Chittoor district, is a district in Rayalaseema region of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The district headquarters is located at Chittoor and it has a population of 4,170,468 according to 2011 census of India. Chittoor district has many temples including Tirupati and Sri Kalahasti temples. It lies in the Poini river valley of southernmost Andhra Pradesh along the Chennai – Bangalore section Chennai-Mumbai highway and it is a major market centre for mangoes, grains and peanuts. The district derived its name from its headquarters Chittoor, in the Apri111960319 villages of chittoor district were added into the Kanchipuram districtand Thiruvallur districts of Tamil Nadu through the demands of Ma. Chandragiri, an area of Tirupati served as fourth capital of Vijayanagar empire. Chittoor is a part of Rayalaseema region of Andhra Pradesh, the district occupies an area of 15,359 square kilometres. Chittoor district lies extreme south of the Andhra Pradesh state approximately between 12°37′ - 14°8′ north latitudes and 78°3′ - 79°55′ east longitudes, thirty percent of the total land area is covered by forests in the district.
Mango and tamarind groves surround the city of Chittoor, and cattle are raised in the district, the important rivers in the district are Ponnai and Swarnamukhi rivers which originate in eastern ghats. Other rivers include Kusasthali, Bahuda, Kalyani, none of the rivers are perennial. This is because of the altitude of the western parts compared to the eastern parts. The summer temperatures touches 46 °C in the eastern parts whereas in the parts it ranges around 36° to 38 °C. Similarly the winter temperatures of the parts are relatively low ranging around 12 °C to 14 °C. Chittoor district receives a rainfall of 918.1 mm. The South West Monsoon and North East Monsoon are the sources of rainfall for the district. On average the district receives 438.0 mm of rainfall through the South West Monsoon and 396.0 mm from North East Monsoon, the rainfall received by the district in the years 2002 and 2003 are 984.2 mm and 934 mm respectively. According to the 2011 census Chittoor district has a population of 4,170,468 and this gives it a ranking of 47th in India and 6th in its state.
The district has a density of 275 inhabitants per square kilometre
The Talakona waterfall is in Sri Venkateswara National Park, Chittoor District of Andhra pradesh in India. With a 270 feet -fall, Talakona is the highest waterfall in the Andhra pradesh state, Talakona is known for the Lord Siddheswara Swamy Temple, which is located close to the waterfall. Talakona is located in Nerabailu village in Yerravaripalem Mandal of Chittoor District and it is located 49 kilometres from Pileru,58 kilometres from Tirupathi,127 kilometres from Vellore,220 kilometres from Chennai, and 105 kilometres from Chittoor and 250 kilometres from Bangalore. Talakona is a resort with waterfalls, dense forests and wildlife, the area was declared a biosphere reserve in 1989 due to the presence of rich variety of flora and fauna. Talakona means head hill in Telugu, Thalakona allegorically means “the head of the Seshachalam hills” as these mountains are believed to be the starting point of the Tirumala mountain ranges. The Talakona forests host rare and endangered species of animals like Slender Loris, Indian Giant Squirrel, Mouse Deer, Golden Gecko, Porcupine, endemic species like Red Sander, Cycas beddomeii and Enteda like giant plants are found in this region.
The forest is covered with sandalwood trees with some medicinal plants. Andhra Pradesh RTC buses ply towards this route, catch bus going towards pileru or madanapalle from Tirupati bus stand, get down at Bhakarapet. Then from here private share autos can be hired that which goes towards Nerabailu village. Entry restricted after 4, only 2 buses goes from Bhakarapet bus stand so have to highly depend on own vehicles or auto rickshaws. The waters of Talakona are enriched with herbs and people believe that it has healing properties, a long and treacherous trekking route leads to the top of the hill, which can be reached by multiple paths. Talakona hills geographically is considered a part of the Eastern Ghats, there is a beautiful waterfall falling deep into the valley from a cliff on the upper reaches. According to the residents, it is said that the origin of water is difficult to be traced out since an underground stream surfaces here. There used to be a 240 meter long canopy rope walk, there are number of trek routes in different categories of difficulty, giving an option for the visitor to choose their route.
