Betta, is a large genus of small colorful, freshwater ray-finned fishes, known as "bettas", in the gourami family. The best known Betta species is B. splendens known as the Siamese fighting fish. All the Betta species are small fishes, but they vary in size, ranging from under 2.5 cm total length in B. chanoides to 14 cm in the Akar betta. Bettas are anabantoids, which means they can breathe atmospheric air using a unique organ called the labyrinth; this accounts for their ability to thrive in low-oxygen water conditions that would kill most other fish, such as rice paddies, slow-moving streams, drainage ditches, large puddles. The bettas exhibit two kinds of spawning behaviour: some build bubble nests, such as B. splendens, while others are mouthbrooders, such as B. picta. The mouthbrooding species are sometimes called "pseudo bettas", are sometimes speculated to have evolved from the nest-builders in an adaptation to their fast-moving stream habitats. A phylogenetic study published in 2004 concluded tentatively that bubble-nesting was the ancestral condition in Betta, that mouthbrooding has evolved on more than one occasion in the history of the genus.
However it was unable to establish a correlation with any of three habitat variables studied: whether a species was found in lowland or highland streams, whether it was found in peat swamp forests, whether it was found in water with fast or slow currents. Mouthbrooding species tend to exhibit less sexual dimorphism because they do not need to defend a territory as the bubble-nesters do. Siamese fighting fish are sold in the United States as "bettas". In fact, as of 2017, around 73 species are classified within the genus Betta. A useful distinction is that while the generic name Betta is italicized and capitalized, when used as a common name it is neither italicized nor capitalized; the common name of B. pugnax, for example, is thus Penang betta. The name Betta is pronounced; the name is pronounced /ˈbeɪtə/ in American English, may be spelled with one't'. The name of the genus is derived from the Malay word ikan betah; the vernacular name "plakat" applied to the short-finned ornamental strains, derived from pla kad which means "fighting fish", is the Thai name for all members of the B. splendens species complex.
The Thai phrase is not restricted to one specific strain. The term "fighting fish" is generalized to all members of the B. splendens species complex, including the Siamese fighting fish. Wild Betta fish are hardy and eat any animal small enough for these small fish to consume, including worms, larvae of mosquitoes or other insects, smaller fish, their natural environment is resource-limited, so many Betta species have little choice of food. While many Betta species are common and B. splendens is ubiquitous in the aquarium trade, other bettas are threatened. The IUCN Red List classifies several Betta species as Vulnerable. In addition, B. livida is Endangered, B. miniopinna, B. persephone, B. spilotogena are Critically Endangered. The United Nations Environment Programme lists an unconfirmed species, Betta cf. tomi, as having become extinct in Singapore between 1970 and 1994. This refers to the extirpated Singaporean population of B. tomi, which continues to exist in the wild in Indonesia and Malaysia, as well as in captivity.
There are 73 recognized species in this genus. The described Betta species can be grouped into species complexes: B. akarensis complex: Betta akarensis Regan, 1910 Betta antoni H. H. Tan & P. K. L. Ng, 2006 Betta aurigans H. H. Tan & K. K. P. Lim, 2004 Betta balunga Herre, 1940 Betta chini P. K. L. Ng, 1993 Betta ibanorum H. H. Tan & P. K. L. Ng, 2004 Betta obscura H. H. Tan & P. K. L. Ng, 2005 Betta pinguis H. H. Tan & Kottelat, 1998 B. albimarginata complex: Betta albimarginata Kottelat & P. K. L. Ng, 1994 Betta channoides Kottelat & P. K. L. Ng, 1994 B. anabatoides complex: Betta anabatoides Bleeker, 1851 Betta midas H. H. Tan, 2009 B. bellica complex: Betta bellica Sauvage, 1884 Betta simorum H. H. Tan & P. K. L. Ng, 1996 B. coccina complex: Betta brownorum K. E. Witte & J. Schmidt, 1992 Betta burdigala Kottelat & P. K. L. Ng, 1994 Betta coccina Vierke, 1979 Betta hendra I. Schindler & Linke, 2013 Betta livida P. K. L. Ng & Kottelat, 1992 Betta miniopinna H. H. Tan & S. H. Tan, 1994 Betta persephone Schaller, 1986 Betta rutilans K. E. Witte & Kottelat, 1991 Betta tussyae Schaller, 1985 Betta uberis H. H.
