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1. Changa Manga – The Changa Manga is a planted forest which includes a wildlife preserve, in the Kasur and Lahore districts of Punjab, Pakistan. It is located approximately 80 kilometers south-west of Lahore and it was once the largest man-made forest in the world but has undergone illegal deforestation at a massive scale in recent times. Changa Manga is known widely as one of the oldest hand-planted forests in the world. The forest is home to 14 species of mammals,50 species of birds, six species of reptiles, thus, other than producing timber for the local industry, the forest also serves as an important wildlife reserve. Named after two brother dacoits, the Changa Manga forest was planted in 1866 by British foresters. Its trees were harvested to fuel and resources for the engines employed in the North-Western railway networks. The name of the forest is derived from an amalgamation of the names of two brother dacoits, Changa and Manga, the dacoits were a constant source of terror for the law-abiding citizens of the districts in the 19th century as they would hold up and plunder any passing trader. The robbers had a den in the heart of the forest where they sought shelter from the British peacekeepers. The robbers were eventually captured by the police and became the inspiration for the name of the forest site, soon afterwards, Salvation Army opened up a camp at the forest site as a place for reformation of criminals. The Changa Manga forest can be entered from a road off the N-5 Highway near Bhai Pheru, at present, the forest covers an area of 48.6 square kilometres. It was once the largest man-made forest in the world but massive deforestation has reduced it to less than half its original size and it is also known as one of the oldest hand-planted forests in the world. The forest plantation dates back to 1866 and was planned to fill the need for timber, the most common species of flora are Dalbergia sissoo and Acacia nilotica, both members of the Fabaceae and native to the Indian subcontinent. Morus alba was also introduced to the plantation and became popular in cultivation throughout South Asia, the forest also has several species of Eucalyptus and Populus. In 1864, the North-Western Railway found itself starved of resources, such a block of land was allocated for the Kasur district at the Chunian tehsil on the Lahore-Karachi railway line. This particular area of land was a scrub jungle with thorn forest land. The land was populated by the Gondhal and Sansi gypsies. The British replaced the population of the Gondhals and Sansis with an influx of cultivators from older cultivated lands, in preparation for cultivation, the land was slashed and burnt to rid the landscape of thorn forest and dry scrub growth. The unruly scrubs of the dry jungles were gradually turned into plains ready for irrigation and he planned to cultivate the land with the plantation of Morus alba and Dalbergia sissoo
2. Deforestation – Deforestation, clearance or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use. Examples of deforestation include conversion of forestland to farms, ranches, the most concentrated deforestation occurs in tropical rainforests. About 30% of Earths land surface is covered by forests, Deforestation occurs for multiple reasons, trees are cut down to be used for building or sold as fuel, while cleared land is used as pasture for livestock and plantation. The removal of trees without sufficient reforestation has resulted in damage to habitat, biodiversity loss and it has adverse impacts on biosequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Deforestation has also used in war to deprive the enemy of cover for its forces. Modern examples of this were the use of Agent Orange by the British military in Malaya during the Malayan Emergency, as of 2005, net deforestation rates have ceased to increase in countries with a per capita GDP of at least US$4,600. Deforested regions typically incur significant adverse soil erosion and frequently degrade into wasteland, disregard of ascribed value, lax forest management and deficient environmental laws are some of the factors that allow deforestation to occur on a large scale. In many countries, deforestation, both naturally occurring and human-induced, is an ongoing issue, Deforestation causes extinction, changes to climatic conditions, desertification, and displacement of populations as observed by current conditions and in the past through the fossil record. More than half of all plant and land animal species in the live in tropical forests. Between 2000 and 2012,2.3 million square kilometres of forests around the world were cut down, as a result of deforestation, only 6.2 million square kilometres remain of the original 16 million square kilometres of forest that formerly covered the Earth. According to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change secretariat, subsistence farming is responsible