Nazi Germany is the common English name for Germany between 1933 and 1945, when Adolf Hitler and his Nazi Party controlled the country through a dictatorship. Under Hitler's rule, Germany was transformed into a totalitarian state that controlled nearly all aspects of life via the Gleichschaltung legal process; the official name of the state was Deutsches Reich until 1943 and Großdeutsches Reich from 1943 to 1945. Nazi Germany is known as the Third Reich, meaning "Third Realm" or "Third Empire", the first two being the Holy Roman Empire and the German Empire; the Nazi regime ended. Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany by the President of the Weimar Republic, Paul von Hindenburg, on 30 January 1933; the NSDAP began to eliminate all political opposition and consolidate its power. Hindenburg died on 2 August 1934 and Hitler became dictator of Germany by merging the offices and powers of the Chancellery and Presidency. A national referendum held 19 August 1934 confirmed Hitler as sole Führer of Germany.
All power was centralised in Hitler's person and his word became the highest law. The government was not a coordinated, co-operating body, but a collection of factions struggling for power and Hitler's favour. In the midst of the Great Depression, the Nazis restored economic stability and ended mass unemployment using heavy military spending and a mixed economy. Extensive public works were undertaken, including the construction of Autobahnen; the return to economic stability boosted the regime's popularity. Racism antisemitism, was a central feature of the regime; the Germanic peoples were considered by the Nazis to be the master race, the purest branch of the Aryan race. Discrimination and persecution against Jews and Romani people began in earnest after the seizure of power; the first concentration camps were established in March 1933. Jews and others deemed undesirable were imprisoned, liberals and communists were killed, imprisoned, or exiled. Christian churches and citizens that opposed Hitler's rule were oppressed, many leaders imprisoned.
Education focused on racial biology, population policy, fitness for military service. Career and educational opportunities for women were curtailed. Recreation and tourism were organised via the Strength Through Joy program, the 1936 Summer Olympics showcased Germany on the international stage. Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels made effective use of film, mass rallies, Hitler's hypnotic oratory to influence public opinion; the government controlled artistic expression, promoting specific art forms and banning or discouraging others. The Nazi regime dominated neighbours through military threats in the years leading up to war. Nazi Germany made aggressive territorial demands, threatening war if these were not met, it seized Austria and Czechoslovakia in 1938 and 1939. Germany signed a non-aggression pact with the USSR, invaded Poland on 1 September 1939, launching World War II in Europe. By early 1941, Germany controlled much of Europe. Reichskommissariats took control of conquered areas and a German administration was established in the remainder of Poland.
Germany exploited labour of both its occupied territories and its allies. In the Holocaust, millions of Jews and other peoples deemed undesirable by the state were imprisoned, murdered in Nazi concentration camps and extermination camps, or shot. While the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941 was successful, the Soviet resurgence and entry of the US into the war meant the Wehrmacht lost the initiative on the Eastern Front in 1943 and by late 1944 had been pushed back to the pre-1939 border. Large-scale aerial bombing of Germany escalated in 1944 and the Axis powers were driven back in Eastern and Southern Europe. After the Allied invasion of France, Germany was conquered by the Soviet Union from the east and the other Allies from the west, capitulated in May 1945. Hitler's refusal to admit defeat led to massive destruction of German infrastructure and additional war-related deaths in the closing months of the war; the victorious Allies initiated a policy of denazification and put many of the surviving Nazi leadership on trial for war crimes at the Nuremberg trials.
The official name of the state was Deutsches Reich from 1933 to 1943 and Großdeutsches Reich from 1943 to 1945, while common English terms are "Nazi Germany" and "Third Reich". The latter, adopted by Nazi propaganda as Drittes Reich, was first used in Das Dritte Reich, a 1923 book by Arthur Moeller van den Bruck; the book counted the Holy Roman Empire as the German Empire as the second. Germany was known as the Weimar Republic during the years 1919 to 1933, it was a republic with a semi-presidential system. The Weimar Republic faced numerous problems, including hyperinflation, political extremism, contentious relationships with the Allied victors of World War I, a series of failed attempts at coalition government by divided political parties. Severe setbacks to the German economy began after World War I ended because of reparations payments required under the 1919 Treaty of Versailles; the government printed money to make the payments and to repay the country's war debt, but the resulting hyperinflation led to inflated prices for consumer goods, economic chaos, food riots.
