It is not used in JPEG2000, PNG, or GIF. This standard consists of the Exif image file specification and the Exif audio file specification, the Japan Electronic Industries Development Association produced the initial definition of Exif. Version 2.1 of the specification is dated 12 June 1998, JEITA established Exif version 2.2, dated 20 February 2002 and released in April 2002. Version 2.21 is dated 11 July 2003, but was released in September 2003 following the release of DCF2.0, the latest, version 2.3, released on 26 April 2010 and revised in May 2013, was jointly formulated by JEITA and CIPA. Exif is supported by almost all camera manufacturers, the metadata tags defined in the Exif standard cover a broad spectrum and time information. Digital cameras will record the current date and time and save this in the metadata, a thumbnail for previewing the picture on the cameras LCD screen, in file managers, or in photo manipulation software. The Exif tag structure is borrowed from TIFF files, on several image specific properties, there is a large overlap between the tags defined in the TIFF, Exif, TIFF/EP, and DCF standards.
For descriptive metadata, there is an overlap between Exif, IPTC Information Interchange Model and XMP info, which can be embedded in a JPEG file, the Metadata Working Group has guidelines on mapping tags between these standards. When Exif is employed for JPEG files, the Exif data are stored in one of JPEGs defined utility Application Segments, the APP1, when Exif is employed in TIFF files, the TIFF Private Tag 0x8769 defines a sub-Image File Directory that holds the Exif specified TIFF Tags. Formats specified in Exif standard are defined as structures that are based on Exif-JPEG. When these formats are used as Exif/DCF files together with the DCF specification, their scope shall cover devices, recording media, the Exif format has standard tags for location information. As of 2014 many cameras and most mobile phones have a built-in GPS receiver that stores the information in the Exif header when a picture is taken. Some other cameras have a separate GPS receiver that fits into the connector or hot shoe.
The process of adding information to a photograph is known as geotagging. Photo-sharing communities like Panoramio, locr or Flickr equally allow their users to upload geocoded pictures or to add geolocation information online, Exif data are embedded within the image file itself. While many recent image manipulation programs recognize and preserve Exif data when writing to a modified image, many image gallery programs recognise Exif data and optionally display it alongside the images. The Exif format has a number of drawbacks, mostly relating to its use of file structures. For this reason most image editors damage or remove the Exif metadata to some extent upon saving, the standard defines a MakerNote tag, which allows camera manufacturers to place any custom format metadata in the file
A color space is a specific organization of colors. In combination with physical device profiling, it allows for reproducible representations of color, for example, Adobe RGB and sRGB are two different absolute color spaces, both based on the RGB color model. When defining a color space, the reference standard is the CIELAB or CIEXYZ color spaces. For example, although several specific color spaces are based on the RGB color model, colors can be created in printing with color spaces based on the CMYK color model, using the subtractive primary colors of pigment. The resulting 3-D space provides a position for every possible color that can be created by combining those three pigments. Colors can be created on computer monitors with color spaces based on the RGB color model, a three-dimensional representation would assign each of the three colors to the X, Y, and Z axes. Note that colors generated on given monitor will be limited by the medium, such as the phosphor or filters. Another way of creating colors on a monitor is with an HSL or HSV color space, based on hue, with such a space, the variables are assigned to cylindrical coordinates.
Many color spaces can be represented as three-dimensional values in this manner, but some have more, or fewer dimensions, Color space conversion is the translation of the representation of a color from one basis to another. The RGB color model is implemented in different ways, depending on the capabilities of the system used, by far the most common general-used incarnation as of 2006 is the 24-bit implementation, with 8 bits, or 256 discrete levels of color per channel. Any color space based on such a 24-bit RGB model is limited to a range of 256×256×256 ≈16.7 million colors. Some implementations use 16 bits per component for 48 bits total and this is especially important when working with wide-gamut color spaces, or when a large number of digital filtering algorithms are used consecutively. The same principle applies for any color space based on the color model. CIE1931 XYZ color space was one of the first attempts to produce a space based on measurements of human color perception. The CIERGB color space is a companion of CIE XYZ.
