Click on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time.
|current||20:23, 5 November 2016||600 × 433 (95 KB)||Zppix||Transferred from en.wikipedia (MTC!)|
Click on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time.
|current||20:23, 5 November 2016||600 × 433 (95 KB)||Zppix||Transferred from en.wikipedia (MTC!)|
1. Deforestation – Deforestation, clearance or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use. Examples of deforestation include conversion of forestland to farms, ranches, the most concentrated deforestation occurs in tropical rainforests. About 30% of Earths land surface is covered by forests, Deforestation occurs for multiple reasons, trees are cut down to be used for building or sold as fuel, while cleared land is used as pasture for livestock and plantation. The removal of trees without sufficient reforestation has resulted in damage to habitat, biodiversity loss and it has adverse impacts on biosequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Deforestation has also used in war to deprive the enemy of cover for its forces. Modern examples of this were the use of Agent Orange by the British military in Malaya during the Malayan Emergency, as of 2005, net deforestation rates have ceased to increase in countries with a per capita GDP of at least US$4,600. Deforested regions typically incur significant adverse soil erosion and frequently degrade into wasteland, disregard of ascribed value, lax forest management and deficient environmental laws are some of the factors that allow deforestation to occur on a large scale. In many countries, deforestation, both naturally occurring and human-induced, is an ongoing issue, Deforestation causes extinction, changes to climatic conditions, desertification, and displacement of populations as observed by current conditions and in the past through the fossil record. More than half of all plant and land animal species in the live in tropical forests. Between 2000 and 2012,2.3 million square kilometres of forests around the world were cut down, as a result of deforestation, only 6.2 million square kilometres remain of the original 16 million square kilometres of forest that formerly covered the Earth. According to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change secretariat, subsistence farming is responsible for 48% of deforestation, commercial agriculture is responsible for 32%, logging is responsible for 14%, and fuel wood removals make up 5%. Experts do not agree on whether industrial logging is an important contributor to global deforestation, some argue that poor people are more likely to clear forest because they have no alternatives, others that the poor lack the ability to pay for the materials and labour needed to clear forest. One study found that population increases due to fertility rates were a primary driver of tropical deforestation in only 8% of cases. Other causes of contemporary deforestation may include corruption of government institutions, the distribution of wealth and power, population growth and overpopulation. Globalization is often viewed as another cause of deforestation, though there are cases in which the impacts of globalization have promoted localized forest recovery. The degradation of forest ecosystems has also traced to economic incentives that make forest conversion appear more profitable than forest conservation. Some commentators have noted a shift in the drivers of deforestation over the past 30 years, Deforestation is ongoing and is shaping climate and geography. Deforestation is a contributor to global warming, and is cited as one of the major causes of the enhanced greenhouse effect
2. Deforestation in Borneo – In the 1980s and 1990s the forests of Borneo underwent a dramatic transition. They were levelled at a rate unparalleled in history, burned, logged and cleared. Half of the annual global tropical timber acquisition comes from Borneo. Furthermore, palm oil plantations are rapidly encroaching on the last remnants of primary rainforest, much of the forest clearance is illegal. The Borneo mountain rainforests lie in the highlands of the island. These areas represent habitat for endangered species, such as orangutans and elephants. As well as Borneos importance in biodiversity conservation and as a carbon sink, the Malaysian states of Sarawak and Sabah, in the north, occupy about 26% of the island. The forested area here shrank rapidly due to heavy logging for the Malaysian plywood industry, indigenous peoples of Malaysia have been impacted by logging without their free, prior and informed consent in their ancestral forests. They have used peaceful demonstrations and social media advocacy to raise awareness of their rights to the forest, questions about how and why logging licenses were granted without community consent remain unaddressed. During the great fire, hotspots could be seen on satellite images, in February 2008, the Malaysian government announced the Sarawak Corridor of Renewable Energy plan to harvest the virgin hinterlands of northern Borneo. Further deforestation and destruction of the biodiversity are anticipated in the wake of logging commissions, hydroelectric dams and other mining of minerals and resources. Approximately 73% of the island is Indonesian territory, the Indonesian name for the island, the Mega Rice Project was initiated in 1996 in the southern sections of Kalimantan. The goal was to one million hectares of unproductive and sparsely populated peat swamp forest into rice paddies in an effort to alleviate Indonesias growing food shortage. The government made an investment in constructing irrigation canals and removing trees. The project did not succeed, and was abandoned after causing considerable damage to the environment. The peat swamp forest in the south of Kalimantan is an ecology that is home to many unique or rare species such as orangutans, as well as to slow-growing. Peat is a store of carbon. If broken down and burned it contributes to CO2 emissions, considered a source of global warming, the water channels, and the roads and railways built for legal forestry, opened up the region to illegal forestry
