The Aeronautical Medal is a state decoration of France established by the decree of February 14,1945. It is awarded to military personnel and civilians for outstanding accomplishments related to the field of aeronautics. Originally envisioned before the Second World War, it was intended as an equal to the Order of Maritime Merit, the intent was to create an aerial order of merit intended for civilian and military personnel working in aeronautics. The war temporarily put an end to the project until February 1945, in case of the absence of any member of the council, an interim member is named by decree of the related authority. This same council has the authority to propose the revocation of the decoration for serious breaches of honour, the details of the workings of such a proposal would be made by ministerial decree. The Aeronautical Medal is limited to no more than 275 new recipients per year and it is awarded for professional valour to both civilians and military pilots and non pilots serving under the Ministry of Defence or the Department of Transportation.
It is awarded to citizens who have distinguished themselves in the development of military or civil aviation, sports aviation, airports and it can be awarded for prowess in the air, an act of heroism in the air, or for particularly unusual work or research in aviation. Finally, the medal can be awarded for service during serious air related accidents. The medal can be awarded posthumously and to foreign nationals, the medal is rectangular and of gilt metal. The obverse bears the left profile of Marianne from the 1940s representing France, below Marianne. The medal is enamelled in red except for Marianne, the inscription, the medal is suspended to a 37 mm wide royal blue silk moiré ribbon by a wing shaped pendant with a relief five pointed star at its center and an horizontal slot to receive the ribbon. The reverse bears the inscription on four lines MÉDAILLE DE LAÉRONAUTIQUE1945, wang Tung-yi Oct.2012 Ribbons of the French military and civil awards France Phaléristique Entente Combattants
Commemorative medal of the Mexico Expedition
On 7 January 1862, approximately 3,000 French soldiers landed at Vera Cruz. In the capital, an assembly of notables recognized Archduke Maximilian of Habsburg, brother of Emperor Franz Joseph of Austria, as Emperor of Mexico. In February 1867, Emperor Napoleon III ordered the repatriation of all remaining French troops from Mexico, an abandoned Emperor Maximilian and captured near the city of Querétaro, was executed in June of that year. The medal was to be worn on the left breast, no minimum time of service was mentioned in the award statute. The Commemorative medal of the Mexico Expedition was a 30 mm in diameter circular silver medal and its obverse bore the left profile of Emperor Napoleon III crowned with a laurel wreath surrounded by the relief inscription NAPOLEON III EMPEREUR. A4 mm wide relief laurel wreath ran along the circumference of both the obverse and reverse of the medal. On the reverse, within the wreath, the circular relief inscription * EXPEDITION DU MEXIQUE * 1862•1863.
At the center, the inscription on five lines of the campaigns major battles CUMBRES CERRO-BORREGO SAN-LORENZO PUEBLA MEXICO
Legion of Honour
The Legion of Honour, full name National Order of the Legion of Honour, is the highest French order of merit for military and civil merits, established 1802 by Napoléon Bonaparte. The order is divided into five degrees of increasing distinction, Officier, Grand Officier and Grand-Croix. The orders motto is Honneur et Patrie and its seat is the Palais de la Légion dHonneur next to the Musée dOrsay, in the French Revolution, all French orders of chivalry were abolished, and replaced with Weapons of Honour. The Légion however did use the organization of old French orders of chivalry, the badges of the legion bear a resemblance to the Ordre de Saint-Louis, which used a red ribbon. Napoleon originally created this to ensure political loyalty, the organization would be used as a facade to give political favours and concessions. The Légion was loosely patterned after a Roman legion, with legionaries, commanders, regional cohorts, the highest rank was not a grand cross but a Grand Aigle, a rank that wore all the insignia common to grand crosses.
The members were paid, the highest of them extremely generously,5,000 francs to an officier,2,000 francs to a commandeur,1,000 francs to an officier,250 francs to a légionnaire. Napoleon famously declared, You call these baubles, well, it is with baubles that men are led, do you think that you would be able to make men fight by reasoning. That is good only for the scholar in his study, the soldier needs glory, rewards. This has been quoted as It is with such baubles that men are led. The order was the first modern order of merit, under the monarchy, such orders were often limited to Roman Catholics, and all knights had to be noblemen. The military decorations were the perks of the officers, the Légion, was open to men of all ranks and professions—only merit or bravery counted. The new legionnaire had to be sworn in the Légion and it is noteworthy that all previous orders were crosses or shared a clear Christian background, whereas the Légion is a secular institution. The jewel of the Légion has five arms, in a decree issued on the 10 Pluviôse XIII, a grand decoration was instituted.
This decoration, a cross on a sash and a silver star with an eagle, symbol of the Napoleonic Empire, became known as the Grand Aigle. After Napoleon crowned himself Emperor of the French in 1804 and established the Napoleonic nobility in 1808, the title was made hereditary after three generations of grantees. Napoleon had dispensed 15 golden collars of the legion among his family and this collar was abolished in 1815. The Légion dhonneur was prominent and visible in the French Empire, the Emperor always wore it and the fashion of the time allowed for decorations to be worn most of the time
Medal of the Nation's Gratitude
The medal was primarily established to replace the North Africa medal with broader and more inclusive prerequisites following years of pressure on the French government by veterans organizations. The Medal of the Nations Gratitude is awarded to persons who have previously been awarded the Title of the Nations Gratitude, the Title of the Nations Gratitude is automatically bestowed to personnel prematurely evacuated due to injuries suffered or diseases caught while in theatre. The complete list is contained in the order of 12 January 1994. The Medal of the Nations Gratitude is a 34mm in diameter circular medal struck from bronze and its obverse bears the effigy of the Republic on surrounded by the relief inscription RÉPUBLIQUE FRANÇAISE. The reverse bears the inscription on four lines MÉDAILLE DE RECONNAISSANCE DE LA NATION over the relief image of a sprig of three oak leaves. The medal hangs from a passing through a ring through the medals ball shaped suspension loop. The 34mm wide sand coloured silk moiré ribbon bears inverted 34mm wide, the undress ribbon bears three such chevrons.