Additional derivatives of CIE XYZ include the CIELUV, CIEUVW, RGB uses additive color mixing, because it describes what kind of light needs to be emitted to produce a given color. RGB stores individual values for red and blue, RGBA is RGB with an additional channel, alpha, to indicate transparency. Common color spaces based on the RGB model include sRGB, Adobe RGB, ProPhoto RGB, scRGB, one starts with a white substrate, and uses ink to subtract color from white to create an image
Sony Corporation is a Japanese multinational conglomerate corporation that is headquartered in Kōnan, Tokyo. Its diversified business includes consumer and professional electronics, entertainment, the company is one of the leading manufacturers of electronic products for the consumer and professional markets. Sony was ranked 116th on the 2015 list of Fortune Global 500 and these make Sony one of the most comprehensive entertainment companies in the world. The group consists of Sony Corporation, Sony Pictures Entertainment, Sony Interactive Entertainment, Sony Music Entertainment, Sony Financial Holdings and others. Sony is among the Semiconductor sales leaders by year and as of 2013, the companys current slogan is BE MOVED. Their former slogans were make. believe, like. no. other, Sony has a weak tie to the SMFG keiretsu, the successor to the Mitsui keiretsu. Sony began in the wake of World War II, in 1946, Masaru Ibuka started an electronics shop in a department store building in Tokyo. The company had $530 in capital and a total of eight employees, in the following year he was joined by his colleague, Akio Morita, and they founded a company called Tokyo Tsushin Kogyo 東京通信工業.
The company built Japans first tape recorder, called the Type-G, in 1958 the company changed its name to Sony. When Tokyo Tsushin Kogyo was looking for a name to use to market themselves, they strongly considered using their initials. The primary reason they did not is that the railway company Tokyo Kyuko was known as TTK, the company occasionally used the acronym Totsuko in Japan, but during his visit to the United States, Morita discovered that Americans had trouble pronouncing that name. Another early name that was tried out for a while was Tokyo Teletech until Akio Morita discovered that there was an American company already using Teletech as a brand name, the name Sony was chosen for the brand as a mix of two words. One was the Latin word sonus, which is the root of sonic and sound, and the other was sonny, a common slang term used in 1950s America to call a boy. In the 1950s Japan sonny boys, was a word into Japanese which connoted smart and presentable young men. The first Sony-branded product, the TR-55 transistor radio, appeared in 1955, at the time of the change, it was extremely unusual for a Japanese company to use Roman letters to spell its name instead of writing it in kanji.
The move was not without opposition, TTKs principal bank at the time and they pushed for a name such as Sony Electronic Industries, or Sony Teletech. Akio Morita was firm, however, as he did not want the company tied to any particular industry. Eventually, both Ibuka and Mitsui Banks chairman gave their approval, according to Schiffer, Sonys TR-63 radio cracked open the U. S. market and launched the new industry of consumer microelectronics
The focal length of an optical system is a measure of how strongly the system converges or diverges light. For an optical system in air, it is the distance over which initially collimated rays are brought to a focus. A system with a focal length has greater optical power than one with a long focal length. For a thin lens in air, the length is the distance from the center of the lens to the principal foci of the lens. For a converging lens, the length is positive, and is the distance at which a beam of collimated light will be focused to a single spot. For a diverging lens, the length is negative, and is the distance to the point from which a collimated beam appears to be diverging after passing through the lens. The focal length of a lens can be easily measured by using it to form an image of a distant light source on a screen. The lens is moved until an image is formed on the screen. In this case 1/u is negligible, and the length is given by f ≈ v. Back focal length or back focal distance is the distance from the vertex of the last optical surface of the system to the focal point.