3. Deforestation in Brazil – Brazil once had the highest deforestation rate in the world and in 2005 still had the largest area of forest removed annually. Since 1970, over 600,000 square kilometers of the Amazon rainforest have been destroyed, in 2012, the Amazon was approximately 5.4 million square kilometres, which is only 87% of the Amazons original state. Rainforests have decreased in size due to deforestation. Despite reductions in the rate of deforestation in the last ten years, between May 2000 and August 2006, Brazil lost nearly 150,000 square kilometres of forest, an area larger than that of Greece. According to the Living Planet Report 2010, deforestation is continuing at an alarming rate, in the 1940s Brazil began a program of national development for the Amazon Basin. Everything which has up to now been done in Amazonas, whether in agriculture or extractive industry, must be transformed into rational exploitation. Extensive transportation projects, such as the Trans-Amazon Highway, were promoted in 1970, before the 1960s, much of the forest remained intact due to the restrictions in access to the Amazon aside from partial clearing along the river banks. The poor soil also made plantation-based agriculture unprofitable, the key point in deforestation of the Amazon was when the colonists established farms within the forest during the 1960s. Their farming system was based on cultivation and the slash. The colonists were unable to manage their fields and the crops due to the loss of soil fertility. The soils in the Amazon are productive for just a short period of time. However, the results of farming have led to deforestation and have caused extensive environmental damage. This emphasizes the importance of using previously cleared land for agricultural use, in the Brazilian Amazon, the number of small farmers versus large landholders changes frequently with economic and demographic pressures. This act paved the way for clearing areas of forest for cattle production as developers sought to gain a financial profit from land with which they were provided. The forest was also exploited for timber, which provided Brazil a way of paying off international debt, by the late 1980s, an area the size of England, Scotland and Wales was being removed annually. The annual rate of deforestation in the Amazon region has continued to increase from 1990 to 2003 because of factors at local, national, 70% of formerly forested land in the Amazon, and 91% of land deforested since 1970, is used for livestock pasture. The Brazilian government initially attributed 38% of all forest loss between 1966 and 1975 to large-scale cattle ranching, the removal of forest to make way for cattle ranching was the leading cause of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon from the mid-1960s. Cattle Ranching is not an environmental investment though, cattle emit large amounts of methane into the environment
4. Deforestation in Costa Rica – Deforestation is a major threat to biodiversity and ecosystems in Costa Rica. Since the end of World War II, approximately 80% of the forests of Costa Rica have disappeared, approximately 20,000 acres of land are deforested annually, in the 1990s the country had one of the worst deforestation rates in Central America. As the population grew, the people of Costa Rica cut down the forests to provide for pastureland for cattle ranching to produce beef for the market to raise revenue. Since the 1950s, approximately 60% of Costa Rica has been cleared to make room for cattle ranching, the problem was worsened because during the 1960s, the United States offered Costa Rican cattle ranchers millions of dollars in loans to produce beef. The deforestation of Costa Ricas tropical rain forests as in other countries is a threat to life worldwide with an effect on the global climate. Soil erosion has increased with deforestation with the washed away from the hills into the streams and out into the oceans. Over half of Costa Ricas existing forest cover today is under the protection of parks, biological reserves. However, the problem in regards to deforestation is the privately owned plots which occupy the other half. Lenient laws on land and amendments to forestry law makes it easy to obtain logging concessions as owners exploit the land to maximise income, as logging companies enter these forests to exploit them, they require access roads to transport the timber. While cattle ranching is by far the primary cause of deforestation in Costa Rica, lowland rainforest has been most affected where 130,000 acres of previously forested land have been removed. Such industries have been synonymous with health risks, notably the high levels of pesticides which affected thousands of plantation workers throughout Central America in the 1970s. Pesticides