Australian honours system
The Australian honours system consists of a number of orders and medals through which the countrys sovereign awards its citizens for actions or deeds that benefit the nation. The system includes an array of awards, both civil and military, for gallantry, distinguished service, meritorious service, various campaign and commemorative medals have been struck. New honours can be awarded at any time, but conventionally most new honours are awarded on Australia Day and on the Queens Birthday every year, the Australian states and the Commonwealth of Australia originally used the Imperial honours system, known as the British honours system. The creation in 1975 of the Australian Honours System saw Australian recommendations for the Imperial awards decline, the Commonwealth of Australia ceased making recommendations for Imperial awards in 1983, with the last Queens Birthday Australian Honours list submitted by Queensland and Tasmania in 1989. The Queen still confers upon Australians honours that emanate from her personally such as the Royal Victoria Order, only a handful of peerages and baronetcies were created for Australians.
Some were in recognition of services rendered in Britain rather than Australia. Hereditary peerages and baronetcies derive from Britain, there have never been Australian peerages or baronetcies created under the Australian Crown. Individual Australian states, as well the Commonwealth Government, were participants in the Imperial honours system. During the Second World War, the Governor-General, on the advice of wartime Labor governments, made recommendations for gallantry awards, Appointments to the Order of the British Empire were for officers and men engaged in operational areas. In 1975, the ALP created the Australian Honours System, recommendations were processed centrally, but State Governors still had the power, on the advice of their governments, to submit recommendations for Imperial awards. Recommendations for Imperial awards by the Federal Government ceased with the election of the Hawke Labor Government in 1983, in 1989, the last two states to make Imperial recommendations were Queensland and Tasmania.
The defeat of both governments at the polls that year marked the end of Australian recommendations for Imperial awards, the Australian Order of Wear states that all imperial British awards made to Australian citizens after 5 October 1992 are foreign awards and should be worn accordingly. The Australian Honours System has followed United States rather than British practice in allowing for late awards years after an action that is being commended, more than one hundred late awards for the Second World War and Vietnam have been gazetted. Australians become recipients of each of the 55 different types of Australian awards, Individual nominations may be made by members of the public or a community group for the Order of Australia and Australian Bravery Decorations. Nominations for Meritorious Service Awards are based on nominations from each specific organisation, the Department of Defence nominates individuals for a range of service decorations. Non-Australians can be given awards for extraordinary service to Australia or humanity at large.
Application, Many of the honours or awards are based on an application by the recipient or a recommendation on their behalf, unlike Imperial bravery or gallantry awards, any person can nominate themselves for an Australian Bravery Award under the current design of the nomination form. There are two categories of honours and awards
Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma
During the Second World War, he was Supreme Allied Commander, South East Asia Command. He was the last Viceroy of India and the first Governor-General of independent India, from 1954 until 1959 he was First Sea Lord, a position that had been held by his father, Prince Louis of Battenberg, some forty years earlier. Thereafter he served as Chief of the Defence Staff until 1965, during this period Mountbatten served as Chairman of the NATO Military Committee for a year. He was the youngest child and the son of Prince Louis of Battenberg and his wife Princess Victoria of Hesse. His maternal grandparents were Louis IV, Grand Duke of Hesse, and Princess Alice of the United Kingdom and his paternal grandparents were Prince Alexander of Hesse and by Rhine and Julia, Princess of Battenberg. His siblings were Princess Andrew of Greece and Denmark, Queen Louise of Sweden, young Mountbattens nickname among family and friends was Dickie, although Richard was not among his given names. This was because his great-grandmother, Queen Victoria, had suggested the nickname of Nicky, but to avoid confusion with the many Nickys of the Russian Imperial Family, Nicky was changed to Dickie.