Tan & P. K. L. Ng, 2006 B. dimidiata complex: Betta dimidiata T. R. Roberts, 1989 Betta krataios H. H. Tan & P. K. L. Ng, 2006 B. edithae complex: Betta edithae Vierke, 1984 B. foerschi complex: Betta dennisyongi H. H. Tan, 2013 Betta foerschi Vierke, 1979 Betta mandor H. H. Tan & P. K. L. Ng, 2006 Betta rubra Perugia, 1893 Betta strohi Schaller & Kottelat, 1989 B. picta complex: Betta falx H. H. Tan & Kottelat, 1998 Betta picta Betta simplex Kottelat, 1994 Betta taeniata Regan, 1910 B. pugnax complex: Betta apollon I. Schindler & J. Schmidt, 2006 Betta breviobesus H. H. Tan & Kottelat, 1998 Betta cracens H. H. Tan & P. K. L. Ng, 2005 Betta enisae Kottelat, 1995 Betta ferox I. Schindler & J. Schmidt, 2006 Betta fusca Regan, 1910 Betta kuehnei I. Schindler & J. Schmidt, 2008 Betta lehi H. H. Tan & P. K. L. Ng, 2005 Betta pallida I. Schindler & J. Schmidt, 2004 Betta prima Kottelat, 1994 Betta pugnax Betta pulchra H
Emerald green betta
The emerald green betta or blue betta, Betta smaragdina, Thai: ปลากัดเขียว or ปลากัดอีสาน is a species of betta fish native to Thailand and Laos, where they are found in the basins of the Mekong, Chao Phraya river found at mun and Chi rivers in Isan region, Thailand This species grows to a length of 7 cm. They get their green and blue colors due to refraction and interference of light that come from hexagonal crystals that are less than.3 to.5 miera. This species is found in the aquarium trade; the Aquarium Wiki Encyclopaedia on Betta Smaragdina Siamese cyberAquarium, Types of plakatthai
The paradise fish, paradise-fish, paradisefish, or paradise gourami is a species of gourami found in most types of fresh water in East Asia, ranging from the Korean Peninsula to northern Vietnam. This species can reach a standard length of 6.7 cm. Paradise gouramis were one of the first ornamental fish available to western aquarium keepers, having been imported 1869 to France by the French aquarium fish importer Pierre Carbonnier in Paris; the paradise fish is one of the more aggressive members of its family. It is more aggressive than the three spot gourami, yet less pugnacious in nature than the less kept combtail. Paradise fish are combative and attacking each other, as well as killing small fish. During a fight, the paradise fish will change its color displaying dark blue lateral lines on the sides of their bodies. Paradise fish are more to show aggressive behavior towards other paradise fish than to fish of a different species. Acts of aggression tend to increase as the distance to the fish's home increases.
In the wild, they are predators, eating insects and fish fry. The popularity of this species has waned in recent decades as much more colorful species of gouramis have become available to hobbyists; this species is one of the few fish. It appears that paradise fish are capable of learning through a type of restrictive process. Most forms of active teaching seem to hinder the paradise fish's ability to learn. Paradise fish are tolerant of a wide range of water conditions, surviving in cool and warm waters alike. In the wild, they are most found in shallow water containing dense vegetation, such as a marsh or rice field; however they can be kept in outdoor ponds, or the simplest of unheated aquaria. They will accept any food, but should be given a reasonably high-protein diet They eat mosquito larvae, black worms, brine shrimp, small flies. In Taiwan, the native populations of paradise fish have been reduced to low levels by pollution in the rivers, are now listed as a threatened species; the local population of yellow fever mosquitoes has since increased in the absence of one of its main predators.
The infection rate for dengue fever has subsequently increased in the human population, caused in part by to the lack of natural mosquito predators. Paradise fish are considered to be an ideal subject for behavioral genetic studies and have been used to study Iridoviridae type viruses. Male paradise fish should be kept apart. A male can be kept with females. A tank that includes paradise fish should be at least 20 gallons in size for a single male or 20–30 gallons for a community tank; the tank should be well covered. Paradise fish tankmates must be chosen with care. Suitable ones include giant danios, large tetras, most smaller catfishes, some of the less aggressive cichlids, such as firemouth cichlids. Slow-moving or long-finned fish such as fancy goldfish and freshwater angelfish are to be attacked by males. Male paradise fish may attempt to court female bettas and gouramis. Fish less than 3 cm are to be consumed. If kept with larger but non-aggressive fish, such as Geophagus cichlids, large Synodontis catfishes, or larger gouramis, they are submissive and do not act nearly as aggressively as when they are the dominant species in the aquarium.
However, they themselves can be bullied by similar sized or smaller fish if that fish has established territory in the tank which it is not willing to share or give up. If this is the case they will not attempt to fight and will take to hiding behind filters, plants, or in décor, will succumb to stress; as is typical of most bettas and gouramis, spawning involves a male building a bubble nest and attracting a female to it. If the female accepts the male's advances, the fish will'embrace' in open water, releasing both eggs and sperm into the water; the male spitting them up into the bubble nest. After spawning, the male may violently attack his mate or any other fish that might approach the new fertilized eggs or hatched fry, which are both a common source of food in the natural habitat. A breeder chooses to move the female to a separate tank to improve the chances of survival of both the female and the hatched fry. After the fry have begun to swim the male's protective behavior subsides, so the breeder removes the male for the protection of the fry, they are raised on infusoria or newly hatched brine shrimp.