used to grow bananas and other such as mangoes and citrus fruit may enter the hydrological systems. The removal of the forest to make way for these fruit planatations may also disrupt the nutrient balance in the soil and through monoculture exhaust the soils, while certain conservation laws have been passed in Costa Rica, the government lacks the resources to enforce them. The country has a level of biodiversity and different eco-zones. For example one of the protected areas is a strip of forest which runs for 40 miles through nine ecological zones from sea level to 12,500 feet. In 1995, the government introduced further protected areas, and a further 13% of the country was put under protection through privately owned preserves, the National Bamboo Project of Costa Rica was founded in 1986 to help decrease deforestation. The scheme aims at reducing deforestation by means of replacing timber with bamboo as a building material. In a number of parts of Costa Rica, areas that were ten years ago have now been reforested
5. Deforestation in Sri Lanka – Deforestation is one of the most serious environmental issues in Sri Lanka. In the 1920s, the island had a 49 percent forest cover, between 1990 and 2000, Sri Lanka lost an average of 26,800 ha of forests per year. This amounts to an annual deforestation rate of 1. 14%. Between 2000 and 2005 the rate accelerated to 1. 43% per annum, the forests in Sri Lanka have been removed to make way for agricultural land and plantations and to provide fuel and timber. The sale of timber is a part of the economy to raise revenue. The country is a producer of tea and the land required for tea plantations is substantial. Population pressure is also a significant factor as is the removal of forested areas to make way for irrigation networks and paddy fields which was major process in the 1980s. Sri Lanka has 751 known species of amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles of which 21. 7% are endemic, the Sinharaja Forest Reserve, which was established in 1978 to protect the nearly extinct tropical lowland rain forest, was flagged as a World Heritage Site in 1988. The history of policy and law in Sri Lanka however goes back much further in history. In 1848, the Timber Ordinance No.24 was signed for the reservation of forests, in 1873, Hooker advocated the protection of natural forests above 5000 feet as climatic reserves and in 1938 a law was passed prohibiting the removal of forest above 5000 feet. In 1885 Forest Ordinance No.10 for the Conservation of forests saw some protection of forests primarily for wood production. However this was restricted in that in sanctuaries, in that habitats were only protected only on state land, in 1964 Amendment Act No.44 in 1964 saw the nature reserve and jungle corridor formally recognised as categories of Sri Lankas protected areas national reserve. In 1982 the Mahaweli Environmental Project established a network of protected areas to protect the effects of deforestation on wildlife, the government also introduced a logging ban that was implemented in all natural forests in Sri Lanka under the Forestry Sector Development Programme. In 1993 Amendment Act No.49 also added Refuge, marine reserves, government policies are focused primarily on timber production and tree plantations. The Sri Lankan government working in conjunction with multi-national institutions have seen a change in timber harvesting in Sri Lanka for the cause of sustainable development. Commercial plantations have gradually been brought under management system in Sri Lanka to produce wood in an economically efficient, the harvesting, processing and the sale of wood products from state forests is conducted by the State Timber Corporation, which the Sri Lankan government owns. Other major sustainable forest plantation projects were funded by IDA/World Bank, USAID. In 1995, the Sri Lankan government approved the National Forest Policy, with the focus on conservation
6. Deforestation of the Amazon rainforest – Deforestation of the Amazon rainforest accelerated significantly between 1991 and 2004, reaching an annual forest loss rate of 27,423 km² in 2004. Though the rate of deforestation has been slowing since 2004, the remaining forest cover continues to dwindle, the Amazon rainforest represents over half of the planets remaining rainforests, and comprises the largest and most biodiverse tract of tropical rainforest in the world. 60% of the forest is contained within Brazil, followed by Peru with 13%, Colombia with 10%, by 1995, 70% of formerly forested land in the Amazon, and 91% of land deforested since 1970, had been converted to cattle ranching. Much of the remaining deforestation within the Amazon has resulted from farmers clearing land for subsistence agriculture or mechanized cropland producing soy, palm. In the pre-Colombian era, parts of the Amazon Rainforest were a densely populated open agricultural landscape. After the European invasion in the 16th century, with the hunt for gold, Western diseases, slavery and later and the boom, the Amazon Rainforest was depopulated. Prior to the 1970s, access to the forests largely roadless interior was difficult, Deforestation accelerated greatly following the opening of highways deep into the forest, such as the Trans-Amazonian highway in 1972. Parts of the Amazon the poor soil had made plantation-based agriculture unprofitable, the key turning point in deforestation of the Brazilian Amazon was when colonists