Kava or kava kava or Piper methysticum is a crop of the Pacific Islands. The name kava is from Tongan and Marquesan, meaning "bitter". Kava is consumed throughout the Pacific Ocean cultures of Polynesia, including Hawaii and Vanuatu, Melanesia and some parts of Micronesia for its sedating effects; the root of the plant is used to produce a drink with sedative and euphoriant properties. Its active ingredients are called kavalactones. A Cochrane systematic review concluded it was to be more effective than placebo at treating short-term anxiety. Moderate consumption of kava has been deemed as presenting an "acceptably low level of health risk" by the World Health Organization. However, consumption of kava extracts produced with organic solvents or excessive amounts of poor quality kava products may be linked to an increased risk of adverse health outcomes. Kava is believed to have been domesticated in either Vanuatu by Papuans, it is believed to be a domesticated variety of Piper subbullatum, native to New Guinea and the Philippines.
It was spread by the Austronesian Lapita culture after contact eastward into the rest of Polynesia. It is not found in other Austronesian groups. Kava reached Hawaii. Consumption of kava is believed to be the reason why betel chewing, ubiquitous elsewhere, was lost for Austronesians in Oceania. According to Lynch, the reconstructed Proto-Polynesian term for the plant, *kava, was derived from the Proto-Oceanic term *kawaRi in the sense of a "bitter root" or "potent root ", it referred to Zingiber zerumbet, used to make a similar mildly psychoactive bitter drink in Austronesian rituals. Cognates for *kava include Pohnpeian sa-kau. In some languages, most notably Māori kawa, the cognates have come to mean "bitter", "sour", or "acrid" to the taste. In the Cook Islands, the reduplicated forms of kawakawa or kavakava are applied to the unrelated members of the genus Pittosporum, and in other languages like in Futunan, compound terms like kavakava atua refer to other species belonging to the genus Piper.
The reduplication of the base form is indicative of falsehood or likeness, in the sense of "false kava". In Aotearoa, it was applied to the kawakawa, endemic to Aotearoa and nearby Norfolk Island, Lord Howe Island, the Rangitāhua Islands, it was exploited by the Māori based on previous knowledge of the kava, as the latter could not survive in the colder climates of Aotearoa. The Māori name for the plant, reduplicated, it is a sacred tree among the Māori people. It is seen as a symbol of death, corresponding to the rangiora, the symbol of life. However, kawakawa has no psychoactive properties, its connection to kava is limited purely on similarity in appearance. Kava was grown only in the Pacific islands of Hawaii, Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, the Samoas and Tonga. An inventory of P. methysticum distribution showed it was cultivated on numerous islands of Micronesia, Melanesia and Hawaii, whereas specimens of P. wichmannii were all from Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu. The kava shrub thrives in well-drained soils where plenty of air reaches the roots.
It grows where rainfall is plentiful. Ideal growing conditions are 70–95 °F and 70–100% relative humidity. Too much sunlight is harmful in early growth, so kava is an understory crop. Kava cannot reproduce sexually. Female flowers are rare and do not produce fruit when hand-pollinated, its cultivation is by propagation from stem cuttings. Traditionally, plants are harvested around four years of age, as older plants have higher concentrations of kavalactones. After reaching about 2 m height, plants grow a wider stalk and additional stalks, but not much taller; the roots can reach a depth of 60 cm. Kava consists of sterile cultivars cloned from Piper wichmanii. Today it comprises hundreds of different cultivars grown across the Pacific; each cultivar has not only different requirements for successful cultivation, but displays unique characteristics both in terms of its appearance, in terms of its psychoactive properties. Scholars make a distinction between the so-called "noble" and non-noble kava; the latter category comprises medicinal kavas and wild kava.
