Battle of Karnal
The Battle of Karnal, was a decisive victory for Nader, the Shāh of Iran, during his invasion of Mughal India. Naders forces defeated the army of Muhammad Shah within three hours, despite being outnumbered, paving the way for the Persian sack of Delhi. The engagement is considered the jewel in Naders military career as well as a tactical masterpiece. The battle took place near Karnal,110 kilometres north of Delhi, the battle was the culminating point of Nader Shahs invasion of the Mughal Empire. After his conquest of eastern Afghanistan and invasion via Kabul and Peshawar, at Delhi Muhammad Shah gathered an extremely large force with which he marched north before his cumbersome army ground to a halt at Karnal. Nader gave battle and won a crushing victory, in the negotiations following the catastrophic defeat, Muhammad Shah agreed to pay a large indemnity in exchange for maintaining his imperium over his lands. Nader however, forced the Mughal emperor to submit utterly and marched him to his capital, Delhi, an uprising against Naders soldiers by Delhis citizens ended in a bloody massacre where the entire city was sacked and looted.
The enormous plunder gained in Delhi caused Nader to issue a decree removing all taxes for a total of three years. The Persian army soon after departed leaving behind 30,000 dead, Muhammad Shah was forced to concede all his lands west of the Indus which were annexed by Nader Shah. As a result of the defeat of the Mughal Empire at Karnal. It is possible that without the effects of Naders invasion of India. Nader had sent a number of requests to the local governors, in the aftermath of his conquest of Afghanistan Nader was seeking a pretext for invading the Mughal Empire. Naturally he seized upon this opportunity to mask his invasion in the form of a hunt for the Afghan warriors who had found asylum in the terrain of the northern Mughal realm. It is noteworthy that Nader had been in contact with one of the main Mughal ministers, Nizam-ul-Mulk, whilst it is possible that Nizam-ul-Mulk did in fact provoke Naders invasion of the Mughal Empire, it remains an implausible conjecture. Whether or not the Mughal Empire could have defused the situation diplomatically is still a matter of discussion and it is very possible that they were an insubstantial number.
As Nader moved into the Mughal territories, he was accompanied by his Georgian subject and future king of Georgia, Erekle II. Nader being convinced of the futility of a struggle, instead opted for a more refined approach. A local guide informed him of a difficult yet traversable pass running parallel to that of Kheibar called the pass of Chatchoobi, thus the path to the north-lands of the Mughal Empire was cleared and the main body of the Imperial Persian army could march into the Mughal interior
Mughal artillery included a variety of cannons and mines employed by the Mughal Empire. This gunpowder technology played an important role in the formation and expansion of the empire, artillery was not widely employed in Central Asia prior to the 16th century, despite Chinese mortars having been known to the Mongols hundreds of years earlier. However, following the decisive Ottoman victory over the Safavid Empire at the 1514 Battle of Chaldiran, Babur incorporated artillery, although authorities disagree about how many cannons he brought to India, Baburs artillery played a key role in the establishment of the Mughal Empire. In 1526, the First Battle of Panipat saw the introduction of massed artillery tactics to Indian warfare, under the guidance of Ottoman gun master Ustad Ali Quli, Babur deployed cannons behind a screening row of carts. Enemy commander Ibrahim Lodi was provoked into an attack against Baburs position. This tactic panicked Lodis elephant cavalry, beginning the end of elephant warfare as a dominant offensive strategy in India and these new weapons and tactics were even more important against the more formidable army faced in the Battle of Khanwa the following year.
Artillery remained an important part of the Mughal military, in both field deployment and incorporation into defensive forts, transportation of the extremely heavy guns remained problematic, even as weapon technology improved during the reign of Akbar. Under Aurangzeb, the Mughal technology remained superior to that of the breakaway Maratha, in 1652 and 1653, during the Mughal–Safavid War, prince Dara Shikoh was able to move light artillery through the Bolan Pass to assist in the siege of Qandahar. But problems with the accuracy and reliability of the weapons, as well as the inherent defensive strengths of the fort and this array of weapons was divided into heavy and light artillery. Extremely heavy artillery was an important part of the Mughal military, Babur deployed guns capable of firing cannonballs weighing between 225 and 315 pounds against a 1527 siege, and had previously employed a cannon capable of firing a 540-pound stone ball. Humayun did not field such massive artillery at the Battle of Kanauj in 1540 and these large weapons were often given heroic names, such as Tiger Mouth, Lord Champion, or Conqueror of the Army, and inscriptions, sometimes in verse.
They were not only weapons, but real works of art and their artistry did not make them easier to move, however. Muhammad Azam Shah was forced to abandon his heavy artillery en route to the Battle of Jajau, the largest such weapons, such as Muhammad Shahs Fort Opener, required a team of four elephants and thousands of oxen and only rarely reached their siege targets. Other heavy artillery included mortars and mines deployed by sappers against fortress walls, although these weapons had noticeable successes, such as the victory at the Siege of Chittorgarh in 1567, their preparation and deployment came at the cost of substantial Mughal losses. Mughal light artillery, known as artillery of the stirrup, animal-borne swivel guns saw widespread use in several forms. Elephants carried two pieces of elephant barrel artillery and two soldiers to fire them, the elephants served only to transport the weapons and their crew, they dismounted before firing. Camel guns and swivel guns zamburak, on the hand, were carried on camel-back and were fired while mounted.