began to establish farms within the forest during the 1960s. Their farming system was based on cultivation and the slash-and-burn method. However, the colonists were unable to manage their fields. Amazonian colonization was ruled by cattle raising because ranching required little labor, generated decent profits, additionally, grass is able to grow in the poor Amazon soil. However, the abundance of cattle ranching led to extensive deforestation, an estimated 30 percent of the deforestation is due to the actions of small farmers. This emphasizes the importance of using previously cleared land for agricultural use, in the Brazilian Amazon, the proportion of small farmers to large landholders changes frequently with economic and demographic pressures. Law 840 met widespread resistance and was repealed by Perus legislature for being unconstitutional. Deforestation of the Amazon rainforest can be attributed to different factors at local, national. The rainforest is seen as a resource for cattle pasture, valuable hardwoods, housing space, farming space, road works, additional deforestation in the Amazon has resulted from farmers clearing land for small-scale subsistence agriculture or for mechanized cropland. Scientists using NASA satellite data found in 2006 that clearing for mechanized cropland had become a significant force in Brazilian Amazon deforestation and this change in land use may alter the regions climate. Researchers found that in 2003, a year of deforestation
7. Forestry – Forestry is the science and craft of creating, managing, using, conserving, and repairing forests and associated resources to meet desired goals, needs, and values for human and environment benefits. Forestry is practiced in plantations and natural stands, the science of forestry has elements that belong to the biological, physical, social, political and managerial sciences. A practitioner of forestry is known as a forester, other terms are used a verderer and a silviculturalist being common ones. Silviculture is narrower than forestry, being concerned only with forest plants, Forest ecosystems have come to be seen as the most important component of the biosphere, and forestry has emerged as a vital applied science, craft, and technology. Forestry is an important economic segment in various industrial countries, the preindustrial age has been dubbed by Werner Sombart and others as the wooden age, as timber and firewood were the basic resources for energy, construction and housing. The development of forestry is closely connected with the rise of capitalism, economy as a science and varying notions of land use. Roman Latifundiae, large estates, were quite successful in maintaining the large supply of wood that was necessary for the Roman Empire. Large deforestations came with respectively after the decline of the Romans, however already in the 5th century, monks in the then Byzantine Romagna on the Adriatic coast, were able to establish stone pine plantations to provide fuelwood and food. This was the beginning of the massive forest mentioned by Dante Alighieri in his 1308 poem Divine Comedy, the use and management of many forest resources has a long history in China as well, dating back to the Han Dynasty and taking place under the landowning gentry. A similar approach was used in Japan and it was also later written about by the Ming Dynasty Chinese scholar Xu Guangqi. In Europe, land rights in medieval and early modern times allowed different users to access forests. The notion of commons refers to the traditional legal term of common land. The idea of enclosed private property came about during modern times, however, most hunting rights were retained by members of the nobility which preserved the right of the nobility to access and use common land for recreation, like fox hunting. Systematic management of forests for a yield of timber is said to have begun in the German states in the 14th century, e. g. in Nuremberg. Typically, a forest was divided into sections and mapped. Large firs in the black forest were called „Holländer“, as they were traded to the Dutch ship yards, large timber rafts on the Rhine were 200 to 400m in length, 40m in width and consisted of several thousand logs. The crew consisted of 400 to 500 men, including shelter, bakeries, ovens, timber rafting infrastructure allowed for large interconnected networks all over continental Europe and is still of importance in Finland. The notion of Nachhaltigkeit, sustainability in forestry, is connected to the work of Hans Carl von Carlowitz
8. Latin America – Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Americas where Romance languages are predominant. It is therefore broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America—though it usually excludes French Canada and it has an area of approximately 19,197,000 km2, almost 13% of the Earths land surface area. As of 2015, its population was estimated at more than 626 million and in 2014, Latin America had a combined nominal GDP of 5,573,397 million USD and a GDP PPP of 7,531,585 million USD. The term Latin America was first used in 1861 in La revue des races Latines, a further investigation of the concept of Latin America is by Michel Gobat in the American Historical Review. The term was first used in Paris in an 1856 conference by the Chilean politician Francisco Bilbao and this term was also used in 1861 by French scholars in La revue des races Latines, a magazine dedicated to the Pan-Latinism