Transport in Australia
There are many forms of transport in Australia. Australia is highly dependent on road transport, There are more than 300 airports with paved runways. Passenger rail transport includes widespread commuter networks in the capital cities with more limited intercity. The Australian mining sector is reliant upon rail to transport its product to Australias ports for export, Road transport is an essential element of the Australian transport network, and an enabler of the Australian economy. There is a reliance on road transport due to Australias large area. Another reason for the reliance upon roads is that the Australian rail network has not been developed for a lot of the freight. This has meant that goods that would otherwise be transported by rail are moved across Australia via road trains, almost every household owns at least one car, and uses it most days. Australia has the second highest level of car ownership in the world and it has three to four times more road per capita than Europe and seven to nine times more than Asia.
Australia has the third highest per capita rate of consumption in the world. Melbourne is the most car-dependent city in Australia, according to a survey in the 2010s. Having over 110,000 more cars driving to and from the city each day than Sydney, Perth and Brisbane are rated as being close behind. All these capital cities are rated among the highest in this category in the world, the distance travelled by car in Australia is among the highest in the world, being exceeded by USA and Canada. There are 3 different categories of Australian roads and they are federal highways, state highways and local roads. The road network comprises a total of 913,000 km broken down into, paved,353,331 km unpaved,559,669 km Victoria has the largest network, with thousands of arterial roads to add. The majority of tunnels in Australia have been constructed since the 1990s to relieve traffic congestion in metropolitan areas. Sydney, Brisbane and Adelaide have extensive electric commuter rail networks which have grown, Australian commuter rail typically operates with bidirectional all day services with Sydney and Melbournes systems operating with much higher frequencies, particularly in their underground cores.
Sydney Trains operates the busiest system in the country with approximately 1 million trips per day, Metro Trains Melbourne operates a larger system albeit with a lower number of trips. Melbourne is an exception and today has the largest tram network of any city in the world
This pricing strategy regulates demand, making it possible to manage congestion without increasing supply. Implementation of congestion pricing has reduced congestion in areas, but has sparked criticism. Congestion pricing has been used by telephone and electric utilities, metros and autobus services. Congestion pricing is one of a number of alternative demand side strategies offered by economists to address traffic congestion, Congestion is considered a negative externality by economists. Congestion pricing is a pricing strategy that requires the users to pay more for that public good. Nobel-laureate William Vickrey is considered by some to be the father of congestion pricing, also, it was considered by the Smeed Report, published by the British Ministry of Transport in 1964, but its recommendations were rejected by successive British governments. The quantity supplied is less than the quantity demanded at what is essentially a price of zero. If a good or service is provided free of charge, people tend to more of it—and use it more wastefully—than they would if they had to pay a price that reflected its cost.
For the broader concept on roads charges see road pricing, practical implementations of road congestion pricing are found almost exclusively in urban areas, because traffic congestion is common in and around city centers. Autoroute A1 in Northern France is one of the few cases of congestion pricing implemented outside of urban areas, thanks to technological advances in electronic toll collection, electronic detection, and video surveillance technology, collecting congestion fees has become easier. In January 2008 Milan began a trial program called Ecopass, charging low emission standard vehicles and exempting cleaner. The Ecopass program was extended until December 31,2011, and on January 16,2012 was replaced by Area C, the Gothenburg congestion tax was implemented in January 2013 and it was modeled after the Stockholm scheme. Also, all cities report public controversy before and after implementation, in 2010 the Land Transport Authority began exploring the potential of Global Navigation Satellite System as a technological option for a second generation ERP.