In the area there is an ancient Siva temple which is flooded with devotees during Sivarathri festival, there are deep caves scattered over the mountains where it is believed that sages meditate eternally. A stream flows near the canopy walk area where a bathing ghat is under construction, accommodation is available in this dense forest, it gives immense pleasure for visitors to spend time during nights. Accommodation in Talakona guest houses can be booked in seshachalavanadarshani. com official website for Talakona and other tourist places like Mamandur, Pulicat-lake, the Temple at Talakona water falls is a Siva Temple known as SIDDHESWARA SWAMY TEMPLE. The deity is called as Siddheswara, as per the Local people, the temple was built some 140 years ago. Based on this custom the SIVA LINGA was brought from Rayavaripalli ruined temple, the relics of the ruined temple can be seen today in the agricultural fields of Rayavaripalli
A color space is a specific organization of colors. In combination with physical device profiling, it allows for reproducible representations of color, for example, Adobe RGB and sRGB are two different absolute color spaces, both based on the RGB color model. When defining a color space, the reference standard is the CIELAB or CIEXYZ color spaces. For example, although several specific color spaces are based on the RGB color model, colors can be created in printing with color spaces based on the CMYK color model, using the subtractive primary colors of pigment. The resulting 3-D space provides a position for every possible color that can be created by combining those three pigments. Colors can be created on computer monitors with color spaces based on the RGB color model, a three-dimensional representation would assign each of the three colors to the X, Y, and Z axes. Note that colors generated on given monitor will be limited by the medium, such as the phosphor or filters. Another way of creating colors on a monitor is with an HSL or HSV color space, based on hue, with such a space, the variables are assigned to cylindrical coordinates.
Many color spaces can be represented as three-dimensional values in this manner, but some have more, or fewer dimensions, Color space conversion is the translation of the representation of a color from one basis to another. The RGB color model is implemented in different ways, depending on the capabilities of the system used, by far the most common general-used incarnation as of 2006 is the 24-bit implementation, with 8 bits, or 256 discrete levels of color per channel. Any color space based on such a 24-bit RGB model is limited to a range of 256×256×256 ≈16.7 million colors. Some implementations use 16 bits per component for 48 bits total and this is especially important when working with wide-gamut color spaces, or when a large number of digital filtering algorithms are used consecutively. The same principle applies for any color space based on the color model. CIE1931 XYZ color space was one of the first attempts to produce a space based on measurements of human color perception. The CIERGB color space is a companion of CIE XYZ.
Additional derivatives of CIE XYZ include the CIELUV, CIEUVW, RGB uses additive color mixing, because it describes what kind of light needs to be emitted to produce a given color. RGB stores individual values for red and blue, RGBA is RGB with an additional channel, alpha, to indicate transparency. Common color spaces based on the RGB model include sRGB, Adobe RGB, ProPhoto RGB, scRGB, one starts with a white substrate, and uses ink to subtract color from white to create an image
India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and it is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan to the west, China and Bhutan to the northeast, in the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives. Indias Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a border with Thailand. The Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE, in the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, early political consolidations took place under the Maurya and Gupta empires, the peninsular Middle Kingdoms influenced cultures as far as southeast Asia. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, much of the north fell to the Delhi sultanate, the south was united under the Vijayanagara Empire.
The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal empire, in the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, and in the mid-19th under British crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which later, under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance, in 2015, the Indian economy was the worlds seventh largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, malnutrition, a nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the third largest standing army in the world and ranks sixth in military expenditure among nations. India is a constitutional republic governed under a parliamentary system. It is a pluralistic and multi-ethnic society and is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindu, the latter term stems from the Sanskrit word Sindhu, which was the historical local appellation for the Indus River.
The ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as The people of the Indus, the geographical term Bharat, which is recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations. Scholars believe it to be named after the Vedic tribe of Bharatas in the second millennium B. C. E and it is traditionally associated with the rule of the legendary emperor Bharata. Gaṇarājya is the Sanskrit/Hindi term for republic dating back to the ancient times, hindustan is a Persian name for India dating back to the 3rd century B. C. E. It was introduced into India by the Mughals and widely used since and its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety
The focal length of an optical system is a measure of how strongly the system converges or diverges light. For an optical system in air, it is the distance over which initially collimated rays are brought to a focus. A system with a focal length has greater optical power than one with a long focal length. For a thin lens in air, the length is the distance from the center of the lens to the principal foci of the lens. For a converging lens, the length is positive, and is the distance at which a beam of collimated light will be focused to a single spot. For a diverging lens, the length is negative, and is the distance to the point from which a collimated beam appears to be diverging after passing through the lens. The focal length of a lens can be easily measured by using it to form an image of a distant light source on a screen. The lens is moved until an image is formed on the screen. In this case 1/u is negligible, and the length is given by f ≈ v. Back focal length or back focal distance is the distance from the vertex of the last optical surface of the system to the focal point.
For an optical system in air, the focal length gives the distance from the front. If the surrounding medium is not air, the distance is multiplied by the index of the medium. Some authors call these distances the front/rear focal lengths, distinguishing them from the front/rear focal distances, defined above. In general, the length or EFL is the value that describes the ability of the optical system to focus light. The other parameters are used in determining where an image will be formed for an object position. The quantity 1/f is known as the power of the lens. The corresponding front focal distance is, FFD = f, in the sign convention used here, the value of R1 will be positive if the first lens surface is convex, and negative if it is concave. The value of R2 is negative if the surface is convex
Film speed is the measure of a photographic films sensitivity to light, determined by sensitometry and measured on various numerical scales, the most recent being the ISO system. A closely related ISO system is used to measure the sensitivity of digital imaging systems, highly sensitive films are correspondingly termed fast films. In both digital and film photography, the reduction of exposure corresponding to use of higher sensitivities generally leads to reduced image quality, in short, the higher the sensitivity, the grainier the image will be. Ultimately sensitivity is limited by the efficiency of the film or sensor. The speed of the emulsion was expressed in degrees Warnerke corresponding with the last number visible on the plate after development. Each number represented an increase of 1/3 in speed, typical speeds were between 10° and 25° Warnerke at the time. The concept, was built upon in 1900 by Henry Chapman Jones in the development of his plate tester. In their system, speed numbers were inversely proportional to the exposure required, for example, an emulsion rated at 250 H&D would require ten times the exposure of an emulsion rated at 2500 H&D.
The methods to determine the sensitivity were modified in 1925, the H&D system was officially accepted as a standard in the former Soviet Union from 1928 until September 1951, when it was superseded by GOST 2817-50. The Scheinergrade system was devised by the German astronomer Julius Scheiner in 1894 originally as a method of comparing the speeds of plates used for astronomical photography, Scheiners system rated the speed of a plate by the least exposure to produce a visible darkening upon development. ≈2 The system was extended to cover larger ranges and some of its practical shortcomings were addressed by the Austrian scientist Josef Maria Eder. Scheiners system was abandoned in Germany, when the standardized DIN system was introduced in 1934. In various forms, it continued to be in use in other countries for some time. The DIN system, officially DIN standard 4512 by Deutsches Institut für Normung, was published in January 1934, International Congress of Photography held in Dresden from August 3 to 8,1931.