Mountbatten was educated at home for the first 10 years of his life, he was sent to Lockers Park School in Hertfordshire and on to the Royal Naval College. His second son acquired the courtesy title Lord Louis Mountbatten and was known as Lord Louis until he was created a peer in 1946 and he paid a visit of ten days to the Western Front, in July 1918. He was appointed officer of the small warship HMS P.31 on 13 October 1918 and was promoted sub-lieutenant on 15 January 1919. HMS P.31 took part in the Peace River Pageant on 4 April 1919, Mountbatten attended Christs College, Cambridge for two terms, starting in October 1919, where he studied English literature in a programme that was specially designed for ex-servicemen. He was posted to the battlecruiser HMS Renown in March 1920 and accompanied Edward, Prince of Wales and he was promoted lieutenant on 15 April 1920. HMS Renown returned to Portsmouth on 11 October 1920, early in 1921 Royal Navy personnel were used for civil defence duties as serious industrial unrest seemed imminent.
Mountbatten had to command a platoon of stokers, many of whom had never handled a rifle before and he transferred to the battlecruiser HMS Repulse in March 1921 and accompanied the Prince of Wales on a Royal tour of India and Japan. Edward and Mountbatten formed a friendship during the trip. Mountbatten survived the deep defence cuts known as the Geddes Axe and he was posted to the battleship HMS Revenge in the Mediterranean Fleet in January 1923. Promoted lieutenant-commander on 15 April 1928, he returned to the Signals School in July 1929 as Senior Wireless Instructor. He was appointed Fleet Wireless Officer to the Mediterranean Fleet in August 1931, in 1934, Mountbatten was appointed to his first command – the destroyer HMS Daring
Hereditary peers form part of the peerage in the United Kingdom. There are over eight hundred peers who hold titles that may be inherited. Formerly, most of them were entitled to sit in the House of Lords, Peers are called to the House of Lords with a writ of summons. A hereditary title is not necessarily a title of the peerage, for instance and baronetesses may pass on their titles, but they are not peers. Conversely, the holder of a title may belong to the peerage. Peerages may be created by means of letters patent, but the granting of new hereditary peerages has dwindled, with six having been created since 1965. The hereditary peerage, as it now exists, combines several different English institutions with analogous ones from Scotland and Ireland, English Earls are an Anglo-Saxon institution. Around 1014, England was divided into shires or counties, largely to defend against the Danes, each shire was led by a great man, called an earl. When the Normans conquered England, they continued to appoint earls, but not for all counties, Earldoms began as offices, with a perquisite of a share of the legal fees in the county, they gradually became honours, with a stipend of £20 a year.
Like most feudal offices, earldoms were inherited, but the kings frequently asked earls to resign or exchange earldoms, William the Conqueror and Henry II did not make Dukes, they were themselves only Dukes of Normandy or Aquitaine. But when Edward III of England declared himself King of France, he made his sons Dukes, to them from other noblemen. Later Kings created Marquesses and Viscounts to make finer gradations of honour, which men were ordered to Council varied from Council to Council, a man might be so ordered once and never again, or all his life, but his son and heir might never go. Under Henry VI of England, in the 15th century, just before the Wars of the Roses, the first claim of hereditary right to a writ comes from this reign, so does the first patent, or charter declaring a man to be a Baron. The five orders began to be called Peers, holders of older peerages began receive greater honour than Peers of the same rank just created. If a man held a peerage, his son would succeed to it, if he had no children, if he had a single daughter, his son-in-law would inherit the family lands, and usually the same Peerage, more complex cases were decided depending on circumstances.
Customs changed with time, Earldoms were the first to be hereditary, after Henry II became the Lord of Ireland, he and his successors began to imitate the English system as it was in their time. A writ does not create a peerage in Ireland, all Irish peerages are by patent or charter, in the 18th century, Irish peerages became rewards for English politicians, limited only by the concern that they might go to Dublin and interfere with the Irish Government. Scotland evolved a system, differing in points of detail
Order of British India
The Order of British India was an order of merit which was bestowed by the East India Company for long and honourable service, beginning in 1837. The Companys powers were removed after the Indian Mutiny, and the Order was incorporated into the British honours system in 1859, the order became obsolete in 1947, after the partition of British India into the Dominion of India and the Dominion of Pakistan. The Order was awarded in two classes and second class, the recipients of the second class were entitled to the title Bahadur and recipients of the first class were entitled to use the title Sardar Bahadur, both using the post-nominal letters, OBI. The order was awarded for distinguished service on a particular campaign, the following is an incomplete list of people appointed to the Order of British India, Honorary Captain Subedar Major, Sardar Bahadur, Sardar Lehna Singh, O. B. I. 1st Class, 45th Rattrays Sikhs, Chief of Lehna Singhwala, Served in 45th Rattrays Sikhs from 1853 to 1893 and served during The Indian Mutiny 1857-58, Jyntah and Khasia Hills, Afghan Campaign 1878-79-80, Zhab Valley Expedition 1884 and Hazara Campaign 1888.