Implementation of such system is not expected in the short term, a proposal by former Mayor of London Ken Livingstone would have resulted in a new pricing structure based on potential CO2 emission rates by October 2008. However, Livingstones successor as Mayor of London, Boris Johnson, Johnson announced in July 2008 that the new CO2 charging structure will no longer be implemented. Among other reasons, he said the charge would encourage travel by thousands of smaller vehicles free of charge. Approved by Mayor Boris Johnson in April 2013, the Ultra Low Emission Discount went into effect on 1 July 2013, the measure was designed to curb the growing number of diesel vehicles on Londons roads. About 20,000 owners of vehicles registered for the Greener Vehicle Discount by June 2013 were granted a three-year sunset period before they have to pay the congestion charge
Transport in China
Transport in China has experienced major growth and expansion in recent years. Airports and railway construction will provide a massive employment boost in China over the next decade, the larger cities have metro systems in operation, under construction, or in the planning stage. The highway and road has gone through rapid expansion. The physical state and comprehensiveness of Chinas transport infrastructure tend to vary widely by geography, much of contemporary Chinas transport systems have been built since the establishment of the Peoples Republic in 1949. Prior to 1950, there were only 21,800 km of railway lines, in 2010, the railway network has since been expanded to 90,000 km. Rail travel remained the most popular form of transport, although air travel has experienced significant growth since the late 1990s, China is in the midst of a massive upgrade of its transport infrastructure. Until recently, Chinas economy was able to continue to grow despite deficiencies in infrastructure development and this is no longer the case, and the Government realizes that to keep the economy moving forward, they need an efficient system in place to move goods and people across the country.
According to World Bank statistics, goods lost due to poor or obsolete transport infrastructure amounted to one percent of Chinas GDP as recently as the most current survey. Logistic costs account for 20% of a price in China, compared to 10% in the United States. Ports are being improved for use of Chinas waterways. Related industries such as equipment, container security. Transport in Mainland China is regulated by a new agency formed from the Ministry of Communications, the Ministry of Railways, the aforementioned transport authorities have no jurisdiction in Hong Kong and Macau. Hong Kongs transport is regulated by Transport Department of Hong Kong whereas Macaus transport is regulated by Land, Public works, rail is the major mode of transport in China. In 2011 Chinas railways carried 2,947 billion tonne-kilometers of freight and 961.23 billion passenger-kilometers, the high volume of traffic that Chinas railway system carries makes it critical to Chinas economy. Chinas railway system carries 24% of the railway transport volume on only 6% of the worlds railways.
China has the worlds third-largest rail network, as of 2010 it is 91,000 km long, about 47% of the network is electrified. In 2011 Chinas railway inventory included 19,431 locomotives owned by the railway system. The remaining locomotives are either diesel- or electric-powered, another 352 locomotives are owned by local railroads and 604 operated by joint-venture railways
A tram is a rail vehicle which runs on tracks along public urban streets, and sometimes on a segregated right of way. The lines or networks operated by tramcars are called tramways, Tramways powered by electricity, the most common type historically, were once called electric street railways. However, trams were used in urban areas before the universal adoption of electrification. Tram lines may run between cities and/or towns, and/or partially grade-separated even in the cities. Very occasionally, trams carry freight, Tram vehicles are usually lighter and shorter than conventional trains and rapid transit trains, but the size of trams is rapidly increasing. Some trams may run on railway tracks, a tramway may be upgraded to a light rail or a rapid transit line. For all these reasons, the differences between the modes of rail transportation are often indistinct. In the United States, the tram has sometimes been used for rubber-tired trackless trains. Today, most trams use electrical power, usually fed by a pantograph, in some cases by a sliding shoe on a third rail.
If necessary, they may have dual power systems — electricity in city streets, trams are now included in the wider term light rail, which includes segregated systems. The English terms tram and tramway are derived from the Scots word tram, referring respectively to a type of truck used in coal mines and the tracks on which they ran. The word tram probably derived from Middle Flemish trame, a Romanesque word meaning the beam or shaft of a barrow or sledge, the identical word la trame with the meaning crossbeam is used in the French language. The word Tram-car is attested from 1873, although the terms tram and tramway have been adopted by many languages, they are not used universally in English, North Americans prefer streetcar, trolley, or trolleycar. The term streetcar is first recorded in 1840, and originally referred to horsecars, when electrification came, Americans began to speak of trolleycars or later, trolleys. The troller design frequently fell off the wires, and was replaced by other more reliable devices.