For an optical system in air, the focal length gives the distance from the front. If the surrounding medium is not air, the distance is multiplied by the index of the medium. Some authors call these distances the front/rear focal lengths, distinguishing them from the front/rear focal distances, defined above. In general, the length or EFL is the value that describes the ability of the optical system to focus light. The other parameters are used in determining where an image will be formed for an object position. The quantity 1/f is known as the power of the lens. The corresponding front focal distance is, FFD = f, in the sign convention used here, the value of R1 will be positive if the first lens surface is convex, and negative if it is concave. The value of R2 is negative if the surface is convex
Statistical geography is the study and practice of collecting and presenting data that has a geographic or areal dimension, such as census or demographics data. It uses techniques from spatial analysis, but encompasses geographical activities such as the defining and naming of geographical regions for statistical purposes, geographers study how and why elements differ from place to place, as well as how spatial patterns change through time. Geographers begin with the question Where, exploring how features are distributed on a physical or cultural landscape, observing spatial patterns and the variation of phenomena. Contemporary geographical analysis has shifted to Why, determining why a specific spatial pattern exists, what spatial or ecological processes may have affected a pattern, and why such processes operate. Questions can social scientists begin to appreciate the mechanisms of change, geographers use statistics in numerous ways, To describe and summarize spatial data. To make generalizations concerning complex spatial patterns, to estimate the probability of outcomes for an event at a given location.
To use samples of data to infer characteristics for a larger set of geographic data. To determine if the magnitude or frequency of some phenomenon differs from one location to another, to learn whether an actual spatial pattern matches some expected pattern. There are several potential difficulties associated with the analysis of data, among these are boundary delineation, modifiable areal units. In each of these cases, the descriptive statistics of an area - the mean, mode, standard deviation. The location of a study area boundary and the positioning of internal boundaries affect various descriptive statistics, because of this problem, absolute descriptive statistics such as the mean, standard deviation, and variance should be evaluated comparatively only in relation to a particular study area. In the determination of internal boundaries this is true, as these statistics may only have valid interpretations for the area and subarea configuration over which they are calculated. For this type of data, analysts must use the county or municipal boundaries delineated in the collected data for their subsequent analysis.
When alternate boundaries are possible, an analyst must take account that any new subdivision model may create different results. Socio-economic data may be available at a variety of scales, for example, regional districts, census tracts, enumeration districts, or at the provincial/state level. When this data is aggregated at different scales, the descriptive statistics may exhibit variations, either in a systematic, predictable way. The result of this aggregation is that the deviation of the data in question is increased due to the variability among states. See main article Spatial descriptive statistics For summarizing point pattern analysis, an example here is the idea of a center of population, of which a particular example is the mean center of U. S. population
It is a popular base for exploring Arthurs Pass National Park. Arthurs Pass township is about 5 km south of the pass with the same name. Its elevation is 740 metres above sea level surrounded by beech forest, the Bealey River runs through the township. The town is located 153 km from Christchurch a 2-hour drive on SH73, the township and the pass are named after Sir Arthur Dudley Dobson. Arthur Dobson had been tasked by the Chief Surveyor, Thomas Cass, in 1864, his brother Edward joined him and accompanied him into the valley of the Otira River. A West Coast Māori Chief, told Arthur of a pass that Māori hunting parties occasionally used, when Arthur returned to Christchurch, he sketched the country he had traversed and included it in a report to Cass. Arthur Dobson did not name the pass, which he found very steep on the western side, Dobson named the site that became the township Camping Flat. When the gold rush began, a committee of businessmen offered a prize for anyone who would find a better or more suitable pass from Canterbury to the West Coast.
Arthurs Pass township was reached by the railway in 1914, while the Westland section having advanced to Otira, construction of the tunnel was very slow. The tunnel was completed in 1923. The TranzAlpine Express passes through Arthurs Pass and the Otira Tunnel as part of its 223 kilometres trek from Christchurch to Greymouth, the trip is considered one of the worlds great train journeys for the scenery and views. A power station was built below the Devils Punchbowl Falls to provide electricity for the tunnel construction, in 1929 the Arthur’s Pass National Park was created, New Zealands third National Park. The Geographic Board had a policy of omitting apostrophe in place names, and this caused a great upset with the local population, and the Minister of Lands reinstated the old version with the apostrophe. Since 16 September 1975, the post office adopted the spelling with the apostrophe. The township has a DOC ranger station, which accommodates a visitor information. Visitor accommodation is provided, from ground up to hotel standard.
