During the interplanetary cruise phase, communication with the spacecraft was lost on August 21,1993,3 days prior to orbital insertion. Attempts to re-establish communication with the spacecraft were unsuccessful, in 1984, a high priority mission to Mars was set forth by the Solar System Exploration Committee. Then titled the Mars Geoscience/Climatology Orbiter, the Martian orbiter was planned to expand on the vast information already gathered by the Viking program, Mars Observer was originally planned to be launched in 1990 by a Space Shuttle Orbiter. The possibility for a rocket to be used was suggested. On March 12,1987, the mission was rescheduled for launch in 1992, along with a launch delay, budget overruns necessitated the elimination of two instruments to meet the 1992 planned launch. As the development matured, the science objectives were finalized as. Define globally the topography and gravitational field, establish the nature of the Martian magnetic field. Determine the temporal and spatial distribution, abundance and sinks of volatiles, explore the structure and circulation of the atmosphere.
The programs total cost is estimated at $813 million, the Mars Observer spacecraft had a mass of 1,018 kilograms, its bus measured 1.1 meters tall,2.2 meters wide, and 1.6 meters deep. The spacecraft was based on previous designs, originally intended and developed to orbit Earth. The RCA Satcom Ku-band satellite design was used extensively for the bus, thermal protection. Other elements such as the bipropellant components and high-gain antenna were designed specifically for the mission, the spacecraft was three-axis stabilized with four reaction wheels and twenty-four thrusters with 1346-kilograms of propellant. Of the hydrazine thrusters, eight provide 4.5 newtons to control orbit trim maneuvers, another eight provide 0.9 newtons for offsetting, or desaturating, the reaction wheels. To determine the orientation of the spacecraft, a sensor, a 6-slit star scanner. When broadcasting to the Deep Space Network, a maximum of 10.66 kilobytes/second could be achieved while the spacecraft could receive commands at a maximum bandwidth of 62. 5-bytes/second.
Power was supplied to the spacecraft through a six panel solar array, measuring 7.0 meters wide and 3.7 meters tall, and would provide an average of 1147 watts when in orbit. To power the spacecraft while occluded from the Sun, two 42 A·h nickel-cadmium batteries were included, the batteries would recharge as the solar array received sunlight, the computing system on the spacecraft was a retooling of the system used on the TIROS and DMSP satellites. To record data, redundant digital tape recorders were included and each capable of storing up to 187.5 megabytes, on August 25,1992, particulate contamination was found within the spacecraft
Mars Pathfinder is an American robotic spacecraft that landed a base station with a roving probe on Mars in 1997. It consisted of a lander, renamed the Carl Sagan Memorial Station, and a lightweight wheeled robotic Mars rover named Sojourner, the lander opened, exposing the rover which conducted many experiments on the Martian surface. The mission carried a series of instruments to analyze the Martian atmosphere, geology. The mission was directed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology, the project manager was JPLs Tony Spear. This mission was the first of a series of missions to Mars that included rovers, although the Soviet Union successfully sent rovers to the Moon as part of the Lunokhod program in the 1970s, its attempts to use rovers in its Mars program failed. The Mars Pathfinder was remarkable for its low cost relative to other unmanned space missions to Mars. Originally, the mission was conceived as the first of the Mars Environmental Survey program, to prove that the development of faster and cheaper spacecraft was possible.
To show that it was possible to send a load of scientific instruments to another planet with a simple system, to demonstrate NASAs commitment to low-cost planetary exploration by finishing the mission with a total expenditure of $280 million, including the launch vehicle and mission operations. The Mars Pathfinder conducted different investigations on the Martian soil using three scientific instruments, the MET structure included three windsocks mounted at three heights on a pole, the topmost at about one meter and generally registered winds from the West. The Sojourner rover had an Alpha Proton X-ray Spectrometer, which was used to analyze the components of the rocks, the rover had two black-and-white cameras and a color one. A third camera with the resolution but taking color images was located on the back, near the APXS. It provided images of the APXSs target area and the tracks on the ground. All three cameras were CCDs manufactured by Eastman Kodak Company, and were controlled by the rovers CPU and they all had auto-exposure and capabilities for handling bad pixels, and the image parameters were included in the transmitted images as part of the image header.