The terms trolley pole and trolley wheel both derive from the troller, Modern trams often have an overhead pantograph mechanical linkage to connect to power, abandoning the trolley pole altogether. Conventional diesel tourist buses decorated to look like streetcars are sometimes called trolleys in the US, the term may apply to an aerial ropeway, e. g. the Roosevelt Island Tramway. Over time, the trolley has fallen into informal use
Transport in India
Transport forms the backbone of the massive Indian economy. Since the economic liberalisation of the 1990s, infrastructure development has progressed rapidly, today there is a variety of modes of transport by land, however, Indias relatively low GDP per capita has meant that access to transport has not been uniform. Also railways provide an important way of getting around in India. Public transport remains the primary mode of transport for most of the livelihood in India, Indias rail network is the 4th longest and the most heavily used system in the world, transporting 8,224 million passengers and over 969 million tonnes of freight annually, as of 2012. Motor vehicle population in India is low by standards, with only 24.85 million cars on the nations roads as of 2013. In total, about 21 per cent households have two wheelers whereas only 4.7 per cent of households in India have cars/jeeps/vans as per 2011 Census, despite this, the number of deaths caused by traffic is amongst the highest in the world and is still increasing.
The demand for infrastructure and services has been rising by around 10% a year with the current infrastructure being unable to meet these growing demands. In ancient times, even with decent road system, there was no means for transportation, for instance, Adi Sankaracharya travelled all over India from Kalady near Kochi. Walking still constitutes an important mode of transport in urban areas, known as palkis or pallakiis, were one of the luxurious methods used by the rich and noblemen for travelling. This was primarily used in the past to carry a deity or idol of a God, on, it was primarily used by European noblemen and ladies from the upper classes of society prior to the advent of the railways in India. Modern use of the palanquin is limited to Indian weddings and Pilgrimage, Hand-pulled rickshaw is still available in the city of Kolkata wherein a person pulls the rickshaw by hand. The Government of West Bengal proposed a ban on these rickshaws in 2005 describing them as inhuman, though a bill aiming to address this issue, termed as Calcutta Hackney Carriage Bill, was passed by the West Bengal Assembly in 2006, it has not been implemented yet.
The Government of West Bengal is working on an amendment of this bill to avoid the loopholes that got exposed when the Hand-pulled Rickshaw Owners Association filed a petition against the bill, bullock carts have been traditionally used for transport, especially in rural India. The arrival of the British saw drastic improvements in the carriages which were used for transport since early days. Today, they are used in towns and are referred as Tonga or buggies. Victorias of Mumbai are still used for tourist purposes, but horse carriages are now found in the metro cities of India. In recent years large cities have banned the movement of bullock carts, bicycles, or cycles have ownership rates ranging from around 30% to 70% at the state level. Along with walking, cycling accounts for 50 to 75% of the trips for those in the informal sector in urban areas
Spaceflight is ballistic flight into or through outer space. Spaceflight can occur with spacecraft with or without humans on board, examples of human spaceflight include the U. S. Apollo Moon landing and Space Shuttle programs and the Russian Soyuz program, as well as the ongoing International Space Station. Examples of unmanned spaceflight include space probes that leave Earth orbit, as well as satellites in orbit around Earth and these operate either by telerobotic control or are fully autonomous. Spaceflight is used in exploration, and in commercial activities like space tourism. Additional non-commercial uses of spaceflight include space observatories, reconnaissance satellites, a spaceflight typically begins with a rocket launch, which provides the initial thrust to overcome the force of gravity and propels the spacecraft from the surface of the Earth. Once in space, the motion of a spacecraft—both when unpropelled, some spacecraft remain in space indefinitely, some disintegrate during atmospheric reentry, and others reach a planetary or lunar surface for landing or impact.
The first theoretical proposal of space using rockets was published by Scottish astronomer and mathematician William Leitch. More well-known is Konstantin Tsiolkovskys work, Исследование мировых пространств реактивными приборами, spaceflight became an engineering possibility with the work of Robert H. Goddards publication in 1919 of his paper A Method of Reaching Extreme Altitudes. His application of the de Laval nozzle to liquid fuel rockets improved efficiency enough for travel to become possible. He proved in the laboratory that rockets would work in the vacuum of space and his attempt to secure an Army contract for a rocket-propelled weapon in the first World War was defeated by the November 11,1918 armistice with Germany. Nonetheless, Goddards paper was influential on Hermann Oberth, who in turn influenced Wernher von Braun. Von Braun became the first to produce modern rockets as guided weapons, von Brauns V-2 was the first rocket to reach space, at an altitude of 189 kilometers on a June 1944 test flight.