When the government defaulted on their reparations payments in January 1923, French troops occupied German industrial areas along the Ruhr and widespread civil unrest followed. The National Socialist German Workers' Party (National
Tar (string instrument)
Tar is an Iranian long-necked, waisted instrument, shared by many cultures and countries including Iran, Armenia and others near the Caucasus region. The word tār means "string" in Persian, is related to the names of the sitar, setar and Guitar, it was invented in the 18th century and has since become one of the most important musical instruments in Iran and the Caucasus in Persian classical music, the favoured instrument for radifs. In 2012, the craftsmanship and performance art of the Azerbaijani tar was added to the UNESCO's List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity; the tar appeared in its present form in the middle of the eighteenth century in Persia. The body is a double-bowl shape carved from mulberry wood, with a thin membrane of stretched lamb-skin covering the top; the fingerboard has twenty-five to twenty-eight adjustable gut frets, there are three double courses of strings. Its range is about two and one-half octaves, it is played with a small brass plectrum; the long and narrow neck has a flat fingerboard running level to the membrane and ends in an elaborate pegbox with six wooden tuning pegs of different dimensions, adding to the decorative effect.
It has three courses of double "singing" strings, that are tuned in fourths plus one "flying" bass string that runs outside the fingerboard and passes over an extension of the nut. Every String are tuned independently; the Persian tar used to have five strings. The sixth string was added to the tar by Darvish Khan; this string is today's fifth string of the Iranian tar. The melodies performed on tar were considered useful for headache and melancholy, as well as for eliminating nervous and muscle spasms. Listening to this instrument was believed to induce a quiet and philosophical mood, compelling the listener to reflect upon life, its solemn melodies were thought to cause a person to fall asleep. The author of Qabusnameh recommends that when selecting musical tones, to take into account the temperament of the listener, he suggested that lower pitched tones were effective for persons of sanguine and phlegmatic temperaments, while higher pitched tones were helpful for those who were identified with a choleric temperament or melancholic temperament.
The tar features prominently in Jeff Wayne's Musical Version of The War of the Worlds, in the section "Horsell Common and the Heat Ray". George Fenton played it on the original album, Gaetan Schurrer can be seen playing one on the DVD of the 2006 production; the "Azerbaijani tar" or "11 string tar" is an instrument in a different shape from the Persian Tar and was developed from the Persian tar around 1870 by Sadigjan. It has a different build and has more strings; the Caucasus tar has further one extra bass-string on the side, on a raised nut, 2 double resonance strings via small metal nuts halfway the neck. All these strings are running next to the main strings over the bridge and are fixed to a string-holder and the edge of the body. Overall the Caucasus tar has 17 tones. A tar is depicted on the reverse of the Azerbaijani 1 qəpik coin minted since 2006 and on the obverse of the Azerbaijani 1 manat banknote issued since 2006. Music of Azerbaijan Music of Iran About Persian Tar Nay-Nava the Encyclopedia of Persian Music Instruments Dariush Talai Persian Tar Audio Samples Medieval music therapy Farabi School Abdollah Alijani Ardeshir
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
People's Artist of the USSR
People's Artist of the USSR sometimes translated as National Artist of the USSR, was an honorary title granted to artists of the Soviet Union. The term is confusingly used to translate two Russian language titles: Народный артист СССР, awarded in performing arts and Народный художник СССР, granted in some visual arts; each Soviet Republic, as well as the Autonomous Republics, had a similar award held by every receiver of the higher title of People's Artist of the USSR. As this title was granted by the government, honorees were afforded certain privileges and would receive commissions from the Minister of Culture of the Soviet Union. Accordingly and authors who expressed criticism of the Communist Party were granted such recognition, if not outright censored; the title was bestowed for exceptional achievements in the performing arts in the Soviet Union. Its recipients included many of the most-acclaimed composers, singers and theatre directors and actors of every Soviet republic. In all, there were 1010 recipients of the award.
The title was introduced in 1936, replacing the earlier title of "People's Artist of the Republic". The first recipients of the title were Konstantin Stanislavski, Vladimir Nemirovich-Danchenko, Ivan Moskvin, Antonina Nezhdanova, Boris Shchukin, Kulyash Baiseitova and some other actors; the last persons to be honoured with the title were Oleg Yankovsky. The title was bestowed on theatre actors, ballet dancers, opera singers only, it came to be bestowed upon film actors, violinist, pop singers and circus performers such as Natalya Durova and Oleg Popov. A person was named the People's Artist of the USSR after 40 years of age. Exceptions were made for dancers, e.g. Nadezhda Pavlova, a ballet artist, received the title at the age of 28, Malika Kalantarova, a famous Bukharian Jewish folk dancer from Tajikistan, received the title at the age of 34; the youngest female persons to receive this title were Kazakh opera singers Kulyash Baiseitova and Halima Nasyrova. The youngest male person was pop singer Muslim Magomayev.