The rover could compress the front cameras images using the block truncation coding algorithm, the cameras optical resolution was sufficient to resolve 0.6 cm details across a 0.65 m range. Scientists chose it because they found it to be a relatively safe surface to land on and one that contained a wide variety of rocks deposited during a catastrophic flood. After the landing, at 19. 13°N33. 22°W /19.13, -33.22, the landers on-board computer used redundant on-board accelerometers to determine the timing of the parachute inflation. Twenty seconds the heatshield was pyrotechnically released, another twenty seconds the lander was separated and lowered from the backshell on a 20 m bridle. When the lander reached 1.6 km above the surface and this information was used by the computer to determine the precise timing of the landing events that followed
ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter
The Trace Gas Orbiter delivered the Schiaparelli lander and will start atmospheric mapping in 2017. A key goal is to gain an understanding of methane. The landers radio signal was lost during the descent through the Mars atmosphere, investigations with space and Earth-based observatories have demonstrated the presence of a small amount of methane on the atmosphere of Mars that seems to vary with location and time. This may indicate the presence of life on Mars, or a geochemical process such as volcanism or hydrothermal activity. ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter was born out of the nexus of ESAs Aurora programme ExoMars flagship and it became a flexible collaborative proposal within NASA and ESA to send a new orbiter-carrier to Mars in 2016 as part of the European-led ExoMars mission. On the ExoMars side, ESA authorized about half a billion Euros in 2005 for a rover and mini-station, NASAs Mars Science Orbiter was originally envisioned in 2008 as an all-NASA endeavour aiming for a late 2013 launch.
NASA and ESA officials agreed to pool resources and technical expertise, with NASAs funding for this project cancelled, most of ExoMars plans had to be restructured. The Trace Gas Orbiter and descent module Schiaparelli completed testing and were integrated to a Proton rocket at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan in mid-January 2016, the launch occurred at 09,31 UTC on 14 March 2016. Four rocket burns occurred in the following 10 hours before the descent module, a signal from the spacecraft was received at 21,29 UTC that day, confirming that the launch was successful and the spacecraft were functioning properly. Briefing reporters in Moscow, the head of Roscosmos denied any anomaly, the Schiaparelli lander separated from the TGO orbiter on 16 October 2016, three days before it arrived on Mars, and entered the atmosphere at 21,000 km/h. The landers radio signal was lost during the descent through the atmosphere, and as of 20 October 2016, the FREND instrument will map hydrogen levels to a maximum depth of 1 m beneath the Martian surface.
Locations where hydrogen is found may indicate water-ice deposits, which could be useful for future crewed missions, the mission will characterise spatial, temporal variation, and localisation of sources for a broad list of atmospheric trace gases. If methane is found in the presence of propane or ethane, however, if methane is found in the presence of gases such as sulfur dioxide, that would be an indication that the methane is a byproduct of geological processes. Detection The nature of the methane source requires measurements of a suite of trace gases in order to characterise potential biochemical and geochemical processes at work. Detection sensitivities are at levels of 100 parts per trillion, improved to 10 parts per trillion or better by averaging spectra which could be taken at several spectra per second, to achieve the spatial resolution required to localise sources might require tracing molecules at parts-per-billion concentrations. Like the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, the Trace Gas Orbiter is a hybrid science and its scientific payload mass is about 113.8 kg and consists of, The Nadir and Occultation for Mars Discovery has two infrared and one ultraviolet spectrometer channels.
The Atmospheric Chemistry Suite has three infrared spectrometer channels, NOMAD and ACS will provide the most extensive spectral coverage of Martian atmospheric processes so far. Twice per orbit, at sunrise and sunset, they will be able to observe the Sun as it shines through the atmosphere
A Mars flyby is a movement of spacecraft passing in the vicinity of the planet Mars, but not entering orbit or landing on it. Unmanned space probes have used this method to collect data on Mars, a spacecraft designed for a flyby is known as a flyby bus or flyby spacecraft. The spacecraft they live in on the journey to Mars does the flyby, the Excursion modules ascent stage must rejoin the main spacecraft before it gets too far away. Mars cyclers orbit the Sun in such a way as to pass by Mars, the crews would live on the stations during the interplanetary voyages. Alternately, a human mission is possible, without detaching at Mars. In July 1965, Mariner 4 achieved a flyby of Mars with a return of data, providing the public, during the flyby Mariner 4 took 21 pictures amounting to about 1% of the surface of Mars. Mars was not globally mapped until the Mariner 9 orbiter, which over the course of 1972 to 1973 took thousands of images up to 100m a pixel, in October 1999 Deep Space 1 made observations of Mars after its flyby of asteroid Braille.