The township provides a store, a petrol station, tea rooms. There are several good walks from here, including the Devils Punchbowl Falls, Bealey Valley, the mischievous kea can be found here
The amount of light that reaches the film or image sensor is proportional to the exposure time. 1/500th of a second will let half as much light in as 1/250th, the cameras shutter speed, the lenss aperture, and the scenes luminance together determine the amount of light that reaches the film or sensor. Exposure value is a quantity that accounts for the shutter speed and this will achieve a good exposure when all the details of the scene are legible on the photograph. Too much light let into the results in an overly pale image while too little light will result in an overly dark image. Multiple combinations of speed and f-number can give the same exposure value. According to exposure value formula, doubling the exposure time doubles the amount of light, for example, f/8 lets 4 times more light into the camera as f/16 does. In addition to its effect on exposure, the speed changes the way movement appears in photographs. Very short shutter speeds can be used to freeze fast-moving subjects, very long shutter speeds are used to intentionally blur a moving subject for effect.
Short exposure times are called fast, and long exposure times slow. Adjustments to the aperture need to be compensated by changes of the speed to keep the same exposure. The agreed standards for shutter speeds are, With this scale, camera shutters often include one or two other settings for making very long exposures, B keeps the shutter open as long as the shutter release is held. T keeps the open until the shutter release is pressed again. The ability of the photographer to take images without noticeable blurring by camera movement is an important parameter in the choice of the slowest possible speed for a handheld camera. Through practice and special techniques such as bracing the camera, arms, or body to minimize movement, using a monopod or a tripod. If a shutter speed is too slow for hand holding, a support, usually a tripod. Image stabilization on digital cameras or lenses can often permit the use of shutter speeds 3–4 stops slower, Shutter priority refers to a shooting mode used in cameras.
It allows the photographer to choose a shutter speed setting and allow the camera to decide the correct aperture and this is sometimes referred to as Shutter Speed Priority Auto Exposure, or TV mode, S mode on Nikons and most other brands. Shutter speed is one of methods used to control the amount of light recorded by the cameras digital sensor or film
In photography, the metering mode refers to the way in which a camera determines the exposure. Cameras generally allow the user to select between spot, center-weighted average, or multi-zone metering modes, various metering modes are provided to allow the user to select the most appropriate one for use in a variety of lighting conditions. With spot metering, the camera will only measure a small area of the scene. This will by default be the centre of the scene. The user can select a different off-centre spot, or to recompose by moving the camera after metering. The first spot meter was built by Arthur James Dalladay, editor of The British Journal of Photography in about 1935, a few models support a Multi-Spot mode which allows multiple spot meter readings to be taken of a scene that are averaged. Some cameras, the OM-4 and T90 included, support metering of highlight, spot metering is very accurate and is not influenced by other areas in the frame. It is commonly used to very high contrast scenes.
The area around the back and hairline will become over-exposed, spot metering is a method upon which the Zone System depends. In many cases the camera will over or underexpose, when using the spot mode, modern cameras tend to find the correct exposure precisely. In complex light situations though, professional photographers tend to switch to manual mode, another example of spot metering usage would be when photographing the moon. Due to the dark nature of the scene, other metering methods tend to overexpose the moon. Spot metering will allow for more detail to be out in the moon while underexposing the rest of the scene. More commonly, spot metering is used in photography, where the brightly lit actors stand before a dark or even black curtain or scrim. Spot metering only considers the actors in this case, while ignoring the overall darkness of the scene, in this system, the meter concentrates between 60 to 80 percent of the sensitivity towards the central part of the viewfinder. The balance is feathered out towards the edges, some cameras will allow the user to adjust the weight/balance of the central portion to the peripheral one.