Title Khan Bahadur given to Sardar Mir Muhammad Hassan Gichki of Sami by Governor General Of India Victor Bruce, Served in both World Wars & Retired from service in 1948 Risaldar Major Hony Captain Bhajan Singh, Sardar Bahadur, OBI, Hodsons Horse, Ludhiana, Punjab. Sardar Sahib served in the British Indian Army during WWI & WWII and he was given the title Sardar Sahib by the Viceroy Linlithgow as a personal distinction in 1937. Colonel Mir Hashim Ali Khan Sardar Bahadur, Nawab Hahsim Nawaz Jung, Captain Shri Berishal Singh Khichi Sardar Bahadur OBI, IOM mentioned Despatch 1943 Subedar Sardar Kirpal Singh Sasson, OBI bestowed in 1932 in Sialkot. Also ADC to Sir Frank Messervy, the first general of the Pakistani army and he served the regiment for 30 years and retired from service in 1939. He died at the age of 65 in 1951. Captain Sant Singh, 2/3rd Sikh Pioneers, Sardar Bahadur, OBI, IOM, IDSM Honorary Captain, Sardar Bahadur, Sant Singh Mangat, British Indian Army Honorary Captain Sardar Bahadur Bakhshi Jaswant Singh, O. B. I.
Honorary Captain, Sardar Bahadur Abhimansing Gurung, OBI, 1891-1898, ADC to Viceroy Lord Wavell and to Lord Mount Batten. Honorary Captain Sardar Bahadur Harnam Singh Bindra, OBI Honorary Captain Sardar Bahadur Ranjit Singh OBI, Sardar Bahadur Lt Col Dr Gopal Singh Chawla OBI Subedar Major Sardar Bahadur Singh Atwal, OBI. Honorary Captain Sardar Bahadur Hazara Singh Bahad, OBI, Honorary Captain Sardar Bahadur Mihr Din, OBI. Honorary Captain Sardar Bahadur Dr. Kartar Singh Grewal, OBI, Honorary Captain Sardar Bahadur Bhola Singh Gulia, OBI, Indian Survey Regiment of Badli, India. Honorary Captain Subedar Bahadur Nar Gurung, MC, OBI, Honorary Captain Sardar Bahadur Muhammad Ismail, IOM, OBI, British Indian Army. Lt. Gangadat Bahadur, Risaldar Major Gangadat Bahadur had a professional qualification in musketry. He was first enrolled 28 Oct 1885. His regiment 2nd Lancer received the battle honor Cambria Nov. 1917He was admitted to the OBI effect from 19 April 1917 and he was born in village Matanhail District Jhajjar Haryana.
Lieutenant Colonel Sardar Bahadur Aman Singh Jodha, OBI, IOM, Honorary Lieutenant Sardar Bahadur Ahmadullah Khan, Khan Bahadur, IOM, OBI, IMD Khillat Sword of Honour and Honorary Magistrate
The Military Cross is the third-level military decoration awarded to officers and other ranks of the British Armed Forces, and used to be awarded to officers of other Commonwealth countries. The MC is granted in recognition of an act or acts of gallantry during active operations against the enemy on land to all members. In 1979, the Queen approved a proposal that a number of awards, including the Military Cross, the award was created on 28 December 1914 for commissioned officers of the substantive rank of Captain or below and for Warrant Officers. In August 1916, Bars were awarded to the MC in recognition of the performance of acts of gallantry meriting the award. In 1931 the award was extended to Majors and to members of the Royal Air Force for actions on the ground, the MC now serves as the third-level award for gallantry on land for all ranks of the British Armed Forces. 46 mm max height,44 mm max width, ornamental silver cross with straight arms terminating in broad finials, suspended from plain suspension bar.