Although this was a distant flyby it did succeed in taking multiple infrared spectra with its MICAS instrument of the planet. Mariner program spacecraft Mariner 4, mapped 1% of Mars with 21 images, Mariner 6, and Mariner 7 returned data from Mars flybys, mapping about 20% of Mars more closely with a couple hundred images. Mars program spacecraft Two Mars flyby attempts were made in 1960 under Mars 1M, the third attempt at a Mars flyby was the Soviet Mars 2MV-4 No.1, called Mars 1962A or Sputnik 22, which launched in 1962 as part of the Mars program. But it was destroyed in low Earth orbit due to rocket failure, Mars 1 launched in 1962 but communications failed before it reached Mars. Mars 4 achieved a flyby in 1974 and detected a nightside ionosphere, Mars 6 and 7 were Mars landers carried by instrumented flyby buses. Dawn, closest approach was 549 km
The Mars program was a series of unmanned spacecraft launched by the Soviet Union between 1960 and 1973. The spacecraft were intended to explore Mars, and included flyby probes, early Mars spacecraft were small, and launched by Molniya rockets. Starting with two failures in 1969, the heavier Proton-K rocket was used to launch larger 5 tonne spacecraft, consisting of an orbiter, the orbiter bus design was likely somewhat rushed into service and immature, considering that it performed very reliably in the Venera variant after 1975. The names of the Mars missions do not need to be translated, as the word Mars is spelled and pronounced approximately the same way in English and Russian. In addition to the Mars program, the Soviet Union sent a probe to Mars as part of the Zond program, Zond 2, two more spacecraft were sent during the Phobos program. In 1996, Russia launched Mars 96, its first interplanetary mission since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the first Soviet attempts to send a probe to Mars were the two Mars 1M spacecraft, which each had a mass of about 650 kg.
Both were launched in 1960 and failed to achieve orbit, the spacecraft were dubbed Marsnik by the Western media. Mars 1 was launched in 1962 but failed en route to Mars, Mars 2M No.521 and Mars 2M No.522, known in the West as Mars 1969A and B, were heavier spacecraft with masses of 5 tonnes. They were launched by Proton-K rockets, and consisted of orbiters, the Mars 4M spacecraft, Mars 2 and Mars 3 missions consisted of identical spacecraft, each with an orbiter and an attached lander, which became the first spacecraft to reach the surface of Mars. The descent module entered the Martian atmosphere at roughly 6.0 km/s at a steeper angle than planned, the descent system malfunctioned and the lander crashed at 45°S 30°W, delivering the Soviet Union coat of arms to the surface. Meanwhile, the engine performed a burn to put the spacecraft into a 1380 x 24,940 km. Scientific instruments were turned on for about 30 minutes near periapsis. The descent module entered the Martian atmosphere at roughly 5.7 km/s, through aerodynamic braking and retrorockets, the lander achieved a soft landing at 45°S 158°W and began operations.
However, after 20 seconds the instruments stopped working for unknown reasons, Mars 3 lander still managed to transmit a portion of the first picture of Martian surface. Meanwhile, the orbiter had suffered from a loss of fuel. The engine instead performed a burn to put the spacecraft into a long 12-day-19-hour period orbit about Mars with an inclination thought to be similar to that of Mars 2. Both landers had a small Mars rover on board, which would move across the surface on skis while connected to the lander with a 15-meter umbilical. Two small metal rods were used for obstacle avoidance, as radio signals from Earth would take too long to drive the rovers using remote control
Curiosity is a car-sized robotic rover exploring Gale Crater on Mars as part of NASAs Mars Science Laboratory mission. Curiosity was launched from Cape Canaveral on November 26,2011, at 15,02 UTC aboard the MSL spacecraft, the Bradbury Landing site was less than 2.4 km from the center of the rovers touchdown target after a 560 million km journey. Curiositys design will serve as the basis for the planned Mars 2020 rover, in December 2012, Curiositys two-year mission was extended indefinitely. As of April 7,2017, Curiosity has been on Mars for 1659 sols since landing on August 6,2012, the mission will help prepare for human exploration. This data would be important for a manned mission. The remaining mass of the MSL craft was discarded in the process of carrying out this task, Curiosity has a mass of 899 kg including 80 kg of scientific instruments. The rover is 2.9 m long by 2.7 m wide by 2.2 m in height, power source, Curiosity is powered by a radioisotope thermoelectric generator, like the successful Viking 1 and Viking 2 Mars landers in 1976.