At the end of World War II, von Braun and most of his rocket team surrendered to the United States, over the same period, the Soviet Union secretly tried but failed to develop the N1 rocket to give them the capability to land one person on the Moon. Rockets are the only means currently capable of reaching orbit or beyond, other non-rocket spacelaunch technologies have yet to be built, or remain short of orbital speeds. Spaceports are situated away from human habitation for noise and safety reasons. ICBMs have various special launching facilities, a launch is often restricted to certain launch windows. These windows depend upon the position of bodies and orbits relative to the launch site. The biggest influence is often the rotation of the Earth itself, once launched, orbits are normally located within relatively constant flat planes at a fixed angle to the axis of the Earth, and the Earth rotates within this orbit
A bus is a road vehicle designed to carry many passengers. Buses can have a capacity as high as 300 passengers, many types of buses, such as city transit buses and inter-city coaches, charge a fare. Other types, such as elementary or secondary school buses or shuttle buses within a post-secondary education campus do not charge a fare, in many jurisdictions, bus drivers require a special licence above and beyond a regular drivers licence. Horse-drawn buses were used from the 1820s, followed by steam buses in the 1830s, the first internal combustion engine buses, or motor buses, were used in 1895. Recently, interest has been growing in hybrid electric buses, fuel cell buses, as of the 2010s, bus manufacturing is increasingly globalised, with the same designs appearing around the world. Bus is a form of the Latin word omnibus. The first horse-drawn omnibus service was started by a businessman named Stanislas Baudry in the French city of Nantes in 1823, Nantes citizens soon gave the nickname omnibus to the vehicle.
The omnibus in Nantes was a success and Baudry moved to Paris, a similar service was introduced in London in 1829. The first mechanically propelled omnibus appeared on the streets of London on 22 April 1833, in parallel to the development of the bus was the invention of the electric trolleybus, typically fed through trolley poles by overhead wires. The Siemens brothers, William in England and Ernst Werner in Germany, sir William first proposed the idea in an article to the Journal of the Society of Arts in 1881 as an. arrangement by which an ordinary omnibus. The first such vehicle, the Electromote, was made by his brother Dr. Ernst Werner von Siemens and presented to the public in 1882 in Halensee, Germany. Although this experimental vehicle fulfilled all the criteria of a typical trolleybus. Max Schiemann opened a trolleybus in 1901 near Dresden, in Germany. Although this system operated only until 1904, Schiemann had developed what is now the standard trolleybus current collection system, in the early days, a few other methods of current collection were used.
Leeds and Bradford became the first cities to put trolleybuses into service in Great Britain on 20 June 1911, in Siegerland, two passenger bus lines ran briefly, but unprofitably, in 1895 using a six-passenger motor carriage developed from the 1893 Benz Viktoria. Another commercial bus line using the same model Benz omnibuses ran for a time in 1898 in the rural area around Llandudno. Daimler produced one of the earliest motor-bus models in 1898, the vehicle had a maximum speed of 18 kph and accommodated up to 20 passengers, in an enclosed area below and on an open-air platform above. With the success and popularity of bus, Daimler expanded production, selling more buses to companies in London and, in 1899, to Stockholm
Transportation in the United States
Transportation in the United States is facilitated by road, air and waterways. The vast majority of passenger travel occurs by automobile for shorter distances, in descending order, most cargoes travel by railroad, pipeline, or boat, air shipping is typically used only for perishables and premium express shipments. The overwhelming majority of roads in the United States are owned and maintained by state, federally maintained roads are generally found only on federal lands and at federal facilities. The Interstate Highway System is partly funded by the federal government, there are a few private highways in the United States, which use tolls to pay for construction and maintenance. There are many private roads, generally serving remote or insular residences. Passenger and freight rail systems, bus systems, water ferries, civilian airlines are all privately owned and financed. Most airports are owned and operated by government authorities. The Transportation Security Administration has provided security at most major airports since 2001, each state has its own Department of Transportation, which builds and maintains state highways, and depending upon the state, may either directly operate or supervise other modes of transportation.