Obverse decorated with crowns, with the Royal Cypher in centre. Reverse is plain, but from 1938 the name of the recipient, the ribbon width is 32 mm and consists of three equal vertical moire stripes of white and white. During World War I, Acting Captain Francis Wallington of the Royal Field Artillery was the first person to be awarded the MC, during World War II Captain Sam Manekshaw, Indian Army, was leading a counter-offensive operation against the invading Japanese Army in Burma. During the course of the offensive, he was hit by a burst of machine-gun fire, Major General D. T. Cowan spotted Manekshaw holding on to life and was aware of his valour in face of stiff resistance from the Japanese. Fearing the worst, Major General Cowan quickly pinned his own Military Cross ribbon on to Manekshaw saying, the first posthumous Military Cross was that awarded to Captain Herbert Westmacott, Grenadier Guards for gallantry in Northern Ireland during the period 1 February 1980 to 30 April 1980. The first woman to be awarded the Military Cross was Private Michelle Norris of the Royal Army Medical Corps, Norris was awarded her medal personally by Queen Elizabeth II on 21 March 2007 as the result of her actions in Iraq on 11 June 2006.
Able Seaman Kate Nesbitt, second woman, first in the Royal Navy, sergeant Michael Lockett MC was the first holder of the MC to be killed in action since World War II. Database of Australian Awardees at the Australian Government Honours website Search recommendations for the Military Cross on The UK National Archives website, the Kings Own Royal Regiment Museum, Military Cross
Order of St Patrick
The Most Illustrious Order of Saint Patrick is a dormant British order of chivalry associated with Ireland. The Order was created in 1783 by George III at the request of the Lord-Lieutenant, the regular creation of knights of Saint Patrick lasted until 1922, when most of Ireland became independent as the Irish Free State. While the Order technically still exists, no knight of St Patrick has been created since 1936, the Queen, remains the Sovereign of the Order, and one officer, the Ulster King of Arms, survives. St Patrick is patron of the order, its motto is Quis separabit, an allusion to the Vulgate translation of Romans 8,35, Who shall separate us from the love of Christ. Most British orders of chivalry cover the entire kingdom, but the three most exalted ones each pertain to one constituent country only, the Order of St Patrick, which pertains to Ireland, is the most junior of these three in precedence and age. Its equivalent in England, The Most Noble Order of the Garter, is the oldest order of chivalry in the United Kingdom, the Scottish equivalent is The Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle, dating in its modern form to 1687.
The order was founded in 1783, a year after the grant of autonomy to Ireland. The Order of the Bath, founded in 1725, was instituted for similar reasons, the statutes of the Order restricted membership to men who were both knights and gentlemen, the latter being defined as having three generations of noblesse on both their fathers and mothers side. In practice, only Irish Peers were ever appointed to the Order, the cross of St Patrick was chosen as one of the symbols of the Order. A flag of this design was incorporated into the Union Flag. Its association with St. Patrick or with Ireland prior to the foundation of the Order is unclear, one of the first knights was The 2nd Duke of Leinster, whose arms carry the same cross. The last non-royal member appointed to the order was James Hamilton, 3rd Duke of Abercorn in 1922, when the Irish Free State left the United Kingdom that same year, the Irish Executive Council under W. T. Cosgrave chose to make no further appointments to the Order. The British government continued to entertain hopes for the revival as a pan-Irish institution.