Radioisotope power systems are generators that produce electricity from the decay of isotopes, such as plutonium-238. Heat given off by the decay of this isotope is converted into electric voltage by thermocouples, providing constant power during all seasons and through the day, waste heat can be used via pipes to warm systems, freeing electrical power for the operation of the vehicle and instruments. Curiositys RTG is fueled by 4.8 kg of plutonium-238 dioxide supplied by the U. S. Department of Energy. The MMRTG produces less power over time as its plutonium fuel decays, at its minimum lifetime of 14 years, electrical power output is down to 100 watts. The power source will generate 9 MJ each day, much more than the solar panels of the Mars Exploration Rovers, the electrical output from the MMRTG charges two rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. This enables the power subsystem to meet power demands of rover activities when the demand temporarily exceeds the generator’s steady output level. Each battery has a capacity of about 42 ampere-hours, heat rejection system, The temperatures at the landing site can vary from −127 to 40 °C, the thermal system will warm the rover for most of the Martian year.
It uses fluid pumped through 60 m of tubing in the body so that sensitive components are kept at optimal temperatures. The HRS has the ability to cool components if necessary, the computers run the VxWorks real-time operating system. Each computers memory includes 256 kB of EEPROM,256 MB of DRAM, for comparison, the Mars Exploration Rovers used 3 MB of EEPROM,128 MB of DRAM, and 256 MB of flash memory. The RCE computers use the RAD750 CPU, which is a successor to the RAD6000 CPU of the Mars Exploration Rovers
Dawn is a space probe launched by NASA in September 2007 with the mission of studying two of the three known protoplanets of the asteroid belt and Ceres. It is currently in orbit about its second target, the dwarf planet Ceres, Dawn entered Vesta orbit on July 16,2011, and completed a 14-month survey mission before leaving for Ceres in late 2012. Dawn entered Ceres orbit on March 6,2015, and is predicted to remain in orbit perpetually after the conclusion of its mission, NASA considered, but decided against, a proposal to visit a third target. The Dawn mission is managed by NASAs Jet Propulsion Laboratory, with components contributed by European partners from the Netherlands, Italy. It is the first NASA exploratory mission to use ion propulsion, previous multi-target missions using conventional drives, such as the Voyager program, were restricted to flybys. The first working ion thruster was built by Harold R. Kaufman in 1959 at NASAs Glenn Research Center in Ohio, the thruster was similar to the general design of a gridded electrostatic ion thruster with mercury as its propellant.
Suborbital tests of the engine followed during the 1960s, and in 1964 the engine was tested on a flight aboard the Space Electric Rocket Test 1. It successfully operated for the planned 31 minutes before falling back to Earth and this test was followed by an orbital test, SERT-2, in 1970. In addition to the ion thruster, among the other technologies validated by the DS1 was the Small Deep Space Transponder,26 proposals were submitted to the Discovery Program solicitation, with budget initially targeted at 300 million USD. Three semi-finalists were downselected in January 2001 for a design study, Kepler. In December 2001 NASA selected the Kepler and the Dawn mission for the Discovery program, both missions were initially selected for a launch in 2006. The status of the Dawn mission changed several times, the project was cancelled in December 2003, and reinstated in February 2004. On March 2,2006, Dawn was again cancelled by NASA, the spacecrafts manufacturer, Orbital Sciences Corporation, appealed NASAs decision, offering to build the spacecraft at cost, forgoing any profit in order to gain experience in a new market field.