Traditionally, only noble kavas have been used for regular consumption due to their more favourable composition of kavalactones and other compounds that produce more pleasant effects and have lower potential for causing negative side-effects, such as nausea or "kava hangover". The perceived benefits of noble cultivars explain why only these cultivars were spread around the Pacific by Polynesian and Melanesian migrants, with presence of non-noble cultivars limited to the islands of Vanuatu from which they originated. More it has been suggested that the widespread use of tudei cultivars in the manufacturing of several kava products might have been the key factor contributing to the rare reports of adverse reactions to kava observed among the consumers of kava-based products in Europe. Tudei v
The globe artichoke known as French artichoke and green artichoke in the USA, is a variety of a species of thistle cultivated as a food. The edible portion of the plant consists of the flower buds; the budding artichoke flower-head is a cluster of many budding small flowers, together with many bracts, on an edible base. Once the buds bloom, the structure changes to a coarse edible form. Another variety of the same species is the cardoon, a perennial plant native to the Mediterranean region. Both wild forms and cultivated varieties exist; this vegetable grows to 1.4–2 m tall, with arching lobed, glaucous-green leaves 50–82 cm long. The flowers develop in a large head from an edible bud about 8–15 cm diameter with numerous triangular scales; the edible portions of the buds consist of the fleshy lower portions of the involucral bracts and the base, known as the "heart". These are inedible in larger flowers. Artichoke contains luteolin; the total antioxidant capacity of artichoke flower heads is one of the highest reported for vegetables.
Cynarine is a chemical constituent in Cynara. The majority of the cynarine found in artichoke is located in the pulp of the leaves, though dried leaves and stems of artichoke contain it; the artichoke is mentioned as a garden plant in the 8th century BC by Hesiod. The occurring variant of the artichoke, the cardoon, native to the Mediterranean area has records of use as a food among the ancient Greeks and Romans. Pliny the Elder mentioned growing of ` carduus' in Cordoba. In North Africa, where it is still found in the wild state, the seeds of artichokes cultivated, were found during the excavation of Roman-period Mons Claudianus in Egypt. Varieties of artichokes were cultivated in Sicily beginning in the classical period of the ancient Greeks. In that period, the Greeks ate the leaves and flower heads, which cultivation had improved from the wild form; the Romans called. Further improvement in the cultivated form appears to have taken place in the medieval period in Muslim Spain and the Maghreb, although the evidence is inferential only.
Names for the artichoke in English and many other European languages today come from medieval Andalusi Arabic الخرشوف al-ḫaršūf, still used in Maghrebi Arabic Le Roy Ladurie, in his book Les Paysans de Languedoc, has documented the spread of artichoke cultivation in Italy and southern France in the late 15th and early 16th centuries, when the artichoke appeared as a new arrival with a new name, which may be taken to indicate an arrival of an improved cultivated variety: The blossom of the thistle, improved by the Arabs, passed from Naples to Florence in 1466, carried by Filippo Strozzi. Towards 1480 it is noticed as a curiosity, but soon veers towards the northwest... Artichoke beds are mentioned in Avignon by the notaries from 1532 onward; the local name remains carchofas, from the Italian carciofo... They are small, the size of a hen's egg... and are still considered a luxury, a vaguely aphrodisiac tidbit that one preserved in sugar syrup. The Dutch introduced artichokes to England, where they grew in Henry VIII's garden at Newhall in 1530.
They were taken to the United States in the 19th century—to Louisiana by French immigrants and to California by Spanish immigrants. Today, cultivation of the globe artichoke is concentrated in the countries bordering the Mediterranean basin; the main European producers are Italy and France and the main American producers are Argentina and the United States. In the United States, California provides nearly 100% of the U. S. crop, about 80% of, grown in Monterey County. Most artichokes have been grown in South Africa in a small town called Parys located along the Vaal River. Artichokes can be produced from seeds or from vegetative means such as division, root cuttings, or micropropagation. Although technically perennials that produce the edible flower during only the second and subsequent years, certain varieties of artichokes can be grown from seed as annuals, producing a limited harvest at the end of the first growing season in regions where the plants are not winter-hardy; this means home gardeners in northern regions can attempt to produce a crop without the need to overwinter plants with special treatment or protection.