The DIN system was inspired by Scheiners system, but the sensitivities were represented as the base 10 logarithm of the sensitivity multiplied by 10, similar to decibels. Thus an increase of 20° represented an increase in sensitivity. ≈3 /10 As in the Scheiner system, speeds were expressed in degrees, originally the sensitivity was written as a fraction with tenths, where the resultant value 1.8 represented the relative base 10 logarithm of the speed. Tenths were abandoned with DIN4512, 1957-11, and the example above would be written as 18° DIN, the degree symbol was finally dropped with DIN4512, 1961-10
The Fabales are an order of flowering plants included in the rosid group of the eudicots in the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group II classification system. In the APG II circumscription, this includes the families Fabaceae or legumes, Polygalaceae or milkworts. Under the Cronquist system and some other plant classification systems, the order Fabales contains only the family Fabaceae, in the classification system of Dahlgren the Fabales were in the superorder Fabiflorae with three families corresponding to the subfamilies of Fabaceae in APG II. The Fabaceae, as the third-largest plant family in the world, contain most of the diversity of the Fabales, research in the order is largely focused on the Fabaceae, due in part to its great biological diversity, and to its importance as food plants. The Fabales are a order of plants, except only the subfamily Papilionoideae of the Fabaceae are well dispersed throughout the northern part of the North Temperate Zone
Canon EOS 350D
The Canon EOS 350D is an 8. 0-megapixel entry-level digital single-lens reflex camera manufactured by Canon. The model was announced in February 2005. Part of the EOS range, it is the successor to the EOS 300D and the predecessor to the EOS 400D, since early 2008, the 350D has been remaindered. The 350D is a version of the Canon EOS 300D. There are some differences between the 350D and the 300D, many of the features locked out by Canon in the 300D were unlocked in this camera, so it has been subject to less unofficial hacking to release the locked features. In addition to these features, a number of other improvements have been made. Some of the most significant upgrades include,8.0 interface Lithium ion battery, the Canon EOS 350D comes with Digital Photo Professional to be able to create JPEG or TIFF files from raw files. This was only available on Canons professional cameras, Canon had compatibility problems with the Lexar Professional 80x-speed Compact Flash cards which resulted in either total image loss, or the camera freezing up.
In the cases of the freezing, the images may still be retrieved using an external CF card reader. The camera will interpret the presence of a hot shoe protector as the presence of a flash attachment thereby disabling the built-in pop-up flash. Removing the hot shoe protector will re-enable the built-in flash, a micro-switch in the hot-shoe senses the presence of the flash. When using third party lenses, most notably older Sigma lenses, reports exist of people receiving Err99 errors when using such lenses. The problem is more pronounced when using older lens that do not feature an HSM focus drive, using the problematic lens wide open is sometimes possible. Another cause of Err99 messages involve EF-S 18–55 lenses that are defective, purchasing used EF-S 18–55 lenses is a risk factor, the latest firmware released by Canon is version 1.0.3. It fixes problems relating to remote release cables, as well as a problem while reviewing saved images, Canon EF lens mount Canon EF-S lens mount Canon EOS system infopage
A flash is a device used in photography producing a flash of artificial light at a color temperature of about 5500 K to help illuminate a scene. A major purpose of a flash is to illuminate a dark scene, other uses are capturing quickly moving objects or changing the quality of light. Flash refers either to the flash of light itself or to the flash unit discharging the light. Most current flash units are electronic, having evolved from single-use flashbulbs, modern cameras often activate flash units automatically. Flash units are built directly into a camera. Some cameras allow separate flash units to be mounted via an accessory mount bracket. In professional studio equipment, flashes may be large, standalone units, or studio strobes, studies of magnesium by Bunsen and Roscoe in 1859 showed that burning this metal produced a light with similar qualities to daylight. The potential application to photography inspired Edward Sonstadt to investigate methods of manufacturing magnesium so that it would burn reliably for this use and he applied for patents in 1862 and by 1864 had started the Manchester Magnesium Company with Edward Mellor.
