the company's shift in resources. Concurrently, Nintendo was developing software for the GameCube which would provision future connectivity between it and the Game Boy Advance. Certain games, such as The Legend of Zelda: Four Swords Adventures and Final Fantasy Crystal Chronicles, can use the handheld as a secondary screen and controller when connected to the console via a link cable. Nintendo began its marketing campaign with the catchphrase "The Nintendo Difference" at its E3 2001 reveal.
The goal was to distinguish itself from the competition as an entertainment company. Advertisements push the slogan, "Born to Play", video game commercials feature a rotating cube animation that morphs into a GameCube logo and ends with a voice whisperin