The medal is awarded with a clasp and may be awarded with multiple clasps
The Combatants Cross is a French decoration that recognizes, as its name implies, those who fought in combat for France. The Poilus of World War I worked toward recognition by the government, the law of 19 December 1926 created la carte du combatant, or combatants card, for veterans of 1914-1918, as well as for the veterans of 1870-1871 and colonial wars before the First World War. The decoration was created three years by the law of 28 June 1930. The law of 18 July 1952 extended the benefit of the award of the Croix du combattant for Indochina, the law of December 9,1974 extended the award of the Combatants Cross to operations in North Africa between 1 January 1952 and July 2,1962. There is a set of requirements for each conflict or military operation in regards to the granting of the combatant card. On the obverse at center, the effigy of the Republic wearing an Adrians helmet crowned with laurel leaves surrounded by the relief inscription REPUBLIQUE FRANCAISE. On the reverse the relief inscription CROIX DU COMBATTANT along the lower circumference framing a vertical sword pointing down, rays protruding horizomtally and up from the hilt in a 180° arc
Morocco commemorative medal (1909)
The Morocco commemorative medal was a French military campaign medal. It was established by the law of 22 July 1909 for award to soldiers participating in the Second Franco-Moroccan War under the command of general Hubert Lyautey, long time French colonial interests in North Africa led to tensions between European nations but particularly disturbed Germany. Early in the new century, France pushed established international agreements to their limits bringing tensions to a point in the Agadir Crisis. These military operations went on until 30 March 1912, the date on which the Treaty of Fez was signed making of Morocco a French Protectorate, article 2 of the law of 22 July 1909 further stated that clasps would be worn on the ribbon. The Morocco commemorative medal was a 30mm in diameter circular silver medal, the obverse bore the relief image of the effigy of the warrior republic in the form of the left profile of a helmeted womans bust, the helmet being adorned by a crown of oak leaves. On either side, the inscription along the circumference RÉPUBLIQUE FRANÇAISE.
In the background, sand dunes, the wall of a Kasbah, the medal hung from a 36mm wide silk moiré green ribbon with a 7mm white central stripe and two 2mm wide white stripes 1mm from the ribbon edges. The medal suspension ring was adorned by a laurel wreath
Indochina Campaign commemorative medal
The conflict in Indochina started right after the end of World War II with the French forces initially under the command of general Philippe Leclerc. Politicians and generals alike petitioned the government for a commemorative award available to all participants under French command. Even after the award was established, French soldiers still received the Colonial Medal with EXTRÊME-ORIENT clasp in addition to the Indochina Campaign commemorative medal, the ninety-day minimum period of service in theater was waived for personnel injured during operations in theater or mentioned in dispatches during the campaign. The Indochina Campaign commemorative medal was a 36mm in diameter circular medal struck from bronze, atop the panel, a three headed elephant surrounded by the relief semi circular inscription RÉPUBLIQUE FRANÇAISE along the medal circumference. The ribbon suspension ring was adorned with a 20mm high by 25mm wide bronze twisted dragon, the ring passed through a loop atop the medal which hung from a 39mm wide green ribbon bearing four 5mm wide yellow stripes set 5mm apart starting 2mm from the edges
Commemorative medal of the 1859 Italian Campaign
Early in 1815, there was a powerful popular movement in favour of national unification throughout the Italian peninsula. This idea, championed by the King of Sardinia Victor Emmanuel II, was opposed by Pope Pius IX and the Austrian Empire who occupied the provinces of Lombardy and Veneto. In Europe, Italian unification was only supported by Emperor Napoleon III of France who, on 28 January 1859, based on the clauses of the Treaty of Turin, decided to bring aid and support from France. Piedmont being invaded by 100,000 Austrian soldiers on April 26,1859, then, on June 24, the Franco-Piedmontese forces took the village of Solferino after a terrible battle culminating in an armistice signed at Villafranca on July 12. During the three month campaign, French losses amounted to 8,000 dead and 40,000 wounded, to reward all participants and ensure the memory of this glorious military campaign, the Commemorative Medal of the Italian Campaign was created by Imperial Decree on August 11,1859. Nearly 120,000 medals were awarded to all soldiers and sailors who participated in the Italian campaign of 1859.
All recipients received a certificate of award, a revised list of all French naval units who participated in the campaign was submitted on 18 February 1860 resulting in a 22 March 1860 amendment to the disposition of the award to navy recipients. The Commemorative medal of the 1859 Italian Campaign, a work of Albert Désiré Barre, was a 30 mm in diameter circular silver medal and its obverse bore the left profile of Emperor Napoleon III crowned with a laurel wreath surrounded by the relief inscription NAPOLEON III EMPEREUR. A4 mm wide relief laurel wreath ran along the circumference of both the obverse and reverse of the medal. On the reverse, within the wreath, the circular relief inscription CAMPAGNE D’ITALIE1859. At the centre, the inscription on six lines of the campaigns major battles MONTEBELLO, PALESTRO, TURBIGO, MAGENTA, MARIGNAN. The medal hung from a 36 mm wide silk moiré ribbon bearing six 4 mm wide red stripes, a variant bearing the imperial crown as an integral part of the suspension ring is called variant of the 100 guards