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1. The National Archives (United Kingdom) – The National Archives is a non-ministerial government department. Its parent department is the Department for Culture, Media and Sport of the United Kingdom and it is the official archive of the UK government and for England and Wales, and guardian of some of the nations most iconic documents, dating back more than 1,000 years. There are separate national archives for Scotland and Northern Ireland, TNA was formerly four separate organisations, the Public Record Office, the Historical Manuscripts Commission, the Office of Public Sector Information and Her Majestys Stationery Office. It is institutional policy to include the article, with an initial capital letter, in its name. The National Archives is based in Kew in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames in south-west London, the building was opened in 1977 as an additional home for the public records, which were held in a building on Chancery Lane. The site was originally a World War I hospital, which was used by several government departments. It is near to Kew Gardens Underground station, until its closure in March 2008, the Family Records Centre in Islington was run jointly by The National Archives and the General Register Office. The National Archives has an office in Norwich, which is primarily for former OPSI staff. There is also a record storage facility in the worked-out parts of Winsford Rock Salt Mine, Winsford. For earlier history, see Public Record Office, the name remained The National Archives. This work helps inform todays decisions and ensure that they become tomorrows permanent record, the National Archives has long had a role of oversight and leadership for the entire archives sector and archives profession in the UK, including local government and non-governmental archives. Under the Public Records Act 1958 it is responsible for overseeing the appropriate custody of certain non-governmental public records in England, under the 2003 Historical Manuscripts Commission Warrant it has responsibility for investigating and reporting on non-governmental records and archives of all kinds throughout the United Kingdom. The National Archives now sees part of its role as being to enhance the archival health of the nation. The collections held by the National Archives can be searched using their online catalogue, entrance to The National Archives is free. Anybody aged 16 or over can access the documents at the Kew site. The reading room has terminals from which documents can be ordered up from secure storage areas by their reference number, Documents can also be ordered in advance. Once a document has been ordered, The National Archives aims to get it to the reader within 45 minutes, special arrangements are in place for readers wishing to retrieve large groups of files. A readers ticket is not needed to access records on microform or online, frequently accessed documents such as the Abdication Papers have been put on microfilm, as have records for two million First World War soldiers
2. Canon Inc. – It is headquartered in Ōta, Tokyo, Japan. Canon has a listing on the Tokyo Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the TOPIX index. It has a listing on the New York Stock Exchange. At the beginning of 2015, Canon was the tenth largest public company in Japan when measured by market capitalization, the company was originally named Seikikōgaku kenkyūsho. In 1934 it produced the Kwanon, a prototype for Japan’s first-ever 35 mm camera with a plane based shutter. In 1947 the company name was changed to Canon Camera Co. Inc. shortened to Canon Inc. in 1969, the name Canon comes from Buddhist bodhisattva Guan Yin, previously transliterated as Kuanyin, Kwannon, or Kwanon in English. The origins of Canon date back to the founding of Precision Optical Instruments Laboratory in Japan in 1937 by Takeshi Mitarai, Goro Yoshida, Saburo Uchida and Takeo Maeda. During its early years the company did not have any facilities to produce its own optical glass, between 1933 and 1936 ‘The Kwanon’, a copy of the Leica design, Japan’s first 35 mm focal plane-shutter camera, was developed in prototype form. In 1940 Canon developed Japans first indirect X-ray camera, Canon introduced a field zoom lens for television broadcasting in 1958 and in 1959 introduced the Reflex Zoom 8, the world’s first movie camera with a zoom lens, and the Canonflex. In 1961 Canon introduced the Rangefinder camera, Canon 7, in 1965 Canon introduced the Canon Pellix, a single lens reflex camera with a semi-transparent stationary mirror which enabled the taking of pictures through the mirror. In 1971 Canon introduced the F-1, a high-end SLR camera, in 1976 Canon launched the AE-1, the world’s first camera with an