The Quebec Bulldogs were a mens senior-level ice hockey team officially known as the Quebec Hockey Club, and as the Quebec Athletic Club. One of the first organized ice hockey clubs, the club debuted in 1878 with the opening of the Quebec Skating Rink, the club continued as an amateur team through various leagues, eventually becoming professional in 1908. The club would play in the National Hockey Association and the National Hockey League, in 1920, the team moved to Hamilton and became the Hamilton Tigers. The Quebec Hockey Club was founded in 1878, after the construction of the Quebec Skating Rink in 1877, play was by exhibition only, against teams drawn from the club members or visiting teams from Montreal. In 1883, the played in the Montreal Winter Carnival. After the AHAC, Quebec played in the Canadian Amateur Hockey League from 1899 to 1905, the club came close to winning the Stanley Cup on two occasions. In the 1894 season Quebec tied for the AHAC regular season lead with three other clubs, the AHAC drew up plans to hold the playoff solely in Montreal.
Quebec declined to play in Montreal without one game in Quebec, in 1904, Quebec won the CAHL outright. In a dispute, the club did not win the Stanley Cup or challenge for it, the Ottawa Hockey Club was the defending champions in 1903–04, but withdrew from the league. Quebec went on to win the CAHL and expected to receive the Stanley Cup as league champions, the trustees of the Cup instead ruled that the Cup went to Ottawa. In late 1909, Quebec became a member of the Canadian Hockey Association in 1909. The CHA, would only last one month before being absorbed into the more powerful National Hockey Association. Rejected by the new league, the Bulldogs sat out the inaugural 1910 season, the following season, 1910–11, the Bulldogs took over the defunct Cobalt Silver Kings franchise, but had a rough initiation, finishing dead last with four wins and 12 losses in a 16-game season. On a positive note, and a sign of things to come, Jack McDonald scored 14 goals and Tommy Dunderdale scored 13. For 1911–12, the Bulldogs went from worst to first, with Joe Malone having a season, to win the OBrien Cup as champions of the NHA.
The Dogs record improved to 10 wins and eight losses while Malone scored 21 goals, in a Stanley Cup challenge, they crushed the Moncton Victorias in two games, 9–3 and 8–0, in the best-of-three playoff. In their third season, Quebec would again finish first overall with a record of 16-4 losses to retain the championship, Joe Malone won the scoring race with an unprecedented 43 goals. His teammate, Tommy Smith, was a second with 39