When moving the point off center the camera will proceed as above. Although promoted as a feature, center-weighted metering was originally a consequence of the meter cell reading from the screen of SLR cameras
Factors considered may include unusual lighting distribution, variations within a camera system, non-standard processing, or intended underexposure or overexposure. Cinematographers may apply exposure compensation for changes in angle or film speed. Most DSLR cameras have a display whereby the photographer can set the camera to either over or under expose the subject by up to three f-stops in 1/3rd stop intervals. Each number on the scale represents one f-stop, decreasing the exposure by one f-stop will halve the amount of light reaching the sensor, the dots in between the numbers represent 1/3rd of an f-stop. In photography, some cameras include exposure compensation as a feature to allow the user to adjust the automatically calculated exposure, camera exposure compensation is commonly stated in terms of EV units,1 EV is equal to one exposure step, corresponding to a doubling of exposure. Exposure can be adjusted by changing either the lens f-number or the exposure time, if the mode is aperture priority, exposure compensation changes the exposure time, if the mode is shutter priority, the f-number is changed.
If a flash is being used, some cameras will adjust it as well, the earliest reflected-light exposure meters were wide-angle, averaging types, measuring the average scene luminance. When measuring a scene with atypical distribution of light and dark elements, or an element that is lighter or darker than a middle tone. For example, a scene with predominantly light tones often will be underexposed and that both scenes require the same exposure, regardless of the meter indication, becomes obvious from a scene that includes both a white horse and a black horse. A photographer usually can recognize the difference between a horse and a black horse, a meter usually cannot. When metering a white horse, a photographer can apply exposure compensation so that the horse is rendered as white. Many modern cameras incorporate metering systems that measure scene contrast as well as average luminance, in scenes with very unusual lighting, these metering systems sometimes cannot match the judgment of a skilled photographer, so exposure compensation still may be needed.
An early application of compensation was the Zone System developed by Ansel Adams. Developed for black-and-white film, the Zone System divided luminance into 11 zones, with Zone 0 representing pure black, the meter indication would place whatever was metered on Zone V, a medium gray. The meter indication, remains Zone V, the Zone System is a very specialized form of exposure compensation, and is used most effectively when metering individual scene elements, such as a sunlit rock or the bark of a tree in shade. Many cameras incorporate narrow-angle spot meters to facilitate such measurements, because of the limited tonal range, an exposure compensation range of ±2 EV is often sufficient for using the Zone System with color film and digital sensors. Exposure value Exposure index Light meter Zone System Exposure bracketing Auto Exposure Bracketing
The f-number of an optical system such as a camera lens is the ratio of the systems focal length to the diameter of the entrance pupil. It is a number that is a quantitative measure of lens speed. It is known as the ratio, f-ratio, f-stop. The f-number is commonly indicated using a hooked f with the format f/N, the f-number N or f# is given by, N = f D where f is the focal length, and D is the diameter of the entrance pupil. It is customary to write f-numbers preceded by f/, which forms a mathematical expression of the pupil diameter in terms of f and N. Ignoring differences in light transmission efficiency, a lens with a greater f-number projects darker images, the brightness of the projected image relative to the brightness of the scene in the lenss field of view decreases with the square of the f-number. Doubling the f-number decreases the brightness by a factor of four. To maintain the same photographic exposure when doubling the f-number, the time would need to be four times as long. Most lenses have a diaphragm, which changes the size of the aperture stop.