Among the actors, the youngest recipient was Sergey Bondarchuk. The youngest actress to receive the title was Yuri Andropov's daughter-in-law, Lyudmila Chursina, at age 40. Sofia Rotaru, for example, was named Merited Artist of the Ukrainian SSR in 1973, People's Artist of the Ukrainian SSR in 1976, People's Artist of the Moldavian SSR in 1983, an attained cumulation of People's Artist titles, People's Artist of the Soviet Union in 1988, the first female pop-singer to be honored with this award and the only one with three People's Artists; as of 2018, the earliest living recipient is Ukrainian opera singer Bela Rudenko. The title of People's Painter of the Soviet Union was awarded for exceptional achievements in certain visual arts: painting, sculpture and photography; the lesser title of Meritorious Painter of the Soviet Union was awarded for achievement in these fields. People's Architect of the Soviet Union: Народный архитектор СССР People's Teacher of the Soviet Union: Народный учитель СССР People's Doctor of the Soviet Union: Народный врач СССР Category:People's Artists of the USSR - list of recipients Category:People's Artists of the USSR - list of recipients Hero of Socialist Labour - the highest civilian decoration in the Soviet Union List of People's Artists of Azerbaijan Meritorious Artist People's Artist People's Artist of Russia Russian Academy of Art
Uzeyir bey Abdul Huseyn oglu Hajibeyov was a Soviet composer conductor, playwright, teacher and social figure of Azerbaijani origin. He is recognized as the father of Azerbaijani composed classical opera. Uzeyir Hajibeyov composed the music of the national anthem of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic, he composed the anthem used by Azerbaijan during the Soviet period. He was the first composer of an opera in the Islamic world. Uzeyir Hajibeyov was born in Agjabadi in the Elisabethpol Governorate of the Russian Empire, now part of Azerbaijan, his father, Abdul Huseyn Hajibeyov, was the secretary to Khurshidbanu Natavan for many years, his mother, grew up in the Natavan household. Growing up, Hajibeyov was influenced by Natavan's work. Shusha dubbed as the cradle of Azerbaijani music and culture, had a reputation for its musical heritage; the town was referred to as "the Music Conservatory of the Caucasus" because of its many talented musicians and singers. And the fact that Hajibeyov grew up in Shusha explains how at 22, in 1908, with little formal musical education, he was capable of writing a full-length opera.
Hajibeyov received his early education in a religious school, where he perfected his Arabic and Persian. He studied at a two-year Russian-Azerbaijani school. Here, with the help of his favourite teacher Mirza Mehdi Hasanzadeh, he familiarized himself with the heritage of the famous classic writers of the East and the West; the richness of the musical performance tradition of Shusha influenced the musical education of Uzeyir Hajibeyov. He would reflect on his experiences: "The first musical education I got as a child in Shusha came from best singers and saz-players. At that time I sang tasnifs; the singers liked my voice. They would make me sing and teach me at the same time." Uzeyir Hajibeyov's first teacher was his uncle Agalar Aliverdibeyov, an excellent connoisseur of Azeri folk music. In 1897–1898, when Azerbaijani playwright Abdurrahim Hagverdiyev and singer Jabbar Garyagdyoglu staged the episode Majnun on Leyli's grave from Leyli and Majnun, 13-year-old Uzeyir sang in the choir. From 1899 to 1904 Uzeyir Hajibeyov studied at the Gori Pedagogical Seminary.
There, along with general education, he acquired music. In this school Hajibeyov learned to play the violoncello and the brass instrument. After his graduation from the Pedagogical Seminary, Uzeyir Hajibeyov was appointed a teacher to the village of Hadrut in Upper Karabakh. Having worked there for a year, Hajibeyov permanently settled in Baku, where he carried on his career in teaching mathematics, history and Russian languages, music, he wrote the Turkic-Russian and Russian-Turkic Dictionary of Political, Legal and Military Terms, Used in Press in 1907 and the textbook Arithmetic Problems in 1908, had them published by the Orujov Brothers Publishing House in Baku. Hajibeyov was no stranger to the tragic chaos of war; the political repercussions of these military conquests manifested in other forms of chaos. For example, between 1920 and 1940, the alphabet systems for writing Azeri were changed three times — from Arabic to Latin, from Latin to Cyrillic — a process which hindered and interrupted the educational and cultural process and may well have been one of the factors influencing Uzeyir Hajibeyov to present his ideas verbally on the musical stage.