movement. Latin America is, therefore, defined as all parts of the Americas that were once part of the Spanish. By this definition, Latin America is coterminous with Ibero-America and this definition emphasizes a similar socioeconomic history of the region, which was characterized by formal or informal colonialism, rather than cultural aspects. As such, some sources avoid this oversimplification by using the phrase Latin America, the distinction between Latin America and Anglo-America is a convention based on the predominant languages in the Americas by which Romance-language and English-speaking cultures are distinguished. Latin America can be subdivided into several subregions based on geography, politics, demographics and it may be subdivided on linguistic grounds into Hispanic America, Portuguese America and French America. *, Not a sovereign state The concept of Latin America has been criticized by a number of intellectuals, the earliest known settlement was identified at Monte Verde, near Puerto Montt in Southern Chile. Its occupation dates to some 14,000 years ago and there is disputed evidence of even earlier occupation. Over the course of millennia, people spread to all parts of the continents, by the first millennium CE, South Americas vast rainforests, mountains, plains and coasts were the home of tens of millions of people. Some groups formed more permanent settlements such as the Chibcha and the Tairona groups and these groups are in the circum Caribbean region. The Chibchas of Colombia, the Quechuas and Aymaras of Bolivia, the region was home to many indigenous peoples and advanced civilizations, including the Aztecs, Toltecs, Maya, and Inca. The Aztec empire was ultimately the most powerful civilization known throughout the Americas, with the arrival of the Europeans following Christopher Columbus voyages, the indigenous elites, such as the Incas and Aztecs, lost power to the heavy European invasion. Hernándo Cortés seized the Aztec elites power with the help of local groups who had favored the Aztec elite, epidemics of diseases brought by the Europeans, such as smallpox and measles, wiped out a large portion of the indigenous population. Historians cannot determine the number of natives who died due to European diseases, due to the lack of written records, specific numbers are hard to verify. Many of the survivors were forced to work in European plantations, intermixing between the indigenous peoples and the European colonists was very common, and, by the end of the colonial period, people of mixed ancestry formed majorities in several colonies
9. Deforestation by region – Rates and causes of deforestation vary from region to region around the world. In 2009, 2/3 of the forests were in 10 top countries, 1) Russia, 2) Brazil, 3) Canada, 4) United States, 5) China, 6) Australia, 7) Congo, 8) Indonesia, 9) Peru. World annual deforestation is estimated as 13.7 million hectares a year, only half of this area is compensated by new forests or forest growth. In addition to directly human-induced deforestation, the forests have also been affected by climate change, increasing risks of storms. Kyoto protocol includes the agreement to prevent deforestation but not the actions to fulfill it, Africa is suffering deforestation at twice the world rate, according to the United Nations Environment Programme. Some sources claim that deforestation has already wiped out roughly 90% of West Africas original forests, Deforestation is accelerating in Central Africa. According to the FAO, Africa lost the highest percentage of forests of any continent during the 1980s, 1990s. According to the figures from the FAO, only 22. 8% of West Africas moist forests remain, Nigeria has lost 81% of its old-growth forests in just 15 years. Massive deforestation threatens food security in some African countries, one factor contributing to the continents high rates of deforestation is the dependence of 90% of its population on wood as fuel for heating and cooking. Deforestation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo has been caused partly by unregulated logging and mining, in the east of the country, for example, more than 3 million people live less than a days walk from Virunga National Park. Wood from the forests is used by many of those people as firewood, as lumber for construction. Deforestation caused by subsistence living is a threat to the park in general. The main cause of deforestation in the East African country of Ethiopia is a population and subsequent higher demand for agriculture, livestock production. Other reasons include low education and inactivity from the government, although the current government has taken steps to tackle deforestation. Organizations such as Farm Africa are working with the federal and local governments to create a system of forest management, Ethiopia, the third largest country in Africa by population, has been hit by famine many times because of shortages of rain and a depletion of natural resources. Deforestation has lowered the chance of getting rain, which is already low, bercele Bayisa, an Ethiopian farmer, offers one example why deforestation occurs. He said that his district was forested and full of wildlife, Ethiopia has lost 98% of its forested regions in the last 50 years. At the beginning of the 20th century, around 420,000 km² or 35% of Ethiopias land was covered with forests, recent reports indicate that forests cover less than 14. 2% or even only 11. 9% as of 2005