for 48% of deforestation, commercial agriculture is responsible for 32%, logging is responsible for 14%, and fuel wood removals make up 5%. Experts do not agree on whether industrial logging is an important contributor to global deforestation, some argue that poor people are more likely to clear forest because they have no alternatives, others that the poor lack the ability to pay for the materials and labour needed to clear forest. One study found that population increases due to fertility rates were a primary driver of tropical deforestation in only 8% of cases. Other causes of contemporary deforestation may include corruption of government institutions, the distribution of wealth and power, population growth and overpopulation. Globalization is often viewed as another cause of deforestation, though there are cases in which the impacts of globalization have promoted localized forest recovery. The degradation of forest ecosystems has also traced to economic incentives that make forest conversion appear more profitable than forest conservation. Some commentators have noted a shift in the drivers of deforestation over the past 30 years, Deforestation is ongoing and is shaping climate and geography. Deforestation is a contributor to global warming, and is cited as one of the major causes of the enhanced greenhouse effect
3. Deforestation and climate change – Deforestation is one of the main causes of climate change. It is the second largest anthropogenic source of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, deforestation and forest degradation contribute to atmospheric greenhouse gas emissions through combustion of forest biomass and decomposition of remaining plant material and soil carbon. It used to account for more than 20% of carbon dioxide emissions, by 2008, deforestation was 12% of total CO2, or 15% if peatlands are included. These proportions are likely to have fallen since given the rise of fossil fuel use. Averaged over all land and ocean surfaces, temperatures warmed roughly 1.53 °F between 1880 and 2012, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, in the Northern Hemisphere,1983 to 2012 were the warmest 30-year period of the last 1400 years. If any one type is removed from the system, the cycle can break down, reforestation is the natural or intentional restocking of existing forests and woodlands that have been depleted, usually through deforestation. It is the reestablishment of forest cover either naturally or artificially, afforestation is the establishment of a forest or stand of trees in an area where there was no forest. Although China has set goals for reforestation, these goals were set for an 80-year time horizon and were not significantly met by 2008. China is trying to correct problems with projects such as the Green Wall of China. A law promulgated in 1981 requires that every school student over the age of 11 plant at least one tree per year, but average success rates, especially in state-sponsored plantings, remains relatively low. And even the properly planted trees have had difficulty surviving the combined impacts of prolonged droughts, pest infestation. Nonetheless, China currently has the highest afforestation rate of any country or region in the world, the primary goal of afforestation projects in Japan is to develop the forest structure of the nation and to maintain the biodiversity found in the Japanese wilderness. The Japanese temperate rainforest is scattered throughout the Japanese archipelago and is home to endemic species that are not naturally found anywhere else. As development of the caused an decline in forest cover. Agroforestry or agro-sylviculture is a land use management system in which trees or shrubs are grown around or among crops or pastureland and it combines agricultural and forestry technologies to create more diverse, productive, profitable, healthy, and sustainable land-use systems. They work on projects focused on planting trees around campuses, low-income communities and its initial target was the planting of one billion trees in 2007. Only one year later in 2008, the objective was raised to 7 billion trees—a target to be met by the climate change conference that was held in Copenhagen. Three months before the conference, the 7 billion planted trees mark had been surpassed, considered the largest reserve of biological diversity in the world, the Amazon Basin is also the largest Brazilian biome, taking up almost half the nation’s territory