Other light guns were mounted on wheeled carts, pulled by oxen or horses, the mobile field artillery has been seen as the central military power of the mughal empire distinguishing the mughal troops from most of their enemies
Nasir-ud-Din Muhammad Shah, Nasir-ud-Din Muhammad Shah Irkhwaz, Abu Al-Fatah Nasir-ud-Din Roshan Akhtar Muhammad Shah, was the Mughal emperor between 1719 and 1748. He was son of Khujista Akhtar, the son of Bahadur Shah I. With the help of the Sayyid brothers, he ascended the throne at the age of 17. He got rid of them with the help of Asaf Jah I – Syed Hussain Ali Khan was murdered at Fatehpur Sikri in 1720, Muhammad Shah was a great patron of the arts, including musical and administrative developments. His pen-name was Sada Rangila and he is referred to as Muhammad Shah Rangila. Although he was a patron of the arts, Muhammad Shahs reign was marked by rapid, the Mughal Empire was already decaying, but the invasion by Nader Shah of Persia and the subsequent sacking of Delhi, the Mughal capital, greatly accelerated the pace. The course of events not only shocked and mortified the Mughals themselves, Muhammad Shah was born in 1702 in Ghazna to Prince Khujista Akhtar, during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb.
Handsome and quick to learn, his mother took care of his education. Since the overthrow of Farrukhsiyar in 1719 many Mughal Emperors briefly ascended to the throne, on 29 September 1719, he was given the title Abu Al-Fatah Nasir-ud-Din Roshan Akhtar Muhammad Shah and enthroned in the Red Fort. His mother was given an allowance of 15 thousand rupees monthly for her needs, in the year 1720, Syed Hussain Ali Khan Barha, the commander and chief of the most elite Mughal Army, was assassinated in his encampment in Toba Bhim on 9 October 1720. The Mughal Emperor Muhammad Shah took direct command of his forces, Asaf Jah I was dispatched to gain complete control of 6 Mughal provinces in the Deccan, and Muhammad Amin Khan Turani was assigned as the Mansabdar of 8000. Previously the emperor had to fight Muhammad Ibrahim, but young Muhammad Shah defeated him on 13 November 1720, the fall of the Sayyid Brothers marked the beginning of the end of the Mughal Empires direct control over its dominions in the Deccan.
In the year 1721, young Muhammad Shah married the daughter of the previously deposed Mughal Emperor Farrukhsiyar, on 21 February 1722, the Mughal Emperor Muhammad Shah appointed the Asaf Jah I as Grand Vizier of the Mughal Empire. He advised the new Mughal Emperor Muhammad Shah to be as cautious as Akbar, Asaf Jah I resigned his post as the Grand Vizier when the Mughal Emperor Muhammad Shah expressed negligence towards his administration. The Mughal Grand Vizier, Asaf Jah I appointed the Mughal commander Ewaz Khan as the master of the garrison at Aurangabad and much of his logistical duties were carried out by Inayatullah Kashmiri. Asaf Jah I left the court in disgust and appointed his deputy Qamaruddin Khan as the next Grand Vizier of the Mughal Empire. There Asaf Jah I fought Mubariz Khan the Mughal Subedar of the Deccan, taking advantage of Mubariz Khans conventional weaknesses Asaf Jah I defeated and eliminated his opponent during the Battle of Shakarkhelda. Asaf Jah I established the Nizam of Hyderabad in 1725, during this time, the Mughal-Maratha Wars would cause irreparable devastation to the inhabitants of the ill-administered Mughal Empire
Mughal weapons significantly evolved during the ruling periods of Babur, Akbar and Tipu Sultan. Most cavalrymen mainly depend upon the arms for close quarter combat. They are classified into five categories and shields, battle-axes, weapons used for long range attacks were the bow and arrow, the matchlock and the pistols. Rockets were used by the artillerymen, no single man carried all these weapons at one time, but in a large army all of them were in use by someone or other. The great number of weapons that a man carried is graphically described by Fitzclarence, a shield of buffalo hide with gilt bosses is hung over his back. His arms are two swords and a dagger, a brace of English pistols, and he has his matchlock carried before him by a servant, sword-belts were generally broad and handsomely embroidered. Swords give actual beauty to the Mughal Era, on horseback they were worn on a belt hanging over the shoulder. Otherwise a man carried his sword by three straps hanging from a waist-belt, types of blades Shamsher -It is a curved weapon similar to a scimitar.
Purely a cutting due to its shape and the small size of the grip. Dhup - Dhup is a straight sword and it was adopted from the Dakhin, this straight sword had a broad blade four feet long and a cross hilt. Considered an emblem of sovereignty and high dignity, it was displayed on state occasions carried in a velvet wrapping by a man who held it upright before his master. It lay on the great mans pillow when he was seated at a darbar and this kind of sword was conferred as a distinction on successful soldiers, great nobles, and court favourites. It was apparently identical to the dhup, whomever was struck on the head by these Indian blades was cleft to the waist, or if the cut was on the body, he was divided into two parts. This sword had a curved blade, shaped like a Damascus blade. They were made in Sirohi with Damascus steel, pata is a narrow-bladed, straight rapier with a gauntlet hilt, seen now chiefly when twirled about vigorously by the performers in a Muharrara procession. Gupti is a sword concealed in the sheath of a walking stick.
The head or handle and a fakirs crutch was closely allied in appearance with the crutch of dagger length and it was used by persons of rank as an emblem of humility made of steel. A shield always accompanied a sword as part of the swordsmans equipment, carried on the left arm, or when out of use, slung over the shoulder, shields were made of steel or hide and were generally from 17 to 24 inches in diameter