Throughout all the tumultuous change in Azerbaijan that took place between 1900 and 1940, one characteristic reflects the character of Uzeyir Hajibeyov. He always searched for ways to merge and integrate the past with the present rather than to discard either form. Rather curiously files at the Gori Pedagogical Seminary have shown his persistence in holding on to his own roots under pressure. On December 3, 1900, when he was 15, it is noted that "the student, Uzeyir Hajibeyov, was rebuked because he was talking in his native language." Conversely, when Russian-influenced musicians tried to ban traditional Azerbaijani instruments like the tar and kamancha, Hajibeyov and his colleagues pushed to incorporate them into the Western orchestra, giving them an higher status and a chance to survive. The great composer Ü. Hacıbeyli had the opportunity to open music schools. In these schools, national cadres who could integrate into the world music culture were trained. History and music theory of Azerbaijani music were researched and education classes were written.
Uzeyir Hajibeyli in the field of music education combined and created in Azerbaijan Western and East traditions. In 1908, Hajibeyov wrote his first opera and Majnun, based on the tragic love story by the 15th century poet Fuzûlî; this would be the first of 7 operas and 3 musical comedies that Hajibeyov would compose throughout his life. In Leyli and Majnun, the uniqueness of the traditional modal music of mugham was incorporated into a Western genre with the use of instruments indigenous to both traditions. Hajibeyov's second opera Sheikh Sanan was written in 1909 in a form, opposite to the first; this time Hajibeyov employed a purely European style. Sheikh Sanan received raves as a musical composition, but the content was too progressive for the period. In this opera, Hajibeyov advocated that marriage should not
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
The Soviet Union the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were centralized; the country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Minsk, Alma-Ata, Novosibirsk, it spanned over 10,000 kilometres east to west across 11 time zones, over 7,200 kilometres north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, steppes and mountains; the Soviet Union had its roots in the 1917 October Revolution, when the Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, overthrew the Russian Provisional Government which had replaced Tsar Nicholas II during World War I. In 1922, the Soviet Union was formed by a treaty which legalized the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian and Byelorussian republics that had occurred from 1918. Following Lenin's death in 1924 and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s.
Stalin committed the state's ideology to Marxism–Leninism and constructed a command economy which led to a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization. During his rule, political paranoia fermented and the Great Purge removed Stalin's opponents within and outside of the party via arbitrary arrests and persecutions of many people, resulting in at least 600,000 deaths. In 1933, a major famine struck the country. Before the start of World War II in 1939, the Soviets signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, agreeing to non-aggression with Nazi Germany, after which the USSR invaded Poland on 17 September 1939. In June 1941, Germany broke the pact and invaded the Soviet Union, opening the largest and bloodiest theatre of war in history. Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at intense battles such as Stalingrad and Kursk; the territories overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Soviet Union.
The post-war division of Europe into capitalist and communist halves would lead to increased tensions with the United States-led Western Bloc, known as the Cold War. Stalin died in 1953 and was succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev, who in 1956 denounced Stalin and began the de-Stalinization; the Cuban Missile Crisis occurred during Khrushchev's rule, among the many factors that led to his downfall in 1964. In the early 1970s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, but tensions resumed with the Soviet–Afghan War in 1979. In 1985, the last Soviet premier, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost and perestroika, which caused political instability. In 1989, Soviet satellite states in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist governments; as part of an attempt to prevent the country's dissolution due to rising nationalist and separatist movements, a referendum was held in March 1991, boycotted by some republics, that resulted in a majority of participating citizens voting in favor of preserving the union as a renewed federation.
Gorbachev's power was diminished after Russian President Boris Yeltsin's high-profile role in facing down a coup d'état attempted by Communist Party hardliners. In late 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union met and formally dissolved the Soviet Union; the remaining 12 constituent republics emerged as independent post-Soviet states, with the Russian Federation—formerly the Russian SFSR—assuming the Soviet Union's rights and obligations and being recognized as the successor state. The Soviet Union was a powerhouse of many significant technological achievements and innovations of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite, the first humans in space and the first probe to land on another planet, Venus; the country had the largest standing military in the world. The Soviet Union was recognized as one of the five nuclear weapons states and possessed the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, it was a founding permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as well as a member of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Federation of Trade Unions and the leading member of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance and the Warsaw Pact.
The word "Soviet" is derived from a Russian word сове́т meaning council, advice, harmony and all deriving from the proto-Slavic verbal stem of vět-iti, related to Slavic věst, English "wise", the root in "ad-vis-or", or the Dutch weten. The word sovietnik means "councillor". A number of organizations in Russian history were called "council". For example, in the Russian Empire the State Council, which functioned from 1810 to 1917, was referred to as a Council of Ministers after the revolt of 1905. During the Georgian Affair, Vladimir Lenin envisioned an expression of Great Russian ethnic chauvinism by Joseph Stalin and his supporters, calling for these nation-states to join Russia as semi-independent parts of a greater union, which he named as the Union of Soviet Republics of Europe and Asia. Stalin resisted the proposal, but accepted it, although with Lenin's agreement changed the name of the newly proposed sta