Therefore, while there was no legal or constitutional bar to the British government continuing to make appointments from among British subjects resident in Northern Ireland, since then, only three people have been appointed to the Order, all members of the British Royal Family. The then-Prince of Wales was appointed in 1927 and his brothers, Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester, in 1934 and Prince Albert, Duke of York. It is likely that these appointments were considered possible because the Irish Free State continued to recognise the British monarch as its head of state. In 1937, the Irish Free State adopted a new constitution, the ambiguity was resolved 12 years when the Irish Free State formally declared itself a republic and left the British Commonwealth. The basis for such appointments thus ceased and no further ones have been made, the Duke of Gloucester at his death in 1974 was the last surviving member of the Order
Meritorious Unit Citation
The Meritorious Unit Citation is a collective group decoration awarded to members of Australian military units. It recognises sustained outstanding service in warlike operations, the Meritorious Unit Citation was created in 1991, along with the Unit Citation for Gallantry. The insignia of a Meritorious Unit Citation is a rhodium plated sterling silver frame measuring 32 by 15 millimetres, the frame surrounds a ribbon bar of old gold, which may display a rhodium plated, 7-millimetre diameter, sterling silver Federation Star on its centre. Members attached to the unit when the citation is awarded wear it with the Federation Star, members who subsequently join the unit wear the citation without the Federation Star, and discontinue wearing it after leaving the unit. Clearance Diving Team 3 –4 November 1991 For meritorious service in clearing Kuwaiti ports of mines, explosive devices,3 Squadron, SASR –25 March 2000 For sustained outstanding service in warlike operations of the Special Air Service Regiment of the Response Force for Operation Warden.
Task Group 645.1.1 –25 March 2000 For sustained outstanding service in operations in support of the International Force for East Timor during Operation Stabilise. 10th Force Support Battalion –26 January 2002 For sustained outstanding service in the provision of support to warlike operations in East Timor. No.84 Wing Detachment Manas –29 September 2002 For outstanding service during operations over the Afghanistan area of operation from March to September 2002 during Operation Slipper. No.3 Squadron RNZAF –15 November 2002 For sustained outstanding service in the support of the peacekeeping operations whilst deployed in East Timor, SASR –19 December 2002 For sustained outstanding service in warlike operations in Afghanistan in support of the International Coalition against Terrorism. HMAS Anzac –27 November 2003 For sustained outstanding service in operations in the Middle East Area of Operations between February and May 2003 whilst deployed on Operation Falconer. Clearance Diving Team 3 –27 November 2003 For sustained outstanding service in warlike conditions during Operation Bastille, No.75 Squadron –27 November 2003 For sustained outstanding service during warlike operations, in the Middle East Area of operations, over Iraq during Operation Falconer.
5th Aviation Regiment –27 November 2007 For sustained meritorious service during warlike and peace missions in support of Operation Warden, Operation Tanager. Mentoring Task Force-1 –13 June 2011 For sustained outstanding service in operations on Operation Slipper in Uruzgan Province, Afghanistan. 1st Joint Movement Group –26 January 2015 For sustained and outstanding warlike operational service in the Middle East Area of Operations over the period November 2001 to June 2014, the superior combat operations results of Task Group 66 further emphasised the Group’s exceptional courage and commitment. No.36 and No.37 Squadron RAAF –13 June 2016 For sustained outstanding service in operations throughout the Middle East Area of Operations over the period January 2002 to June 2014. Australian Honours Order of Precedence Its an Honour – Meritorious Unit Citation ADF Honours and Awards – Unit Citations
John Jellicoe, 1st Earl Jellicoe
Admiral of the Fleet John Rushworth Jellicoe, 1st Earl Jellicoe, GCB, OM, GCVO, SGM, DL was a Royal Navy officer. He fought in the Anglo-Egyptian War and the Boxer Rebellion and commanded the Grand Fleet at the Battle of Jutland in May 1916 during the First World War. Jellicoe served as First Sea Lord, overseeing the expansion of the Naval Staff at the Admiralty and the introduction of convoys and he served as the Governor-General of New Zealand in the early 1920s. He was made a midshipman in the steam frigate HMS Newcastle in September 1874 before transferring to the ironclad HMS Agincourt in the Mediterranean Fleet in July 1877. Promoted to sub-lieutenant on 5 December 1878, he joined HMS Alexandra, flagship of the Mediterranean Fleet, as signal sub-lieutenant in 1880. Promoted to lieutenant on 23 September 1880, he returned to HMS Agincourt in February 1881, Jellicoe qualified as a gunnery officer in 1883 and was appointed to the staff of the gunnery school HMS Excellent in May 1884. He joined the turret ship HMS Monarch as gunnery officer in September 1885 and was awarded the Board of Trade Silver Medal for rescuing the crew of a steamer near Gibraltar in May 1886.