NASA put the cancellation under review, and on March 27,2006, in the last week of September 2006, the Dawn missions instrument payload integration reached full functionality. Although originally projected to cost US$373 million, cost overruns inflated the final cost of the mission to US$446 million in 2007, christopher T. Russell was chosen to lead the Dawn mission team. Ceres and Vesta were chosen as two contrasting protoplanets, the first one apparently wet and the dry, whose accretion was terminated by the formation of Jupiter. The two bodies provide a bridge in scientific understanding between the formation of planets and the icy bodies of the Solar System, and under what conditions a rocky planet can hold water. Dawn is the first mission to study a dwarf planet, arriving at Ceres a few months before the arrival of the New Horizons probe at Pluto in July 2015, Ceres comprises a third of the total mass of the asteroid belt
Mars MetNet is a planned atmospheric science mission to Mars, initiated by the Finnish Meteorological Institute and under development by Finland and Spain. By September 2013, two flight-capable entry and landing systems have been manufactured and tested, as of 2015 baseline funding exists until 2020. As of 2016 launch vehicle or precursory launch date has not been set, the objective is to establish a widespread surface observation network on Mars to investigate the planets atmospheric structure and meteorology. The bulk of the mission consist of at least 16 MetNet impact landers deployed over the Martian surface, the basic concepts of Mars MetNet were initiated by the Finnish Meteorological Institute team in late 1980s. The concept was matured over a decade, and eventually the development work started in the year 2000, MetNet can be considered as a successor of the NetLander, Russian Mars 96 and the earlier ESA Marsnet and InterMarsnet mission concepts. Of these Mars 96 went all the way to launch, but failure on the trans-mars injection with forth stage of the rocket caused it to re-enter Earth, as part of this multi-part mission were two penetrators quite like MetNet.
Main difference being that on the impact the front part would separate from the back, MetNet was among the missions proposed at the European Geosciences Union General Assembly in April 2016. The scope of the Mars MetNet mission is eventually to deploy several tens of impact landers on the Martian surface, Mars MetNet is being developed by a consortium consisting of the Finnish Meteorological Institute, the Russian Space Research Institute, and Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial from Spain. The baseline program development funding exists until 2020, definition of the precursory mission and discussions on launch opportunities are currently under way. The precursory mission would consist of one lander and is intended as a technology, if successful and if funded, more landers are proposed to be deployed in the following launch windows. By 2013, all activities had been completed and the payload. By September 2013, two flight-capable entry and landing systems had been manufactured and tested with acceptance levels, one of those two probes is being used for further environment tests, while a second is currently considered flight-worthy.
The tests covered resistance to vibration and mechanical impact shock, the test EDLS unit may be refurbished for flight. Mars MetNet includes both a global-scale, multi-point network of surface probes supplemented by a satellite in orbit. Somewhere in the range of ten to twenty observation points is seen as a minimum to get a picture of atmospheric phenomena on a planet-wide scale. Each MetNet lander, or impactor probe, will use an entry and descent system instead of rigid heat shields. This way the ratio of the mass to the overall mass is optimized. The probes will have a landing speed of 44.6 to 57.6 m/s
Mars Exploration Rover
NASAs Mars Exploration Rover mission is an ongoing robotic space mission involving two Mars rovers and Opportunity, exploring the planet Mars. It began in 2003 with the sending of the two rovers, MER-A Spirit and MER-B Opportunity—to explore the Martian surface and geology, both rovers outlived their planned missions of 90 Martian solar days by far. MER-A Spirit was active until 2010, the success of the two MERs led to another mission, sending a bigger rover Curiosity in 2012. The missions scientific objective was to search for and characterize a wide range of rocks, the mission is part of NASAs Mars Exploration Program, which includes three previous successful landers, the two Viking program landers in 1976 and Mars Pathfinder probe in 1997. The total cost of building, launching and operating the rovers on the surface for the initial 90-sol primary mission was US$820 million, since the rovers have continued to function beyond their initial 90 sol primary mission, they have each received five mission extensions.
The fifth mission extension was granted in October 2007, and ran to the end of 2009, the total cost of the first four mission extensions was $104 million, and the fifth mission extension is expected to cost at least $20 million. However, the dust storms lifted, allowing them to resume operations, on May 1,2009, during its fifth mission extension, Spirit became stuck in soft soil on Mars. This mode would enable Spirit to assist scientists in ways that a mobile platform could not, in recognition of the vast amount of scientific information amassed by both rovers, two asteroids have been named in their honor,37452 Spirit and 39382 Opportunity. The mission is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, which designed, the search for evidence of habitability and organic carbon on the planet Mars is now a primary NASA objective. The scientific objectives of the Mars Exploration Rover mission are to, Search for and characterize a variety of rocks, in particular, samples sought include those that have minerals deposited by water-related processes such as precipitation, sedimentary cementation, or hydrothermal activity.