Aviation law is almost entirely a matter, while automobile traffic laws are enacted and enforced by state. Economic jurisdiction over tidelands is shared between the state and federal governments, while the United States Coast Guard is the enforcer of law. Passenger transportation is dominated by a network of over 3.9 million miles of highways which is pervasive, Passenger transportation is dominated by passenger vehicles, which account for 86% of passenger-miles traveled. The remaining 14% was handled by planes and buses, the worlds second largest automobile market, the United States has the highest rate of per-capita vehicle ownership in the world, with 865 vehicles per 1,000 Americans. Bicycle usage is minimal with the American Community Survey reporting that bicycle commuting had a 0. 61% mode share in 2012, freight transportation is carried by a variety of networks. The largest percentage of US freight is carried by trucks, followed by pipelines, ship, other modes of transportation, such as parcels and intermodal freight accounted for about 3% of the remainder.
Air freight is commonly used only for perishables and premium express shipments, the difference in percentage of rails share by ton-miles and by weight is accounted for by the extreme efficiency of trains. A single railroad locomotive may pull fifty boxcars full of freight while a truck only pulls one, trucks surpass trains in the weight category due their greater numbers, while trains surpass trucks in the ton-miles category due to the vast distances they travel carrying large amounts of freight. Usually cargo, apart from petroleum and other commodities, is imported in containers through seaports, distributed by road. The quasi-governmental United States Postal Service has a monopoly on letter delivery but several large companies such as FedEx and UPS compete in the package
Trains operate following a schedule, at speeds varying from 50 to 200 km/h. Distance charges or zone pricing may be used and they primarily serve lower density suburban areas, and often share right-of-way with intercity or freight trains. Some services operate only during peak hours and others uses fewer departures during off peak hours, average speeds are high, often 50 km/h or higher. These higher speeds better serve the longer distances involved, some services include express services which skip some stations in order to run faster and separate longer distance riders from short-distance ones. The general range of commuter trains distance varies between 15 and 200 km, sometimes long distances can be explained by that the train runs between two or several cities. Distances between stations may vary, but are much longer than those of urban rail systems. In city centers the train either has a station or passes through the city centre with notably fewer station stops than those of urban rail systems.
Toilets are often available on trains and in stations. Their ability to coexist with freight or intercity services in the same right-of-way can drastically reduce system construction costs, frequently they are built with dedicated tracks within that right-of-way to prevent delays, especially where service densities have converged in the inner parts of the network. Most such trains run on the standard gauge track. Some light rail systems may run on a narrower gauge, some countries, including Finland, Pakistan, Russia and Sri Lanka, as well as San Francisco in the USA and Melbourne and Adelaide in Australia, use broad gauge track. The fact that the terminology is not standardised across countries further complicates matters, most S-bahns typically behave like commuter rail with most trackage not separated from other trains, and long lines with trains running between cities and suburbs rather than within a city. The distances between stations however, are usually short, in larger systems there is usually a high frequency metro-like central corridor in the city center where all the lines converge into.