It had the benefit of being a simpler and cheaper process than making round wire, mather was credited with the invention of a holder for the ribbon, which formed a lamp to burn it in. The packaging implies that the ribbon was not necessarily broken off before being ignited. An alternative to ribbon was flash powder, a mixture of powder and potassium chlorate, introduced by its German inventors Adolf Miethe. A measured amount was put into a pan or trough and ignited by hand, producing a brilliant flash of light, along with the smoke. This could be an activity, especially if the flash powder was damp. An electrically triggered flash lamp was invented by Joshua Lionel Cowen in 1899 and his patent describes a device for igniting photographers’ flash powder by using dry cell batteries to heat a wire fuse. Variations and alternatives were touted from time to time and a few found a measure of success in the marketplace, especially for amateur use. The use of powder in an open lamp was replaced by flashbulbs, magnesium filaments were contained in bulbs filled with oxygen gas.
Manufactured flashbulbs were first produced commercially in Germany in 1929, such a bulb could only be used once, and was too hot to handle immediately after use, but the confinement of what would otherwise have amounted to a small explosion was an important advance. A innovation was the coating of flashbulbs with a film to maintain bulb integrity in the event of the glass shattering during the flash
Factors considered may include unusual lighting distribution, variations within a camera system, non-standard processing, or intended underexposure or overexposure. Cinematographers may apply exposure compensation for changes in angle or film speed. Most DSLR cameras have a display whereby the photographer can set the camera to either over or under expose the subject by up to three f-stops in 1/3rd stop intervals. Each number on the scale represents one f-stop, decreasing the exposure by one f-stop will halve the amount of light reaching the sensor, the dots in between the numbers represent 1/3rd of an f-stop. In photography, some cameras include exposure compensation as a feature to allow the user to adjust the automatically calculated exposure, camera exposure compensation is commonly stated in terms of EV units,1 EV is equal to one exposure step, corresponding to a doubling of exposure. Exposure can be adjusted by changing either the lens f-number or the exposure time, if the mode is aperture priority, exposure compensation changes the exposure time, if the mode is shutter priority, the f-number is changed.
If a flash is being used, some cameras will adjust it as well, the earliest reflected-light exposure meters were wide-angle, averaging types, measuring the average scene luminance. When measuring a scene with atypical distribution of light and dark elements, or an element that is lighter or darker than a middle tone. For example, a scene with predominantly light tones often will be underexposed and that both scenes require the same exposure, regardless of the meter indication, becomes obvious from a scene that includes both a white horse and a black horse. A photographer usually can recognize the difference between a horse and a black horse, a meter usually cannot. When metering a white horse, a photographer can apply exposure compensation so that the horse is rendered as white. Many modern cameras incorporate metering systems that measure scene contrast as well as average luminance, in scenes with very unusual lighting, these metering systems sometimes cannot match the judgment of a skilled photographer, so exposure compensation still may be needed.
An early application of compensation was the Zone System developed by Ansel Adams. Developed for black-and-white film, the Zone System divided luminance into 11 zones, with Zone 0 representing pure black, the meter indication would place whatever was metered on Zone V, a medium gray. The meter indication, remains Zone V, the Zone System is a very specialized form of exposure compensation, and is used most effectively when metering individual scene elements, such as a sunlit rock or the bark of a tree in shade. Many cameras incorporate narrow-angle spot meters to facilitate such measurements, because of the limited tonal range, an exposure compensation range of ±2 EV is often sufficient for using the Zone System with color film and digital sensors. Exposure value Exposure index Light meter Zone System Exposure bracketing Auto Exposure Bracketing
Adobe Photoshop is a raster graphics editor developed and published by Adobe Systems for macOS and Windows. Photoshop was created in 1988 by Thomas and John Knoll and it can edit and compose raster images in multiple layers and supports masks, alpha compositing and several color models including RGB, CMYK, CIELAB, spot color and duotone. Photoshop has vast support for file formats but uses its own PSD. In addition to graphics, it has limited abilities to edit or render text, vector graphics, 3D graphics. Photoshops featureset can be expanded by Photoshop plug-ins, programs developed and distributed independently of Photoshop that can run inside it, Photoshops naming scheme was initially based on version numbers. Photoshop CS3 through CS6 were distributed in two different editions and Extended, in June 2013, with the introduction of Creative Cloud branding, Photoshops licensing scheme was changed to that of software as a service rental model and the CS suffixes were replaced with CC. Historically, Photoshop was bundled with software such as Adobe ImageReady, Adobe Fireworks, Adobe Bridge, Adobe Device Central.