Determine the distribution and composition of minerals and soils surrounding the landing sites, determine what geologic processes have shaped the local terrain and influenced the chemistry. Such processes could include water or wind erosion, hydrothermal mechanisms, perform calibration and validation of surface observations made by Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter instruments. This will help determine the accuracy and effectiveness of various instruments that survey Martian geology from orbit, Search for iron-containing minerals, and to identify and quantify relative amounts of specific mineral types that contain water or were formed in water, such as iron-bearing carbonates. Characterize the mineralogy and textures of rocks and soils to determine the processes that created them, Search for geological clues to the environmental conditions that existed when liquid water was present. Assess whether those environments were conducive to life, the MER-A and MER-B probes were launched on June 10,2003 and July 7,2003, respectively.
The launch vehicles were integrated onto pads right next to other, with MER-A on CCAFS SLC-17A. The dual pads allowed for working the 15- and 21-day planetary launch periods close together, the last possible day for MER-A was June 19,2003. NASAs Launch Services Program managed the launch of both spacecraft, the probes landed in January 2004 in widely separated equatorial locations on Mars
Mars 96 was a failed Mars mission launched in 1996 to investigate Mars by the Russian Space Forces and not directly related to the Soviet Mars probe program of the same name. After failure of the second burn, the probe assembly re-entered the Earths atmosphere, breaking up over a 200-mile long portion of the Pacific Ocean, Chile. The Mars 96 spacecraft was based on the Phobos probes launched to Mars in 1988 and they were of a new design at the time and both ultimately failed. It was, however, an ambitious mission and the heaviest interplanetary probe launched up to that time. The mission included an orbiter, surface stations and surface penetrators, the mission included a large complement of instruments provided by France, other European countries and the United States. Similar instruments have since flown on Mars Express, launched in 2003. Its project scientist was Alexander Zakharov, Mars 96 was intended to solve several problems concerning our understanding of Mars. The scientific goal of the mission was to analyze the planets history of its surface, atmosphere.
Other studies during cruise, such as astrophysical studies were to be made and they can be broken down into several categories. Studies of the Martian surface were to include a topographical survey, mineralogical mapping, soil composition. Astrophysical studies were to place during interplanetary cruise. They included studies of cosmic gamma-bursts and the study of oscillations of the Sun, the Mars 96 orbiter was a 3-axis sun/star stabilized spacecraft which was based on the design of the Phobos orbiters. It had a high and medium gain antennae. Two large solar panels were attached to either side of the spacecraft and it had a jettisonable propulsion unit to be separated sometime after Mars orbit insertion. Two Surface Stations were attached on top of the spacecraft, two Penetrators were attached to the propulsion unit. It had a MORION system which was the interface, microprocessor. The orbiter had a mass, with fuel, of 6,180 kg. It had a dry mass of 3,159 kg, each Surface Station was contained in an aeroshell about 1 meter high and about 1 meter in diameter
2001 Mars Odyssey
2001 Mars Odyssey is a robotic spacecraft orbiting the planet Mars. The project was developed by NASA, and contracted out to Lockheed Martin and its mission is to use spectrometers and a thermal imager to detect evidence of past or present water and ice, as well as study the planets geology and radiation environment. It acts as a relay for communications between the Mars Exploration Rovers, Mars Science Laboratory, and previously the Phoenix lander to Earth, the mission was named as a tribute to Arthur C. Clarke, evoking the name of 2001, A Space Odyssey, Odyssey was launched April 7,2001, on a Delta II rocket from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, and reached Mars orbit on October 24,2001, at 02,30 UTC. It is currently in an orbit around Mars with an altitude of about 3,800 km or 2,400 miles. By December 15,2010, it broke the record for longest serving spacecraft at Mars, with 3,340 days of operation, claiming the title from NASAs Mars Global Surveyor. It currently holds the record for the longest-surviving continually active spacecraft in orbit around a planet other than Earth, ahead of the Pioneer Venus Orbiter, Mars Odyssey was originally a component of the Mars Surveyor 2001 program, and was named the Mars Surveyor 2001 Orbiter.