embedded micro-computer. In 1982 Wildlife as Canon Sees It print ads first appeared in National Geographic magazine, Canon introduced the world’s first Inkjet printer using bubble jet technology in 1985. Canon introduced Canon Electro-Optical System in 1987, named after the goddess of the dawn, EOS650 autofocus SLR camera is introduced. Also in 1987 the Canon Foundation was established, in 1988 Canon introduced Kyosei philosophy. The EOS1 Flagship Professional SLR line was launched in 1989, in the same year the EOS RT, the worlds first AF SLR with a fixed, semi-transparent pellicle mirror, was unveiled. In 1992 Canon launched the EOS5, the camera with eye-controlled AF. In 1995 Canon introduced the first commercially available SLR lens with image stabilization. EOS-1N RS, the worlds fastest AF SLR camera with a shooting speed of 10 frame/s at the time
3. Canon EOS-1D Mark II – The EOS 1D Mark II is a professional 8.2 megapixel digital single lens reflex camera camera body produced by Canon. The EOS 1D Mark II was the successor of the EOS 1D and was replaced by the Canon EOS-1D Mark III in 2007. 100% coverage 230,000 pixel,2.0 color TFT liquid-crystal monitor with approx, 100% coverage E-TTL II flash mode 8.5 frames per second continuous shooting Dimensions,156 ×158 ×80 mm Weight, Approx. It has approximately 8.5 million total pixels and it has an RGB primary Bayer filter. A non-removable anti-aliasing filter is located in front of the image sensor, the shutter is an electronically controlled focal-plane shutter. Its maximum speed is 1/8,000 of one second, soft-touch shutter release occurs via an electromagnetic signal. On August 22,2005, Canon announced the successor to the EOS 1D Mark II, the new Canon EOS-1D Mark II N features the same 8.2 megapixel CMOS sensor, DIGIC II image processor and 8.5 frame per second shooting speed of its predecessor. The primary changes are a new 2.5 wide viewing angle LCD monitor, an improved buffer, director Tim Burton on the stop-motion animation film Corpse Bride. James Nachtwey Phil Martin Canon EOS Canon EF lens mount Canon EOS-1D Mark II page at Canon USA Picture Style
4. Shutter speed – The amount of light that reaches the film or image sensor is proportional to the exposure time. 1/500th of a second will let half as much light in as 1/250th, the cameras shutter speed, the lenss aperture, and the scenes luminance together determine the amount of light that reaches the film or sensor. Exposure value is a quantity that accounts for the shutter speed and this will achieve a good exposure when all the details of the scene are legible on the photograph. Too much light let into the results in an overly pale image while too little light will result in an overly dark image. Multiple combinations of speed and f-number can give the same exposure value. According to exposure value formula, doubling the exposure time doubles the amount of light, for example, f/8 lets 4 times more light into the camera as f/16 does. In addition to its effect on exposure, the speed changes the way movement appears in photographs. Very short shutter speeds can be used to freeze fast-moving subjects, very long shutter speeds are used to intentionally blur a moving subject for effect. Short exposure times are called fast, and long exposure times slow. Adjustments to the aperture need to be compensated by changes of the speed to keep the same exposure. The agreed standards for shutter speeds are, With this scale, camera shutters often include one or two other settings for making very long exposures, B keeps the shutter open as long as the shutter release is held. T keeps the open until the shutter release is pressed again. The ability of the photographer to take images without noticeable blurring by camera movement is an important parameter in the choice of the slowest possible speed for a handheld camera. Through practice and special techniques such as bracing the camera, arms, or body to minimize movement, using a monopod or a tripod. If a shutter speed is too slow for hand holding, a support, usually a tripod. Image stabilization on digital cameras or lenses can often permit the use of shutter speeds 3–4 stops slower, Shutter priority refers to a shooting mode used in cameras. It allows the photographer to choose a shutter speed setting and allow the camera to decide the correct aperture and this is sometimes referred to as Shutter Speed Priority Auto Exposure, or TV mode, S mode on Nikons and most other brands. Shutter speed is one of methods used to control the amount of light recorded by the cameras digital sensor or film