Promoted to commander on 30 June 1891, Jellicoe joined the battleship HMS Sans Pareil in the Mediterranean Fleet in March 1892. He transferred to the battleship HMS Victoria in 1893 and was aboard when it collided with HMS Camperdown and was wrecked off Tripoli in Lebanon on 22 June 1893 and he was appointed to the new flagship, HMS Ramillies, in October 1893. Promoted to captain on 1 January 1897, Jellicoe became a member of the Admiraltys Ordnance Committee and he was badly wounded during the Battle of Beicang and told he would die but confounded the attending doctor and chaplain by living. He was appointed a Companion of the Order of the Bath and given the German Order of the Red Eagle, 2nd class, centurion returned to the United Kingdom in August 1901, and was paid off the following month, when Captain Jellicoe and the crew went on leave. Promoted to rear admiral on 8 February 1907, he pushed hard for funds to modernise the navy, supporting the construction of new Dreadnought-type battleships and Invincible-class battlecruisers.
Dreyers improvements in gunnery fire-control systems, and favoured the adoption of Dreyers Fire Control Table, Jellicoe arranged for the output of naval ordnance to be transferred from the War Office to the Admiralty. Jellicoe was appointed second-in-command of the Atlantic Fleet in August 1907 and he was appointed Knight Commander of the Royal Victorian Order on the occasion of the Kings Review of the Home Fleet in the Solent on 3 August 1907. He advanced to Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath on the Coronation of King George V on 19 June 1911 and he became Second Sea Lord in December 1912. At the start of the First World War, the First Lord of the Admiralty Winston Churchill, removed Admiral George Callaghan, Commander-in-Chief of the Home Fleet. Jellicoe was promoted to admiral on 4 August 1914 and assigned command of the renamed Grand Fleet in Admiral Callaghans place. He was advanced to Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath on 8 February 1915, Jellicoe commanded the British Grand Fleet at the Battle of Jutland in May 1916, the largest clash of dreadnoughts, albeit an indecisive one
Marshal Ferdinand Jean Marie Foch was a French general and Marshal of France, Great Britain and Poland, a military theorist and the Supreme Allied Commander during the First World War. Ordered west to defend Paris, Fochs prestige soared as a result of the victory at the Marne, at the end of 1916, partly owing to the disappointing results of the latter offensive and partly owing to wartime political rivalries, Foch was transferred to Italy. Foch was ultimately appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Allied Armies on 26 March 1918 following being the Commander-in-Chief of Western Front with title Généralissime in 1918. He played a role in halting a renewed German advance on Paris in the Second Battle of the Marne. Addington says, to an extent the final Allied strategy which won the war on land in Western Europe in 1918 was Fochs alone. On 11 November 1918 Foch accepted the German request for an armistice, Foch advocated peace terms that would make Germany unable to pose a threat to France ever again.
Foch considered the Treaty of Versailles too lenient on Germany and as the Treaty was being signed on 28 June 1919, he declared and it is an armistice for twenty years. His words proved prophetic, the Second World War started twenty years and 64 days later, Foch was born at Tarbes, Hautes-Pyrénées, the son of a civil servant from Comminges. His German surname was of his paternal side ancestry which originally came from Alsace in the 18th century and he attended school at Tarbes and the Jesuit College at Saint-Étienne. His brother became a Jesuit priest, which may initially have hindered Fochs rise through the ranks of the French Army since the Republican government of France was anti-clerical. At the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War in 1870, Foch enlisted in the French 4th Infantry Regiment which did not take part in combat, in 1871, he entered the École Polytechnique, choosing the school of artillery. In 1876, he attended the school of Saumur to train as a mounted artillery officer. On 30 September 1878 he became a Captain and arrived in Paris on 24 September 1879 as an assistant in the Central Personnel Service Depot of the artillery, in 1885 Foch undertook a course at the Ecole Supérieur de Guerre where he was an instructor from 1895 to 1901.