Subsequently, the name 2001 Mars Odyssey was selected for the orbiter as a tribute to the vision of space exploration shown in works by Arthur C. Clarke, including 2001, A Space Odyssey, the music from Mythodea by Greek composer Vangelis was used as the theme music for the mission. In August 2000, NASA solicited candidate names for the mission, which were evaluated by a committee consisting of Mark Dahl, Michael Meyer, Steve Saunders. Out of 200 names submitted, the committee chose Astrobiological Reconnaissance and Elemental Surveyor, faced with criticism that this name was not very compelling, and too aggressive, the naming committee reconvened. The candidate name 2001 Mars Odyssey had earlier been rejected because of copyright, however, NASA e-mailed Arthur C. Clarke in Sri Lanka, who responded that he would be delighted to have the mission named for his books, and he had no objections. On September 20, NASA associate administrator Ed Weiler wrote to the administrator for public affairs recommending a name change from ARES to 2001 Mars Odyssey.
Peggy Wilhide approved the name change, the three primary instruments Odyssey uses are the, Thermal Emission Imaging System. Gamma Ray Spectrometer, includes the High Energy Neutron Detector, provided by Russia, on May 28,2002, NASA reported that Odysseys GRS had detected large amounts of hydrogen, a sign that there must be ice lying within a meter of the planets surface. GRS is a collaboration between University of Arizonas Lunar and Planetary Lab. the Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Russias Space Research Institute, Mars Odyssey launched from Cape Canaveral on April 11,2001, and arrived at Mars about 200 days on October 24. The spacecrafts main engine fired in order to brake the spacecrafts speed, Odyssey spent about three months aerobraking, using friction with the upper reaches of the Martian atmosphere to gradually slow down and to shrink and circularize its orbit. By using the atmosphere of Mars to slow down the spacecraft in its orbit, rather than firing its engine or thrusters, aerobraking ended in January, and Odyssey began its science mapping mission on February 19,2002
The Beagle 2 was a British Mars lander that was transported by the European Space Agencys 2003 Mars Express mission. It was an astrobiology mission that would have looked for past life on the shallow surface of Mars. The Beagle 2s fate remained a mystery until January 2015 when it was located intact on the surface of Mars in a series of images from NASAs Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter HiRISE camera. The images suggest that two of the four solar panels failed to deploy, blocking the spacecrafts communications antenna. The Beagle 2 is named after HMS Beagle, the used by Charles Darwin. The Beagle 2 was conceived by a group of British academics headed by Professor Colin Pillinger of the Open University, the project was designed and developed by several UK academics and companies. We hope Beagle 2 will do the thing for life on Mars. 53°N90. 50°E /11.53,90.50 was selected. The lander was expected to operate for about 180 days and a mission of up to one Martian year was thought possible. The Principal Investigator, Colin Pillinger, set up a consortium to design, in an effort to publicise the project and gain financial support, its designers sought and received the endorsement and participation of British artists.
The missions call-sign was composed by the band Blur, and the test card intended for calibrating Beagle 2s cameras and spectrometers after landing was painted by Damien Hirst. The Lander Operations Control Centre was located at the National Space Centre in Leicester, from which the spacecraft was being controlled, the GTM was composed of various builds of the Beagle 2 systems, collected together to provide a full set of lander electronics. The GTM was used continuously to validate the engineering and science commands, to rehearse the landing sequence. Funding came from the National Space Science Centre and the Wellcome Foundation, UK principal investigators for Beagle 2 came from the Open University, Leicester University and Mullard Space Science Laboratory. The budget was secret at that time but has been estimated to be between 30 and 50 million pounds, which at current exchange rates would be about 43-71 million euros or 54-89 million USD. New Scientist magazine reported a budget of 40 million pounds for Beagle 2, some of the work is known to have been donated or done at-cost.
Robotic arm and analysers Beagle 2 has an arm known as the Payload Adjustable Workbench. The arm is 109 cm long when extended, and it can reach about 70 cm to the nearest rocks. The PAW contains a pair of cameras, a microscope, a Mössbauer spectrometer, an X-ray spectrometer, a drill for collecting rock samples