The seed cultivar'Imperial Star' has been bred to produce in the first year without such measures. An newer cultivar,'Northern Star', is said to be able to overwinter in more northerly climates, survives subzero temperatures. Commercial culture is limited to warm areas in USDA hardiness zone 7 and above, it requires good soil, regular watering and feeding, frost protection in winter. Rooted suckers can be planted each year, so mature specimens can be disposed of after a few years, as each individual plant lives only a few years; the peak season for artichoke harvesting is the spring, but t
Culture of Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna, an overseas territory of France in Oceania has a rich Polynesian culture, similar to the cultures of its neighbouring nations Samoa and Tonga. The Wallisian and Futunan cultures share similar components in language, dance and modes of celebration. Fishing and agriculture are the traditional practices and most people live in traditional fate houses in an oval shape made of thatch. Kava, as with many Polynesian islands, is a popular beverage brewed in the two islands, is a traditional offering in rituals. Detailed tapa cloth art is a specialty of Wallis and Futuna; the native languages spoken daily by the islanders are Wallisian and Futunan, two related languages which trace their roots to Samoic origin. Despite this, the official language, the de jure language is French. Oral traditions include the Chant of Lausikula. Most of the people are Roman Catholic; the Patron Saint of the Islands, Pierre Chanel was the first missionary who came to the island in 1837. Tapas is a popular art form, made from the "base" of the bark of the mulberry and breadfruit trees.
The pounded bark is painted with attractive designs. It provides employment to about 300 people in every village, from which many families have been economically benefited in the two islands; this art form is in the Noumea and Tahiti. Another art form is making of necklaces with straw and shells. Efforts to further promote this vocation to export goods beyond the islands to Europe and France has faced problems of high transportation costs; the music of Wallis and Futuna is Polynesian. Idiophones and aerophones are used exclusively. Numerous festivals are celebrated in Futuna throughout the year; the Wallis and Futuna Festival is put on in Noumea annually. Flae fones are community meeting structures. Known for their sword dance, the people of Wallis and Futuna are stated to be "excellent dancers". There are at least 16 types of dances, their differences based upon location, number of dancers, accompanying instruments, other modifiers. Most dances are accompanied by singing and some type of percussion instruments as dancing without drumming is considered unusual.
The kailao, has no song and only includes percussion. Wallis and Futuna dancers perform across the Oceania region at festivals. Kava is the indigenous Polynesian beverage, customarily served in all religious rituals. Kava is brewed in a wooden vessel known as a tana, a multilegged bowl, an art form carved in wood, much in demand. Australian beer is popular. Diet includes chicken, figs, pandanus and wild cherry. There is not much tourism in the two islands; the natural heritage of the territory is preserved. Some of the cultural heritages that attract tourists are the grave of Saint Pierre Chanel, canonized in 1954 and other natural attractions of lakes and beaches, sports activities such as golfing and flying. Wallis and Futuna is an overseas collectivity of the French Republic; the collectivity is made up of three traditional kingdoms: ʻUvea, on the island of Wallis, Sigave, on the western part of the island of Futuna, Alo, on the island of Alofi and on the eastern part of the island of Futuna.
The current King of Uvea is Kapiliele Faupala and the current King of Sigave is Visesio Moeliku. They have reigned since 2004, respectively; the king of Alo is Petelo Sea, crowned in 2014. The three Kings are part of the government of the overseas collectivity
Fiber or fibre is a natural or synthetic substance, longer than it is wide. Fibers are used in the manufacture of other materials; the strongest engineering materials incorporate fibers, for example carbon fiber and ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene. Synthetic fibers can be produced cheaply and in large amounts compared to natural fibers, but for clothing natural fibers can give some benefits, such as comfort, over their synthetic counterparts. Natural fibers develop or occur in the fiber shape, include those produced by plants and geological processes, they can be classified according to their origin: Vegetable fibers are based on arrangements of cellulose with lignin: examples include cotton, jute, ramie, sisal and banana. Plant fibers are employed in the manufacture of paper and textile, dietary fiber is an important component of human nutrition. Wood fiber, distinguished from vegetable fiber, is from tree sources. Forms include groundwood, thermomechanical pulp, bleached or unbleached kraft or sulfite pulps.
Kraft and sulfite refer to the type of pulping process used to remove the lignin bonding the original wood structure, thus freeing the fibers for use in paper and engineered wood products such as fiberboard. Animal fibers consist of particular proteins. Instances are silkworm silk, spider silk, catgut, sea silk and hair such as cashmere wool and angora, fur such as sheepskin, mink, beaver, etc. Mineral fibers include the asbestos group. Asbestos is the only occurring long mineral fiber. Six minerals have been classified as "asbestos" including chrysotile of the serpentine class and those belonging to the amphibole class: amosite, tremolite and actinolite. Short, fiber-like minerals include palygorskite. Biological fibers known as fibrous proteins or protein filaments consist of biologically relevant and biologically important proteins, mutations or other genetic defects can lead to severe diseases. Instances are collagen family of proteins, muscle proteins like actin, cell proteins like microtubules and many others, spider silk and hair etc.