The entrance pupil diameter is not necessarily equal to the aperture stop diameter, a 100 mm focal length f/4 lens has an entrance pupil diameter of 25 mm. A200 mm focal length f/4 lens has a pupil diameter of 50 mm. The 200 mm lenss entrance pupil has four times the area of the 100 mm lenss entrance pupil, a T-stop is an f-number adjusted to account for light transmission efficiency. The word stop is sometimes confusing due to its multiple meanings, a stop can be a physical object, an opaque part of an optical system that blocks certain rays. In photography, stops are a used to quantify ratios of light or exposure. The one-stop unit is known as the EV unit. On a camera, the setting is traditionally adjusted in discrete steps. Each stop is marked with its corresponding f-number, and represents a halving of the light intensity from the previous stop. This corresponds to a decrease of the pupil and aperture diameters by a factor of 1/2 or about 0.7071, each element in the sequence is one stop lower than the element to its left, and one stop higher than the element to its right
A flash is a device used in photography producing a flash of artificial light at a color temperature of about 5500 K to help illuminate a scene. A major purpose of a flash is to illuminate a dark scene, other uses are capturing quickly moving objects or changing the quality of light. Flash refers either to the flash of light itself or to the flash unit discharging the light. Most current flash units are electronic, having evolved from single-use flashbulbs, modern cameras often activate flash units automatically. Flash units are built directly into a camera. Some cameras allow separate flash units to be mounted via an accessory mount bracket. In professional studio equipment, flashes may be large, standalone units, or studio strobes, studies of magnesium by Bunsen and Roscoe in 1859 showed that burning this metal produced a light with similar qualities to daylight. The potential application to photography inspired Edward Sonstadt to investigate methods of manufacturing magnesium so that it would burn reliably for this use and he applied for patents in 1862 and by 1864 had started the Manchester Magnesium Company with Edward Mellor.
It had the benefit of being a simpler and cheaper process than making round wire, mather was credited with the invention of a holder for the ribbon, which formed a lamp to burn it in. The packaging implies that the ribbon was not necessarily broken off before being ignited. An alternative to ribbon was flash powder, a mixture of powder and potassium chlorate, introduced by its German inventors Adolf Miethe. A measured amount was put into a pan or trough and ignited by hand, producing a brilliant flash of light, along with the smoke. This could be an activity, especially if the flash powder was damp. An electrically triggered flash lamp was invented by Joshua Lionel Cowen in 1899 and his patent describes a device for igniting photographers’ flash powder by using dry cell batteries to heat a wire fuse. Variations and alternatives were touted from time to time and a few found a measure of success in the marketplace, especially for amateur use. The use of powder in an open lamp was replaced by flashbulbs, magnesium filaments were contained in bulbs filled with oxygen gas.
Manufactured flashbulbs were first produced commercially in Germany in 1929, such a bulb could only be used once, and was too hot to handle immediately after use, but the confinement of what would otherwise have amounted to a small explosion was an important advance. A innovation was the coating of flashbulbs with a film to maintain bulb integrity in the event of the glass shattering during the flash
Cyber-shot is Sonys line of point-and-shoot digital cameras introduced in 1996. Cyber-shot model names use a DSC prefix, which is an initialism for Digital Still Camera, many Cyber-shot models feature Carl Zeiss trademarked lenses, while others use Sony, or Sony G lenses. All Cyber-shot cameras accept Sonys proprietary Memory Stick or Memory Stick PRO Duo flash memory, select models have supported CompactFlash. Current Cyber-shot cameras support Memory Stick PRO Duo, SD, SDHC, currently the W and T-series use Sony N-type batteries While most H-series use G-type batteries. From 2006 to 2009, Sony Ericsson used the Cyber-shot brand in a line of mobile phones, on March 31,2012 Sony unveiled the Sony Cybershot DSC W690 as the worlds thinnest 10x optical zoom camera. Some Cyber-shot models can take 3D stills by shooting two images using two different focus settings, the technology uses one lens only for the process, and users can see the images on a 3D TV or on a regular 2D screen. The cameras have been available since 2010, cyber-Shot models such as the DSC-HX20V and the DSC-HX200V have a built-in GPS so the user can have their photos automatically geotagged as they are being taken.
The feature can serve as a compass as it shows the position on the camera screen. Tru Black is a developed by Sony which allows a better visualization of the screen, even when there is too much light. It enables LCD screens to change the display contrast in order to enhance the controlling reflectance. In other words, when light hits a display with Tru Black technology, all current Cyber-shot cameras are equipped with a panoramic technology branded as Sweep Panorama, which enables the user to capture wide format photographs using only one lens. The photos can be taken and displayed in 2D or 3D, Sony Alpha Sony SmartShot Sony Picture Motion Browser