4. Deforestation by region – Rates and causes of deforestation vary from region to region around the world. In 2009, 2/3 of the forests were in 10 top countries, 1) Russia, 2) Brazil, 3) Canada, 4) United States, 5) China, 6) Australia, 7) Congo, 8) Indonesia, 9) Peru. World annual deforestation is estimated as 13.7 million hectares a year, only half of this area is compensated by new forests or forest growth. In addition to directly human-induced deforestation, the forests have also been affected by climate change, increasing risks of storms. Kyoto protocol includes the agreement to prevent deforestation but not the actions to fulfill it, Africa is suffering deforestation at twice the world rate, according to the United Nations Environment Programme. Some sources claim that deforestation has already wiped out roughly 90% of West Africas original forests, Deforestation is accelerating in Central Africa. According to the FAO, Africa lost the highest percentage of forests of any continent during the 1980s, 1990s. According to the figures from the FAO, only 22. 8% of West Africas moist forests remain, Nigeria has lost 81% of its old-growth forests in just 15 years. Massive deforestation threatens food security in some African countries, one factor contributing to the continents high rates of deforestation is the dependence of 90% of its population on wood as fuel for heating and cooking. Deforestation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo has been caused partly by unregulated logging and mining, in the east of the country, for example, more than 3 million people live less than a days walk from Virunga National Park. Wood from the forests is used by many of those people as firewood, as lumber for construction. Deforestation caused by subsistence living is a threat to the park in general. The main cause of deforestation in the East African country of Ethiopia is a population and subsequent higher demand for agriculture, livestock production. Other reasons include low education and inactivity from the government, although the current government has taken steps to tackle deforestation. Organizations such as Farm Africa are working with the federal and local governments to create a system of forest management, Ethiopia, the third largest country in Africa by population, has been hit by famine many times because of shortages of rain and a depletion of natural resources. Deforestation has lowered the chance of getting rain, which is already low, bercele Bayisa, an Ethiopian farmer, offers one example why deforestation occurs. He said that his district was forested and full of wildlife, Ethiopia has lost 98% of its forested regions in the last 50 years. At the beginning of the 20th century, around 420,000 km² or 35% of Ethiopias land was covered with forests, recent reports indicate that forests cover less than 14. 2% or even only 11. 9% as of 2005
5. Deforestation in Borneo – In the 1980s and 1990s the forests of Borneo underwent a dramatic transition. They were levelled at a rate unparalleled in history, burned, logged and cleared. Half of the annual global tropical timber acquisition comes from Borneo. Furthermore, palm oil plantations are rapidly encroaching on the last remnants of primary rainforest, much of the forest clearance is illegal. The Borneo mountain rainforests lie in the highlands of the island. These areas represent habitat for endangered species, such as orangutans and elephants. As well as Borneos importance in biodiversity conservation and as a carbon sink, the Malaysian states of Sarawak and Sabah, in the north, occupy about 26% of the island. The forested area here shrank rapidly due to heavy logging for the Malaysian plywood industry, indigenous peoples of Malaysia have been impacted by logging without their free, prior and informed consent in their ancestral forests. They have used peaceful demonstrations and social media advocacy to raise awareness of their rights to the forest, questions about how and why logging licenses were granted without community consent remain unaddressed. During the great fire, hotspots could be seen on satellite images, in February 2008, the Malaysian government announced the Sarawak Corridor of Renewable Energy plan to harvest the virgin hinterlands of northern Borneo. Further deforestation and destruction of the biodiversity are anticipated in the wake of logging commissions, hydroelectric dams and other mining of minerals and resources. Approximately 73% of the island is Indonesian territory, the Indonesian name for the island, the Mega Rice Project was initiated in 1996 in the southern sections of Kalimantan. The goal was to one million hectares of unproductive and sparsely populated peat swamp forest into rice paddies in an effort to alleviate Indonesias growing food shortage. The government made an investment in constructing irrigation canals and removing trees. The project did not succeed, and was abandoned after causing considerable damage to the environment. The peat swamp forest in the south of Kalimantan is an ecology that is home to many unique or rare species such as orangutans, as well as to slow-growing. Peat is a store of carbon. If broken down and burned it contributes to CO2 emissions, considered a source of global warming, the water channels, and the roads and railways built for legal forestry, opened up the region to illegal forestry