He was promoted Lieutenant-Colonel in 1898, and colonel in 1903, as a colonel he became regimental commander of the 35th Artillery Regiment at Vannes. An extremely short man, Foch was known for his physical strength, Foch was a quiet man, known for saying little and when he did speak, it was a volley of words accompanied by much gesturing of his hands that required some knowledge of him to understand properly. One of Fochs favorite phrases was Pas de protocole, in 1907 Foch was promoted to Général de Brigade, and in the same year he assumed command of the French War College. He held this position until 1911, the year in which he was appointed Général de Division, Foch influenced General Joseph Joffre when he drafted the French plan of campaign in 1913. In 1913 he took command of XX Corps at Nancy, Foch was acclaimed as the most original military thinker of his generation
The medal was established on 25 March 1916. It was the other ranks equivalent to the Military Cross, which was awarded to commissioned officers and, rarely, to warrant officers, the MM ranked below the Distinguished Conduct Medal, which was awarded to non-commissioned members of the Army. According to Frank Richards, when the medal was first introduced, Richards writes, There were no grants or allowances with the Military Medal, which without a shadow of a doubt had been introduced to save awarding too many DCMs. With the DCM went a money-grant of twenty pounds, and a man in receipt of a life pension who had won the DCM was entitled to an extra sixpence a day on to his pension. After the new decoration was introduced, for every DCM awarded there were fifty Military Medals, the old regular soldiers thought very little of the new decoration. Recipients of the Military Medal are entitled to use the post-nominal letters MM, over 115,000 awards were made for actions during the First World War. Additionally, over 5,700 bars were awarded, as well as 180 second bars, during the Second World War, over 15,000 awards of the MM were made.
In 1993, the Military Medal was discontinued, since then, the Military Cross has been awarded to personnel of all ranks within the British honours system. Several Commonwealth nations, such as Australia, New Zealand and Canada, have established their own systems in the post Second World War era. The medal and ribbon had the features, A circular silver medal of 36 mm diameter. The obverse bears the effigy of the reigning monarch, the reverse has the inscription FOR BRAVERY IN THE FIELD in four lines, surrounded by a laurel wreath, surmounted by the Royal Cypher and Imperial Crown. The suspender is of a scroll type. The ribbon is blue,1.25 inches wide, with five equal centre stripes of white, white, red. Silver, laurelled bars are authorised for subsequent awards, over 135,000 people have been awarded the Military Medal. Among the more notable recipients are, Walter Bingham, Jewish refugee from Nazi Germany who served in Normandy, ian Bailey, who was awarded the medal as a Corporal in The Parachute Regiment during the Falklands War, and went on to become a Captain.
Geoffrey Bingham, Australian theologian and author, mairi Chisholm, British volunteer ambulance driver. Douglas Clark, British rugby league footballer and wrestler, william Coltman, who was awarded the Victoria Cross, and was the most highly decorated NCO of the First World War. Robert Gaspare Consiglio, Special Air Service member killed during Bravo Two Zero patrol, ernest Albert Corey, the only person to be awarded the MM four times
Group Captain Geoffrey Leonard Cheshire, Baron Cheshire VC, OM, DSO & Two Bars, DFC was a highly decorated Royal Air Force pilot during the Second World War and philanthropist. Among the honours Cheshire received as a pilot is the Victoria Cross, Leonard Cheshire was the son of Geoffrey Chevalier Cheshire, a barrister and influential writer on English law. He had one brother, Christopher Cheshire, a wartime pilot, Cheshire was born in Chester, but was brought up at his parents home near Oxford. Cheshire was educated at the Dragon School, Stowe School and Merton College, at Stowe he was taught English by the fantasy novelist T. H. White. Whilst at Oxford he became friends with John Niel Randle, on one occasion at Oxford he was bet half a pint of beer that he could not walk to Paris with no more than a few pennies in his pocket, he won his bet. He went to stay in Germany in 1936 with the family of Ludwig von Reuter in Potsdam and whilst there, Cheshire caused considerable offence by pointedly refusing to give the Nazi salute.