Human-made or chemical fibers are fibers whose chemical composition and properties are modified during the manufacturing process. Man-made fibers consist of synthetic fibers. Semi-synthetic fibers are made from raw materials with long-chain polymer structure and are only modified and degraded by chemical processes, in contrast to synthetic fibers such as nylon or dacron, which the chemist synthesizes from low-molecular weight compounds by polymerization reactions; the earliest semi-synthetic fiber is rayon. Most semi-synthetic fibers are cellulose regenerated fibers. Cellulose fibers are a subset of man-made fibers, regenerated from natural cellulose; the cellulose comes from various sources: rayon from tree wood fiber, Modal from beech trees, bamboo fiber from bamboo, seacell from seaweed, etc. In the production of these fibers, the cellulose is reduced to a pure form as a viscous mass and formed into fibers by extrusion through spinnerets. Therefore, the manufacturing process leaves few characteristics distinctive of the natural source material in the finished products.
Some examples of this fiber type are: rayon bamboo fiber Lyocell, a brand of rayon Modal, using beech trees as input diacetate fiber triacetate fiber. Cellulose diacetate and -triacetate were classified under the term rayon, but are now considered distinct materials. Synthetic come from synthetic materials such as petrochemicals, unlike those man-made fibers derived from such natural substances as cellulose or protein. Fiber classification in reinforced plastics falls into two classes: short fibers known as discontinuous fibers, with a general aspect ratio between 20 and 60, long fibers known as continuous fibers, the general aspect ratio is between 200 and 500. Metallic fibers can be drawn from ductile metals such as copper, gold or silver and extruded or deposited from more brittle ones, such as nickel, aluminum or iron. See Stainless steel fibers. Carbon fibers are based on oxidized and via pyrolysis carbonized polymers like PAN, but the end product is pure carbon. Silicon carbide fibers, where the basic polymers are not hydrocarbons but polymers, where about 50% of the carbon atoms are replaced by silicon atoms, so-called poly-carbo-silanes.
The pyrolysis yields an amorphous silicon carbide, including other elements like oxygen, titanium, or aluminium, but with mechanical properties similar to those of carbon fibers. Fiberglass, made from specific glass, optical fiber, made from purified natural quartz, are man-made fibers that come from natural raw materials, silica fiber, made from sodium silicate and basalt fiber made from melted basalt. Mineral fibers can be strong because they are formed with a low number of surface defects, asbestos is a common one. Polymer fibers are a subset of man-made fibers, which are based on synthetic chemicals rather than arising from natural materials by a purely physical process; these fibers are made from: polyamide nylon PET or PBT polyester phenol-formaldehyde polyvinyl chloride fiber vinyon polyolefins olefin fiber acrylic polyesters, pure polyester PAN fibers are used to make carbon fiber by roasting them in a low oxygen enviro
Colocasia esculenta is a tropical plant grown for its edible corms, the root vegetables most known as taro. It is the most cultivated species of several plants in the Araceae family which are used as vegetables for their corms and petioles. Taro corms are a food staple in African and South Asian cultures, taro is believed to have been one of the earliest cultivated plants; this plant and its root is called taro, but it has different names in different countries like for instance eddoe or malanga. The plant is called tales in Java, oah in Hokkien,cocoyam in Ghana, taro in Tahiti, ndalo in Fiji, talo in Samoa, gabi in the Philippines, colcas in Arabic, kolokasi or kolokas in Cyprus, kalo in Hawaii and amateke in Rwanda. Taro is referred to as "elephant ears" when grown as an ornamental plant. Linnaeus described two species, Colocasia esculenta and Colocasia antiquorum, but many botanists consider them both to be members of a single variable species, the correct name for, Colocasia esculenta; the specific epithet, means "edible" in Latin.