6. Deforestation in Brazil – Brazil once had the highest deforestation rate in the world and in 2005 still had the largest area of forest removed annually. Since 1970, over 600,000 square kilometers of the Amazon rainforest have been destroyed, in 2012, the Amazon was approximately 5.4 million square kilometres, which is only 87% of the Amazons original state. Rainforests have decreased in size due to deforestation. Despite reductions in the rate of deforestation in the last ten years, between May 2000 and August 2006, Brazil lost nearly 150,000 square kilometres of forest, an area larger than that of Greece. According to the Living Planet Report 2010, deforestation is continuing at an alarming rate, in the 1940s Brazil began a program of national development for the Amazon Basin. Everything which has up to now been done in Amazonas, whether in agriculture or extractive industry, must be transformed into rational exploitation. Extensive transportation projects, such as the Trans-Amazon Highway, were promoted in 1970, before the 1960s, much of the forest remained intact due to the restrictions in access to the Amazon aside from partial clearing along the river banks. The poor soil also made plantation-based agriculture unprofitable, the key point in deforestation of the Amazon was when the colonists established farms within the forest during the 1960s. Their farming system was based on cultivation and the slash. The colonists were unable to manage their fields and the crops due to the loss of soil fertility. The soils in the Amazon are productive for just a short period of time. However, the results of farming have led to deforestation and have caused extensive environmental damage. This emphasizes the importance of using previously cleared land for agricultural use, in the Brazilian Amazon, the number of small farmers versus large landholders changes frequently with economic and demographic pressures. This act paved the way for clearing areas of forest for cattle production as developers sought to gain a financial profit from land with which they were provided. The forest was also exploited for timber, which provided Brazil a way of paying off international debt, by the late 1980s, an area the size of England, Scotland and Wales was being removed annually. The annual rate of deforestation in the Amazon region has continued to increase from 1990 to 2003 because of factors at local, national, 70% of formerly forested land in the Amazon, and 91% of land deforested since 1970, is used for livestock pasture. The Brazilian government initially attributed 38% of all forest loss between 1966 and 1975 to large-scale cattle ranching, the removal of forest to make way for cattle ranching was the leading cause of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon from the mid-1960s. Cattle Ranching is not an environmental investment though, cattle emit large amounts of methane into the environment
7. Deforestation in British Columbia – Deforestation is the long-term removal of trees from a forested site to permit other site uses such as agriculture, urbanization, transportation and forestry processes. The deforestation in British Columbia has occurred at a heavy rate during periods of the past, in British Columbia, forests cover over 55 million hectares, which is 57. 9% of British Columbias 95 million hectares of land. The forests are composed of coniferous trees, such as pines, spruces. Deforestation has negative impacts on British Columbias environment and diversity even though it is necessary for population expansion, carbon emissions from deforestation is an important issue to look at with the increasing problem of global warming. The reduction in deforestation B. C. has had over the years has been favourable to the reduction in carbon emissions, there are currently 116 species, which is approximately 10% of species in B. C. that are on the B. C. Conservation Data Centre′s Red List which are endangered species associated with the forest, Deforestation events such as agriculture, introduction of exotic species and timber production threaten the species. After deforestation events, the replanting of trees also had a decrease in diversity of the number of species per area due to dominated by single tree species. Currently, changes have made in replanting strategies by planting different species in one area. The soil composition is affected by different deforestation processes of removing trees as it changes the soil productivity through compaction or removal. The soil holds more than just the nutrients and plants in the forests, it consists of material, organic matter, air, water. New stricter enforcement of laws regarding soil disturbance has dramatically reduced the degree of soil disturbances to the area from 43 enforcement actions in 1995 to only 3 in 2008. Soil conservation is an important environmental issue to consider as it maintains water quality, ecosystem productivity, water is an essential part to the ecosystem of forests including the plants and animal species survival, stream, rivers and lakes