Cheshire graduated in jurisprudence in 1939, following the outbreak of war, Cheshire joined the RAF on 7 October 1939 with a permanent commission. He was sent for training at RAF Hullavington, promoted to flying officer on 7 April 1940, he was posted that June to 102 Squadron, flying Armstrong Whitworth Whitley medium bombers, from RAF Driffield. In November 1940, Cheshire was awarded the Distinguished Service Order for flying his badly damaged bomber back to base, in January 1941, Cheshire completed his tour of operations, but volunteered immediately for a second tour. He was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross in March 1941 and was promoted to the war rank of flight lieutenant on 7 April. He was posted to No.35 Squadron with the brand new Handley Page Halifax and completed his second tour early in 1942, Cheshire was promoted to the substantive rank of squadron leader on 1 March. August 1942 saw a return to operations as a wing commander. This allowed the bombers to fly higher and faster, losses soon fell and morale rose accordingly.
Brown remembers We couldnt believe it, it was Cheshire and we were astonished to say the least. I asked him not to touch and to his ever lasting credit he never commented at all, he just sat in the pilots seat. The fault was in the Halifaxs rudder design and Cheshire became enraged when Handley Page at first declined to make modifications so as not to disrupt production. During his time as the officer of No.76 Squadron at RAF Linton-on-Ouse, Cheshire took the trouble to learn the name of. He was determined to increase the efficiency of his squadron and improve the chances of survival of its crews, Cheshire inspired such loyalty and respect that the ground crews of 76 Squadron were proud to chorus We are Cheshire cats
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight David Ike Eisenhower was an American politician and Army general who served as the 34th President of the United States from 1953 until 1961. He was a general in the United States Army during World War II. He was responsible for planning and supervising the invasion of North Africa in Operation Torch in 1942–43, in 1951, he became the first Supreme Commander of NATO. Eisenhower was of mostly Pennsylvania Dutch ancestry and was raised in a family in Kansas by parents with a strong religious background. He graduated from West Point in 1915 and married Mamie Doud, after World War II, Eisenhower served as Army Chief of Staff under President Harry S. Truman and accepted the post of President at Columbia University. Eisenhower entered the 1952 presidential race as a Republican to counter the non-interventionism of Senator Robert A. Taft, campaigning against communism, Korea and he won in a landslide, defeating Democratic candidate Adlai Stevenson and temporarily upending the New Deal Coalition.
Eisenhower was the first U. S. president to be constitutionally term-limited under the 22nd Amendment, Eisenhowers main goals in office were to keep pressure on the Soviet Union and reduce federal deficits. He ordered coups in Iran and Guatemala, Eisenhower gave major aid to help the French in the First Indochina War, and after the French were defeated he gave strong financial support to the new state of South Vietnam. Congress agreed to his request in 1955 for the Formosa Resolution, after the Soviet Union launched Sputnik in 1957, Eisenhower authorized the establishment of NASA, which led to the space race. During the Suez Crisis of 1956, Eisenhower condemned the Israeli and French invasion of Egypt and he condemned the Soviet invasion during the Hungarian Revolution of 1956 but took no action. Eisenhower sent 15,000 U. S. troops to Lebanon to prevent the government from falling to a Nasser-inspired revolution during the 1958 Lebanon crisis. Near the end of his term, his efforts to set up a meeting with the Soviets collapsed because of the U-2 incident.
On the domestic front, he covertly opposed Joseph McCarthy and contributed to the end of McCarthyism by openly invoking executive privilege and he otherwise left most political activity to his Vice President, Richard Nixon. Eisenhower was a conservative who continued New Deal agencies and expanded Social Security. Eisenhowers two terms saw considerable economic prosperity except for a decline in 1958. Voted Gallups most admired man twelve times, he achieved widespread popular esteem both in and out of office, since the late 20th century, consensus among Western scholars has consistently held Eisenhower as one of the greatest U. S. Presidents. The Eisenhauer family migrated from Karlsbrunn in the Saarland, to North America, first settling in York, Pennsylvania, in 1741, accounts vary as to how and when the German name Eisenhauer was anglicized to Eisenhower. Eisenhowers Pennsylvania Dutch ancestors, who were farmers, included Hans Nikolaus Eisenhauer of Karlsbrunn