Taro is related to Xanthosoma and Caladium, plants grown ornamentally, like them it is sometimes loosely called elephant ear. Similar taro varieties include giant taro, swamp taro, arrowleaf elephant's ear. Colocasia esculenta is a perennial, tropical plant grown as a root vegetable for its edible, starchy corm; the plant has rhizomes of different sizes. Leaves sprout from the rhizome, they are light green beneath. They are triangular-ovate, sub-rounded and mucronate at the apex, with the tip of the basal lobes rounded or sub-rounded; the petiole is 0.8–1.2 m high. The path can be up to 25 cm long; the spadix is about three fifths as long as the spathe, with flowering parts up to 8 mm in diameter. The female portion is at the fertile ovaries intermixed with sterile white ones. Neuters grow above the females, are rhomboid or irregular orium lobed, with six or eight cells; the appendage is shorter than the male portion. Colocasia esculenta is thought to be native to Southern India and Southeast Asia, but is naturalised.
Colocasia is thought to have originated in the Indomalaya ecozone in East India and Bangladesh. It spread by cultivation eastward into East Asia and the Pacific Islands. Taro was first native to the lowland wetlands of Malaysia, where it is called taloes. In Australia, Colocasia esculenta var. aquatilis is native to the Kimberley region of Western Australia. In Turkey, Colocasia esculenta is locally known as gölevez and grown on the Mediterranean coast, such as the Alanya district of Antalya Province and the Anamur district of Mersin Province. In the southeastern United States, this plant is recognized as an invasive species. Many populations can be found growing near drain ditches and bayous in Houston, Texas. Taro is one of the most ancient cultivated crops. Taro is found in tropical and subtropical regions of South Asia, East Asia, Southeast Asia, Papua New Guinea, northern Australia and is polymorphic, making taxonomy and distinction between wild and cultivated types difficult, it is believed that they were domesticated independently multiple times, with authors giving possible locations as New Guinea, Mainland Southeast Asia, northeastern India, based on the assumed native range of the wild plants.
However, more recent studies have pointed out that wild taro may have a much larger native distribution than believed, wild breeding types may likely be indigenous to other parts of Island Southeast Asia. Archaeological traces of taro exploitation have been recovered from numerous sites, though whether these were cultivated or wild types can not be ascertained, they include the Niah Caves of Borneo, dated to <40,000 BP. It should be noted that in the case of Kuk Swamp, there is evidence of formalized agriculture emerging by about c. 10,000 BP, with evidence of cultivated plots, though which plant was cultivated remains unknown. Taro were carried into the Pacific Islands by Austronesian peoples from around 1300 BC, where they became a staple crop of Polynesians, along with other types of "taros", like Alocasia macrorrhizos, Amorphophallus paeoniifolius, Cyrtosperma merkusii, they are the most important and the most preferred among the four, because they were less to contain the irritating raphides present in the other plants.
Taro is identified as one of the staples of Micronesia, from archaeological evidence dating back to the pre-colonial Latte Period, indicating that it was carried by Micronesians when they colonized the islands. Taro pollen and starch residue have been identified in Lapita sites, dated to around c. 3,050 - 2,500 cal BP. At around 3.3 million metric tons per year, Nigeria is the largest producer of taro in the world. Taro can be grown in paddy fields where water is abundant or in upland situations where water is supplied by rainfall or supplemental irrigation. Taro is one of the few crops; this is d
Cuisine of Vanuatu
The cuisine of Vanuatu incorporates fish, root vegetables such as taro and yams and vegetables. Most island families grow food in their gardens, food shortages are rare. Papayas, mangoes and sweet potatoes are abundant through much of the year. Coconut milk and cream are used to flavor many dishes. Most food is cooked using hot stones or through steaming. Since Vanuatu is one of the few South Pacific regions influenced by the outside world, Vanuatu's food has a multicultural nature. Vanuatu foods have several core ingredients used such as yam, banana, sugarcane, tropical nuts, greens and seafood. Native people in Vanuatu grow most of their food except luxury foods such as rice or tinned fish. Kava, a traditional non-alcoholic drink, is popular in Vanuatu. A once-prestigious beverage brewed from Piper methysticum, it is drunk at dusk, before dinner by men but by women. While it has mild narcotic and relaxing effects on the individual, it is appreciated for the relaxed social atmosphere it is traditionally associated with, both in urban and rural areas, in the context of the nakamal.