habitats and also human activities. The act of deforestation can affect the quality of water, quantity of water as well as the ecosystems located in the forests. When deforestation takes place by the forest sector, the quality can be affected by sedimentation, pollution. With 87% of the area within the deforested area being in properly functioning conditions. The passage of fish species to upstream and downstream habitats can be a part of survival and can be affected by deforestation practices. With only 42% of the road stream crossings having a low effect on the passage of fish species, the remainder of crossings have a high to moderate risk of limiting fish passage. With an increase in stream crossings by roads from 421,830 in 2000 to 488,674 in 2005, a strategic plan is in process to address the fish passage concern
8. Deforestation in Cambodia – Cambodia is one of the world’s most forest endowed country that has not yet been drastically deforested. However, massive deforestation for economic development threatens Cambodia’s forests and ecosystems, Cambodia has one of the highest rates of deforestation in the world, third only to Nigeria and Vietnam, according to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. The Cambodian government has played a role in shaping the use of the countrys forests. The fate of Cambodia’s forests will largely affect local communities rely on the forests for their livelihood. Deforestation has directly resulted from poorly managed commercial logging, fuel wood collection, agricultural invasion, indirect pressures include rapid population growth, inequalities in land tenure, lack of agriculture technology, and limited employment opportunities. Cambodias primary forest cover fell dramatically from over 70% in 1970 at the end of the Vietnam War to just 3. 1% in 2007, deforestation is proceeding at an alarming rate, with a total forest loss at nearly 75% since the end of the 1990s. In total, Cambodia lost 25,000 square kilometres of forest between 1990 and 2005,3,340 square kilometres of which was primary forest. As of 2007, less than 3,220 square kilometres of primary forest remain, with the result that the future sustainability of Cambodias forest reserves is under severe threat. Open Development Cambodia, an NGO in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, most forest cover loss occurred after 2000. In an effort to conserve forest cover, a harvest limit of 10m3 per hectare has been established and this number was chosen in consideration of a forest growth of 0. 3m3/ha/yr and a 35 year cutting cycle. The RGC has set a Cambodia Millennium Development Goal to maintain national cover of 60% of total area by 2015. This would require 532,615 hectares of non-forest land to be converted to tree plantation, although all 21 provinces had forests before the war, its preservation was very uneven until 1993. Regions with the highest forest coverage are in districts such as Preach Vihear with 93%, Koh Kong with 92%. Areas with the lowest forest coverage are in the Mekong delta region such as Prey Veng with 2%, Svay Ring with 2%, if the Cambodian government does not move toward more sustainable forest management, then the value of Cambodia’s forests is likely to decline. The Cambodian government, the Royal Government of Cambodia, sees potential in Cambodia’s forests to further Cambodia’s development. The government can use timber exports to foreign currencies and create necessary revenue to support reconstruction. The World Bank considered the forest to be “one of the few important resources for development in Cambodia. ”Starting in 1992, forest revenues as a percent of total government revenues decreased from 14 percent in 1994 to 5 percent in 1996. Some forest policies have been reformed however the causes of deforestation cannot be fixed solely through policy, despite potential gains from utilizing forest resources, the government has faced pressures from domestic and international groups that are concerned about deforestation
9. Deforestation in Central America – Central American countries have experienced cycles of deforestation and reforestation since the decline of Maya civilization, influenced by many factors such as population growth and agriculture. From 2001 to 2010,5,376 square kilometres of forest were lost in the region, in 2010 Belize had 63% of remaining forest cover, Costa Rica 46%, Panama 45%, Honduras 41%, Guatemala 37%, Nicaragua 29%, and El Salvador 21%. Most of the loss occurred in the moist forest biome, with 12,201 square kilometers, woody vegetation loss was partially set off by a plus in the coniferous forest biome with 4,730 km2, and at 2,054 km2. Mangroves and deserts contributed only 1% to the loss in forest vegetation, the bulk of the deforestation was located at the Caribbean slopes of Nicaragua with a minus of 8,574 square kilometers of forest lost in the period from 2001 to 2010. The most significant regrowth of 3,050 km2 of forest was seen