Typical examples of large city S-Bahns include Munich and Frankfurt, S-Bahns do exist in some mid-size cities like Rostock and Magdeburg but behave more like typical commuter rail with lower frequencies and very little exclusive trackage. A similar network exists in Copenhagen called the S-tog, in Hamburg and Copenhagen, diesel driven trains, do continue where the S-Bahn ends. Regional rail usually provides rail services between towns and cities, rather than purely linking major population hubs in the way inter-city rail does, Regional rail operates outside major cities. Unlike Inter-city, it stops at most or all stations between cities and it provides a service between smaller communities along the line, and connections with long-distance services at interchange stations located at junctions or at larger towns along the line. Alternative names are local train or stopping train, examples include the former BRs Regional Railways, Frances TER, Germanys DB Regio and South Koreas Tonggeun services
Traffic congestion is a condition on transport networks that occurs as use increases, and is characterized by slower speeds, longer trip times, and increased vehicular queueing. The most common example is the use of roads by vehicles. When traffic demand is great enough that the interaction between vehicles slows the speed of the stream, this results in some congestion. As demand approaches the capacity of a road, extreme traffic congestion sets in, when vehicles are fully stopped for periods of time, this is colloquially known as a traffic jam or traffic snarl-up. Traffic congestion can lead to becoming frustrated and engaging in road rage. Mathematically, congestion is usually looked at as the number of vehicles that pass through a point in a window of time, Congestion flow lends itself to principles of fluid dynamics. Traffic congestion occurs when a volume of traffic or modal split generates demand for greater than the available street capacity. About half of U. S. traffic congestion is recurring, Traffic research still cannot fully predict under which conditions a traffic jam may suddenly occur.
It has been found that individual incidents may cause ripple effects which spread out and create a traffic jam when, otherwise. Some traffic engineers have attempted to apply the rules of fluid dynamics to traffic flow, Traffic scientists liken such a situation to the sudden freezing of supercooled fluid. However, unlike a fluid, traffic flow is affected by signals or other events at junctions that periodically affect the smooth flow of traffic. Alternative mathematical theories exist, such as Boris Kerners three-phase traffic theory, because of the poor correlation of theoretical models to actual observed traffic flows, transportation planners and highway engineers attempt to forecast traffic flow using empirical models. These models are typically calibrated by measuring actual traffic flows on the links in the network. That discovery enabled the team to solve traffic-jam equations that were first theorized in the 1950s, congested roads can be seen as an example of the tragedy of the commons.
Privatization of highways and road pricing have both proposed as measures that may reduce congestion through economic incentives and disincentives. Congestion can happen due to non-recurring highway incidents, such as a crash or roadworks, economist Anthony Downs argues that rush hour traffic congestion is inevitable because of the benefits of having a relatively standard work day. In a capitalist economy, goods can be allocated either by pricing or by queueing and they determined that the number of vehicle-kilometers traveled increases in direct proportion to the available lane-kilometers of roadways. The implication is that new roads and widening existing ones only results in additional traffic that continues to rise until peak congestion returns to the previous level
Blohm + Voss. written historically as Blohm & Voss and Blohm und Voss. is a German shipbuilding and engineering company. It is currently a subsidiary of ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems, the company oversees maintenance and repair of large cruise ships such as RMS Queen Mary 2 and the MS Queen Victoria. In the 1930s the company established the Hamburger Flugzeugbau subsidiary which built aircraft before and during World War II and, shortly after the wars outbreak, took on its parent companys name. ThyssenKrupp announced in December 2011 that it had agreed the sale of Blohm + Voss civil shipbuilding division to British investment company STAR Capital Partners, on September 28,2016, it was announced that Lürssen would acquire Blohm + Voss in a long-term partnership. Blohm & Voss was founded on 5 April 1877, by Hermann Blohm, the company name was shown with the ampersand until 1955. The companys logo is now a dark blue rectangle with rounded corners bearing the white letters Blohm+Voss. The company has built ships and other large machinery continuously for 125 years and it now builds warships both for the German Navy and for export, as well as oil drilling equipment and ships for numerous commercial customers.
It administers the Elbe 17 dry dock at Hamburg, the company is, along with Howaldtswerke at Kiel and Nordseewerke at Emden, a subsidiary of ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems. With the rise of the Nazi Party to power in 1933 and this rescued the company, run by brothers Rudolf and Walther Blohm, from a financial crisis. From July 1944 to April 1945 the company used inmates of its own concentration subcamp at its shipyard in Hamburg-Steinwerder, a memorial stands on the site of the camp and the company continues to pay an undisclosed amount to the Fund for Compensation of Forced Laborers. The first planes it produced had the company designation Ha, e. g. Ha 135, richard Vogt joined the Hamburger Flugzeugbau as Chief Designer not long after its formation. He was highly innovative and many of his designs had unusual features and his most significant design were flying boats, used by the Luftwaffe for maritime patrol and reconnaissance. Most numerous was the BV138, a twin-boom trimotor, while the BV222 Wiking was much larger, largest of all was the BV238 prototype, the largest aircraft built by any of the Axis forces.