The national dish of Vanuatu is lap lap. Lap lap is a baked pudding, it is made up of grated yam, manioc, or taro, mixed with coconut milk and salt baked under hot stones. Another popular dish is simboro. Simboro resembles the Greek dish dolmades, it is a steamed roll of grated banana, yam, taro, or flour, wrapped in banana leaves and covered in coconut milk. Flying foxes are captured, kept in cages, eaten as a stew Coconut crab is one of the unique foods of Vanuatu. However, many restaurants in Vanuatu have stopped serving this dish as the crab is at risk of becoming an extinct species. "Voila Vanuatu"
Nadi is the third-largest conurbation in Fiji. It is located on the western side of the main island of Viti Levu, had a population of 42,284 at the most recent census, in 2007. A 2012 estimate showed that the population had grown to over 50,000. Nadi is multiracial with many of its inhabitants Indian or Fijian, along with a large transient population of foreign tourists. Along with sugar cane production, tourism is a mainstay of the local economy; the Nadi region has a higher concentration of motels than any other part of Fiji. With its large Indo-Fijian population, Nadi is a centre for Islam in Fiji, it has the largest Hindu temple in the Southern hemisphere, is a site for pilgrims called Sri Siva Subramaniya temple. Muslims worship at the Ahmadiyyahs worship at the Ahmadiya Mosque. Nadi International Airport located 9 kilometres from the town, is the largest airport in Fiji. Thus, Nadi is the principal port of entry for air travellers to Fiji though it is on the opposite side of the island of Viti Levu from the nation's capital and largest city, Suva.
Nadi Township was established in 1947. Around that time the colonial government of Fiji established offices on the higher grounds of Nadi. A few businesses were established around the government offices to service them, other business organisations from other parts of Fiji followed suit; some concerned citizens of Nadi attempted to move the town centre to Martintar because the existing centre was prone to flooding, but this did not eventuate because the move Nadi Township had developed strong roots in its existing location. Elective local government was introduced in 1967. Dr A. H. Sahu Khan was the first elected Chairman of the Nadi Township Board. With the introduction of the Local Government Act in 1972, the status of the Board was changed to a Town Council. H. M. Lodhia became the first Mayor of Nadi in 1972 and remained in office until December 1973; the most recent Mayor of Nadi was Councillor S. Sami. At present, elected municipal government in Nadi is suspended, government-appointed Administrators are carrying out the functions fulfilled by the City Council.
The Civil Aviation Authority of Fiji head office is at Nadi Airport in Nadi. Fiji Airways Air Pacific has its head office at the Air Pacific Maintenance & Administration Centre at Nadi International Airport in Nadi. Fiji Airlines Limited, operating as Pacific Sun, is headquartered in the Pacific Sun building in the Civil Aviation Authority of Fiji compound at Nadi International Airport. Nadi’s economy is driven by tourism and real estate sectors. Within these formal industries, the informal sector plays a small role consisting of tourism and agricultural businesses, including handicrafts. Nadi Town is governed by the Nadi Town Council; the council is headed by a Special Administrator, appointed by the central government, managed by a Chief Executive Officer. Both posts answer to the Ministry of Local Government, Urban Development and Environment; the performance of the Special Administrator is evaluated and the position has clear objectives such as improving rates collection and shifting from cash to accrual accounting in council operations.
Overlap between the CEO and the Special Administrator posts is leading to confusion, resulting in high staff turnover – there have been three CEOs appointed since 2008. Housing development in Nadi takes the form of either medium-density complexes or lower-density social housing. Of this latter, the Housing Authority is seeking to increase the supply of affordable housing; the number of housing estates in Nadi has grown especially on the town periphery, such that housing estates now comprise 20 per cent of the total housing stock in Nadi. Nadi has a tropical monsoon climate according to the Köppen climate classification, with hot temperatures year round; the city features a short dry season during the months of July and August, a lengthy wet season covering the remaining months of the year. Nadi Town Fiji Restaurant Indian Asian Denarau Nadi Fiji Restaurant Seafood Fiji Restaurant in Denarau, Nadi