5. F-number – The f-number of an optical system such as a camera lens is the ratio of the systems focal length to the diameter of the entrance pupil. It is a number that is a quantitative measure of lens speed. It is also known as the ratio, f-ratio, f-stop. The f-number is commonly indicated using a hooked f with the format f/N, the f-number N or f# is given by, N = f D where f is the focal length, and D is the diameter of the entrance pupil. It is customary to write f-numbers preceded by f/, which forms a mathematical expression of the pupil diameter in terms of f and N. Ignoring differences in light transmission efficiency, a lens with a greater f-number projects darker images, the brightness of the projected image relative to the brightness of the scene in the lenss field of view decreases with the square of the f-number. Doubling the f-number decreases the brightness by a factor of four. To maintain the same photographic exposure when doubling the f-number, the time would need to be four times as long. Most lenses have a diaphragm, which changes the size of the aperture stop. The entrance pupil diameter is not necessarily equal to the aperture stop diameter, a 100 mm focal length f/4 lens has an entrance pupil diameter of 25 mm. A200 mm focal length f/4 lens has a pupil diameter of 50 mm. The 200 mm lenss entrance pupil has four times the area of the 100 mm lenss entrance pupil, a T-stop is an f-number adjusted to account for light transmission efficiency. The word stop is sometimes confusing due to its multiple meanings, a stop can be a physical object, an opaque part of an optical system that blocks certain rays. In photography, stops are also a used to quantify ratios of light or exposure. The one-stop unit is known as the EV unit. On a camera, the setting is traditionally adjusted in discrete steps. Each stop is marked with its corresponding f-number, and represents a halving of the light intensity from the previous stop. This corresponds to a decrease of the pupil and aperture diameters by a factor of 1/2 or about 0.7071, each element in the sequence is one stop lower than the element to its left, and one stop higher than the element to its right
6. Film speed – Film speed is the measure of a photographic films sensitivity to light, determined by sensitometry and measured on various numerical scales, the most recent being the ISO system. A closely related ISO system is used to measure the sensitivity of digital imaging systems, highly sensitive films are correspondingly termed fast films. In both digital and film photography, the reduction of exposure corresponding to use of higher sensitivities generally leads to reduced image quality, in short, the higher the sensitivity, the grainier the image will be. Ultimately sensitivity is limited by the efficiency of the film or sensor. The speed of the emulsion was then expressed in degrees Warnerke corresponding with the last number visible on the plate after development. Each number represented an increase of 1/3 in speed, typical speeds were between 10° and 25° Warnerke at the time. The concept, however, was built upon in 1900 by Henry Chapman Jones in the development of his plate tester. In their system, speed numbers were inversely proportional to the exposure required, for example, an emulsion rated at 250 H&D would require ten times the exposure of an emulsion rated at 2500 H&D. The methods to determine the sensitivity were later modified in 1925, the H&D system was officially accepted as a standard in the former Soviet Union from 1928 until September 1951, when it was superseded by GOST 2817-50. The Scheinergrade system was devised by the German astronomer Julius Scheiner in 1894 originally as a method of comparing the speeds of plates used for astronomical photography, Scheiners system rated the speed of a plate by the least exposure to produce a visible darkening upon development. ≈2 The system was extended to cover larger ranges and some of its practical shortcomings were addressed by the Austrian scientist Josef Maria Eder. Scheiners system was abandoned in Germany, when the standardized DIN system was introduced in 1934. In various forms, it continued to be in use in other countries for some time. The DIN system, officially DIN standard 4512 by Deutsches Institut für Normung, was published in January 1934, International Congress of Photography held in Dresden from August 3 to 8,1931. The DIN system was inspired by Scheiners system, but the sensitivities were represented as the base 10 logarithm of the sensitivity multiplied by 10, similar to decibels. Thus an increase of 20° represented an increase in sensitivity. ≈3 /10 As in the Scheiner system, speeds were expressed in degrees, originally the sensitivity was written as a fraction with tenths, where the resultant value 1.8 represented the relative base 10 logarithm of the speed. Tenths were later abandoned with DIN4512, 1957-11, and the example above would be written as 18° DIN, the degree symbol was finally dropped with DIN4512, 1961-10