Other notable types include the asymmetric BV141, which was built in moderate numbers, Blohm & Voss was established in the days of sail and did not produce a notable steamship until 1900. TS Pretoria and TS Windhuk, Deutsche Ost-Afrika Linie passenger cargo liners, MV Wilhelm Gustloff, Kraft durch Freude cruise ship and the worlds worst maritime disaster when she was sunk towards the end of the Second World War MV Aurora As the Wappen Von Hamburg. It was the first luxury liner to be built after World War II, grille – built as the German state yacht, converted to minelayer at the beginning of World War II, reconverted to state yacht of Nazi Germany, Hitlers official maritime conveyance. Lady Moura – the 19th-largest private yacht MV Savarona – built for an American heiress in 1931, the Turkish Presidential yacht and now a charter yacht. Still among the largest yachts, at 446 feet long, some munitions, such as glide bombs, were included in the series designations.111 – a design similar to the 237, except that it was a flying boat with three engines
It operates services to 18 domestic destinations and 197 international destinations in 78 countries across Africa, the Americas and Europe, using a fleet of more than 270 aircraft. Lufthansa is one of the five founding members of Star Alliance, the name of the company is derived from Luft, and Hansa. Combined with its subsidiaries, the group has 656 aircraft, as of February 2016, in 2014, the group carried over 106 million passengers. Lufthansas registered office and corporate headquarters are in Cologne, the main operations base, called Lufthansa Aviation Center, is at Lufthansas primary hub at Frankfurt Airport. The majority of Lufthansas pilots, ground staff, and flight attendants are based there, Lufthansas secondary hub is Munich Airport. Lufthansa was a state-owned enterprise until 1994, in 2014, 60% of Lufthansas shares were held by institutional investors. The remaining 40% were held by individual stock owners, since 1970, Lufthansa has involved its employees in profit sharing, giving them the opportunity to choose between cash and preference shares.
When Lufthansa was privatised, employees received more than 3% of its shares, Lufthansa traces its history to 1926 when Deutsche Luft Hansa A. G. was formed in Berlin. DLH, as it was known, was Germanys flag carrier until 1945 when all services were suspended following the defeat of Nazi Germany, West Germany had not yet been granted sovereignty over its airspace, so it was not known when the new airline could become operational. Nevertheless, in 1953 Luftag placed orders for four Convair CV-340s and four Lockheed L-1049 Super Constellations and set up a maintenance base at Hamburg Airport. On 6 August 1954, Luftag acquired the name and logo of the liquidated Deutsche Lufthansa for DM30,000, on 1 April 1955 Lufthansa won approval to start scheduled domestic flights, linking Hamburg, Düsseldorf, Frankfurt and Munich. In August 1958 fifteen Lufthansa 1049Gs and 1649s left Germany each week to Canada, the special status of Berlin meant that Lufthansa was not allowed to fly to either part of Berlin until 1989.
Originally thought to be only a matter, the Division of Germany turned out to be long. East Germany tried to establish its own airline in 1955 using the Lufthansa name, but this resulted in a dispute with West Germany. East Germany instead established Interflug as its national airline in 1963, in 1958 Lufthansa ordered four Boeing 707s and started jet flights from Frankfurt to New York City in March 1960. Boeing 720Bs were bought to back up the 707 fleet, in February 1961 Far East routes were extended beyond Bangkok, Thailand, to Hong Kong and Tokyo. Lagos and Johannesburg, South Africa were added in 1962, Lufthansa introduced the Boeing 727 in 1964 and that May began the Polar route from Frankfurt to Tokyo via Anchorage. In February 1965 the company ordered twenty-one Boeing 737s that went into service in 1968, Lufthansa was the first customer for the Boeing 737 and was one of four buyers of the 737-100s