Alongside Photoshop, Adobe develops and publishes Photoshop Elements, Photoshop Lightroom, Photoshop Express, they are branded as The Adobe Photoshop Family. It is currently a licensed software, Photoshop was developed in 1987 by the American brothers Thomas and John Knoll, who sold the distribution license to Adobe Systems Incorporated in 1988. Thomas Knoll, a PhD student at the University of Michigan, began writing a program on his Macintosh Plus to display images on a monochrome display. This program, called Display, caught the attention of his brother John Knoll, an Industrial Light & Magic employee, Thomas took a six-month break from his studies in 1988 to collaborate with his brother on the program. Thomas renamed the program ImagePro, but the name was already taken, during this time, John traveled to Silicon Valley and gave a demonstration of the program to engineers at Apple and Russell Brown, art director at Adobe. Both showings were successful, and Adobe decided to purchase the license to distribute in September 1988, while John worked on plug-ins in California, Thomas remained in Ann Arbor writing code.
Photoshop 1.0 was released on 19 February 1990 for Macintosh exclusively, the Barneyscan version included advanced color editing features that were stripped from the first Adobe shipped version. The handling of color slowly improved with each release from Adobe, at the time Photoshop 1.0 was released, digital retouching on dedicated high end systems, such as the Scitex, cost around $300 an hour for basic photo retouching. Photoshop files have default file extension as. PSD, which stands for Photoshop Document, a PSD file stores an image with support for most imaging options available in Photoshop. These include layers with masks, text, alpha channels and spot colors, clipping paths and this is in contrast to many other file formats that restrict content to provide streamlined, predictable functionality. A PSD file has a height and width of 30,000 pixels
The f-number of an optical system such as a camera lens is the ratio of the systems focal length to the diameter of the entrance pupil. It is a number that is a quantitative measure of lens speed. It is known as the ratio, f-ratio, f-stop. The f-number is commonly indicated using a hooked f with the format f/N, the f-number N or f# is given by, N = f D where f is the focal length, and D is the diameter of the entrance pupil. It is customary to write f-numbers preceded by f/, which forms a mathematical expression of the pupil diameter in terms of f and N. Ignoring differences in light transmission efficiency, a lens with a greater f-number projects darker images, the brightness of the projected image relative to the brightness of the scene in the lenss field of view decreases with the square of the f-number. Doubling the f-number decreases the brightness by a factor of four. To maintain the same photographic exposure when doubling the f-number, the time would need to be four times as long. Most lenses have a diaphragm, which changes the size of the aperture stop.
The entrance pupil diameter is not necessarily equal to the aperture stop diameter, a 100 mm focal length f/4 lens has an entrance pupil diameter of 25 mm. A200 mm focal length f/4 lens has a pupil diameter of 50 mm. The 200 mm lenss entrance pupil has four times the area of the 100 mm lenss entrance pupil, a T-stop is an f-number adjusted to account for light transmission efficiency. The word stop is sometimes confusing due to its multiple meanings, a stop can be a physical object, an opaque part of an optical system that blocks certain rays. In photography, stops are a used to quantify ratios of light or exposure. The one-stop unit is known as the EV unit. On a camera, the setting is traditionally adjusted in discrete steps. Each stop is marked with its corresponding f-number, and represents a halving of the light intensity from the previous stop. This corresponds to a decrease of the pupil and aperture diameters by a factor of 1/2 or about 0.7071, each element in the sequence is one stop lower than the element to its left, and one stop higher than the element to its right