An albino form of Macropodus opercularis is available. Many aquarists consider this form to be less aggressive than the wild type, but less hardy, having more trouble with low temperatures
The Macropodusinae are a subfamily of freshwater perciform fishes in the gourami family Osphronemidae. Like all members of the family, these are air breathing fishes that inhabit oxygen poor environments hostile to other fishes, they are native to Asia, from Pakistan and India to the Malay Archipelago and north-easterly towards Korea. Many members are common aquarium fish. Most of the 70+ betta species are paternal mouthbrooders; the following are some of the many species in this subfamily. Betta is followed by Parosphromenus. Genus Betta Akar betta, B. akarensis Regan, 1910. Betta albimarginata Kottelat & Ng, 1994. Giant betta, B. anabatoides Bleeker, 1851. Betta antoni Tan & Ng, 2006. Betta balunga Herre, 1940. Slim betta, B. bellica Sauvage, 1884. Betta breviobesus Tan & Kottelat, 1998. Betta brownorum Witte & Schmidt, 1992. Betta burdigala Kottelat & Ng, 1994. Betta channoides Kottelat & Ng, 1994. Betta chini Ng, 1993. Betta chloropharynx Kottelat & Ng, 1994. Betta coccina Vierke, 1979. Betta compuncta Tan & Ng, 2006.
Betta dimidiata Roberts, 1989. Betta edithae Vierke, 1984. Betta enisae Kottelat, 1995. Betta falx Tan & Kottelat, 1998. Betta foerschi Vierke, 1979. Dusky betta, B. fusca Regan, 1910. Betta hipposideros Ng & Kottelat, 1994. Betta ibanorum Tan & Ng, 2004. Betta ideii Tan & Ng, 2006. Crescent betta, B. imbellis Ladiges, 1975. Betta krataios Tan & Ng, 2006. Betta livida Ng & Kottelat, 1992. Spotfin betta, B. macrostoma Regan, 1910. Betta mandor Tan & Ng, 2006. Betta miniopinna Tan & Tan, 1994. Betta patoti Weber & de Beaufort, 1922. Betta persephone Schaller, 1986. Elephant betta, B. pi Tan, 1998. Spotted betta, Betta picta. Betta pinguis Tan & Kottelat, 1998. Big head betta, Betta prima Kottelat, 1994. Forest betta, Betta pugnax. Betta pulchra Tan & Tan, 1996. Betta renata Tan, 1998. Toba betta, Betta rubra Perugia, 1893. Betta rutilans Witte & Kottelat, 1991. Betta schalleri Kottelat & Ng, 1994. Krabi betta, Betta simplex Kottelat, 1994. Emerald green betta, Betta smaragdina Ladiges, 1972. Betta spilotogena Ng & Kottelat, 1994.
Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens Regan, 1910. Betta strohi Schaller & Kottelat, 1989. Borneo betta, Betta taeniata Regan, 1910. Betta tomi Ng & Kottelat, 1994. Betta tussyae Schaller, 1985. Betta uberis Tan & Ng, 2006. Howong betta, Betta unimaculata. Betta waseri Krummenacher, 1986. Genus Macropodus Macropodus erythropterus Freyhof & Herder, 2002. Macropodus hongkongensis Freyhof & Herder, 2002. Roundtail paradisefish, Macropodus ocellatus. Paradise fish, Macropodus opercularis. Macropodus spechti Schreitmüller, 1936. Genus Malpulutta Ornate paradisefish, Malpulutta kretseri Deraniyagala, 1937. Genus Parosphromenus Parosphromenus allani Brown, 1987. Parosphromenus anjunganensis Kottelat, 1991. Parosphromenus bintan Kottelat & Ng, 1998. Licorice gourami, Parosphromenus deissneri. Spiketail gourami, Parosphromenus filamentosus. Parosphromenus linkei Kottelat, 1991. Parosphromenus nagyi Schaller, 1985. Parosphromenus ornaticauda Kottelat, 1991. Parosphromenus paludicola Tweedie, 1952. Parosphromenus parvulus Vierke, 1979.
Genus Pseudosphromenus Spiketail paradisefish, Pseudosphromenus cupanus. Pseudosphromenus dayi. Genus Trichopsis Pygmy gourami, Trichopsis pumila. Threestripe gourami, Trichopsis schalleri. Croaking gourami, Trichopsis vittata
Round-tailed paradise fish
The round-tailed paradise fish is a species of gourami native to eastern Asia, where it is found in China and Korea. It is known to occur in the Amur Basin of Russia, but, believed to be due to introductions, it inhabits many kinds of freshwater habitats within its range. This species is reported to be well adapted to cold weather during winter in its northern range to the point of remaining active when their body of water is covered with ice; this species grows to a standard length of 6.2 cm, can be found in the aquarium trade
Trichopsis is a genus of gouramies native to Southeast Asia. There are three recognized species in this genus: Trichopsis pumila Trichopsis schalleri Ladiges, 1962 Trichopsis vittata Gouramis of the genus Trichopsis are popular in the aquarium trade
The peaceful betta or crescent betta, Betta imbellis, is native to Southeast Asia, where it occurs in Southern Thailand and Indonesia, has been introduced to Singapore. It is an inhabitant of stagnant waters in swamps, rice paddies and pools; this species grows to a length of 6 cm. It is found in the aquarium trade. Betta imbellis care sheet at FishGeeks