in the woody vegetation of Honduras. The history of most Central American countries involves cycles of deforestation and reforestation, for the Ancient Mayan culture at Copan, Honduras, the process of clearing large amounts of land for their agricultural-based society surpassed the forests ability to replenish naturally. Besides the clearing of land for farmland, Mayans consumed vast quantities of wood as fuel and building materials, eventually, the lack of firewood may have caused health problems among those who were unable to properly cook their food or warm their habitations. By the fifteenth century, intensive Mayan agriculture had significantly thinned the forests, before Europeans arrived, forests covered 500,000 square kilometers – approximately 90% of the region. The arrival of the Spaniards caused a decrease in population resulting from the highly contagious diseases introduced by the conquistadores. This reduction in human pressure gave much of the land that had been cleared for cultivation time to recover, from the eighteenth to the twentieth century, mahogany exports for furniture became the major cause of forest exhaustion. The region experienced economic change in the century through a fuller integration in the world capitalist system. This, combined with conflict with Spain, put a greater emphasis on plantation cropping. Most recently, as of the 1960s, cattle ranching has become the reason for land clearing. This demonstrates how the world has had an indirect influence on the environment. Logging is another factor that increases deforestation in multiple ways, furthermore, all forms of logging necessitate the building of roads, which generates easy access to those seeking new land to clear for agriculture. The use of wood as the fuel for cooking and heating is compounded by developing countries inability to pay high oil prices. As a result, the demand for firewood is one of the most commonly cited causes of deforestation, the so-called hamburger connection is not the only example of the indirect impact that consumers in North America have on the environment and landscape in Central America. The pervasion of the drug trade throughout the region decimates forestland and is primarily fueled by demand for narcotics in North America
10. Deforestation in Colombia – Colombia loses 2,000 km2 of forest annually to deforestation, according to the United Nations in 2003. Some suggest that figure is as high as 3,000 km² due to illegal logging in the region. Around one-third of the original forest has been removed as a result of deforestation. Deforestation in Colombia is mainly targeted at primary rainforest which covers more than 80% of Colombia and this has a profound ecological impact in that Colombia is extremely rich in biodiversity, with 10% of the worlds species, making it the second most biologically diverse country on Earth. One of the causes of deforestation in Colombia is the national Plan Pacifico which is intended to raise revenue to develop the economy. The plan includes exploitation of Colombias rainforests for the extraction of natural resources for exportation. Under the regime of President Virgilio Barco Vargas, a development scheme was initiated involving $4.5 billion in investments to develop the Colombian Pacific Coast in Choco Department, other plans for road construction throughout Chocó which intended to catapult economic production in Colombia have had unintended negative consequences. The Japanese government has financed the construction of a road which links the Pacific coast to inland forest regions to facilitate trade. This forest clearing also accounts for great habitat destruction for creatures dwelling in the Columbian forests, for example, the cotton-top tamarin is considered to be critically endangered, and ranks highly on the list of The Worlds 25 Most Endangered Primates. Habitat destruction through forest clearing is the cause of this collapse. Local initiatives, like Proyecto Tití for cotton-top tamarins, have created to raise awareness of such cases. Exploitation of communities through palm oil expansion has resulted in violence. The biologically rich forests of Colombias Pacific Coast have also affected by gold mining. The cultivation, production, and distribution of narcotics in Colombia has also had a profound impact on deforestation. An estimated 100,000 acres are allocated each year to grow coca, marijuana, poverty and inequality in land tenure and use also play a role in deforestation in Colombia. Landowners who make up 3% of Colombias population own over 70% of arable land, Colombia has made great strides in protecting vast areas of land from deforestation through the creation of national parks, however, enforcement is by no means completely effective. The sale of protected land though government corruption is not uncommon, one notorious example is the attempted government conversion of the Tayrona forest on Colombias Atlantic Coast into a national park in 1980