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1. Islamic architecture – Islamic architecture encompasses a wide range of both secular and religious styles from the foundation of Islam to the present day. What today is known as Islamic architecture was influenced by Persian, Roman, Byzantine, further east, it was also influenced by Chinese and Indian architecture as Islam spread to Southeast Asia. The principal Islamic architectural types are, the Mosque, the Tomb, the Palace, from these four types, the vocabulary of Islamic architecture is derived and used for other buildings such as public baths, fountains and domestic architecture. Symbolic views of scholars on Islamic architecture have consistently been criticized by historians for lacking historical evidence. The Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem is one of the most important buildings in all of Islamic architecture and it is patterned after the nearby Church of the Holy Sepulchre and Byzantine Christian artists were employed to create its elaborate mosaics against a golden background. The great epigraphic vine frieze was adapted from the pre-Islamic Syrian style, the Dome of the Rock featured interior vaulted spaces, a circular dome, and the use of stylized repeating decorative arabesque patterns. Desert palaces in Jordan and Syria served the caliphs as living quarters, reception halls, and baths, the horseshoe arch became a popular feature in Islamic structures. After the Moorish invasion of Spain in 711 AD the form was taken by the Umayyads who accentuated the curvature of the horseshoe. The Great Mosque of Damascus, built on the site of the basilica of John the Baptist after the Islamic invasion of Damascus, certain modifications were implemented, including expanding the structure along the transversal axis which better fit with the Islamic style of prayer. The Abbasid dynasty witnessed the movement of the capital from Damascus to Baghdad, the shift to Baghdad influenced politics, culture, and art. The Great Mosque of Samarra, once the largest in the world, was built for the new capital, other major mosques built in the Abbasid Dynasty include the Mosque of Ibn Tulun in Cairo, Abu Dalaf in Iraq, the great mosque in Tunis. Abbasid architecture in Iraq as exemplified in the Fortress of Al-Ukhaidir demonstrated the despotic, the Great Mosque of Kairouan is considered the ancestor of all the mosques in the western Islamic world. Its original marble columns and sculptures were of Roman workmanship brought in from Carthage and it is one of the best preserved and most significant examples of early great mosques, founded in 670 AD and dating in its present form largely from the Aghlabid period. The Great Mosque of Kairouan is constituted of a square minaret, a large courtyard surrounded by porticos. The Great Mosque of Samarra in Iraq, completed in 847 AD, the Hagia Sophia in Istanbul also influenced Islamic architecture. When the Ottomans captured the city from the Byzantines, they converted the basilica to a mosque, the Hagia Sophia also served as a model for many Ottoman mosques such as the Shehzade Mosque, the Suleiman Mosque, and the Rüstem Pasha Mosque. Domes are a structural feature of Islamic architecture. Domes remain in use, being a significant feature of many mosques, the distinctive pointed domes of Islamic architecture, also originating with the Byzantines and Persians, have remained a distinguishing feature of mosques into the 21st century
2. Samsung – Samsung Group is a South Korean multinational conglomerate headquartered in Samsung Town, Seoul. It comprises numerous affiliated businesses, most of them united under the Samsung brand, Samsung was founded by Lee Byung-chul in 1938 as a trading company. Over the next three decades, the group diversified into areas including food processing, textiles, insurance, securities, Samsung entered the electronics industry in the late 1960s and the construction and shipbuilding industries in the mid-1970s, these areas would drive its subsequent growth. Following Lees death in 1987, Samsung was separated into four business groups – Samsung Group, Shinsegae Group, CJ Group, since 1990, Samsung has increasingly globalised its activities and electronics, in particular, its mobile phones and semiconductors have become its most important source of income. Notable Samsung industrial affiliates include Samsung Electronics, Samsung Heavy Industries, other notable subsidiaries include Samsung Life Insurance, Samsung Everland and Cheil Worldwide. Samsung has an influence on South Koreas economic development, politics, media. Its affiliate companies produce around a fifth of South Koreas total exports, Samsungs revenue was equal to 17% of South Koreas $1,082 billion GDP. On 17 February 2017, Vice Chairman Lee Jae-yong was arrested for bribery, embezzlement, hiding assets overseas, according to Samsungs founder, the meaning of the Korean hanja word Samsung is tri-star or three stars. The word three represents something big, numerous and powerful, in 1938, Lee Byung-chull of a large landowning family in the Uiryeong county moved to nearby Daegu city and founded Samsung Sanghoe. Samsung started out as a trading company with forty employees located in Su-dong. It dealt in dried-fish, locally-grown groceries and made noodles, the company prospered and Lee moved its head office to Seoul in 1947. When the Korean War broke out, he was forced to leave Seoul and he started a sugar refinery in Busan named Cheil Jedang. In 1954, Lee founded Cheil Mojik and built the plant in Chimsan-dong and it was the largest woollen mill ever in the country. Samsung diversified into different areas. Lee sought to establish Samsung as leader in a range of industries. Samsung moved into lines of such as insurance, securities. President Park Chung Hee placed great importance on industrialization and he focused his economic development strategy on a handful of large domestic conglomerates, protecting them from competition and assisting them financially. In 1947, Cho Hong-jai, the Hyosung groups founder, jointly invested in a new company called Samsung Mulsan Gongsa, or the Samsung Trading Corporation, the trading firm grew to become the present-day Samsung C&T Corporation
3. Samsung Galaxy S II – The Samsung Galaxy S II is a touchscreen-enabled, slate-format Android smartphone designed, developed, and marketed by Samsung Electronics. It has additional features, expanded hardware, and a redesigned physique compared to its predecessor. The S II was launched with Android 2.3 Gingerbread, Samsung unveiled the S II on February 13,2011 at the Mobile World Congress in Barcelona. It was one of the slimmest smartphones of the time, mostly 8.49 mm thick, the user-replaceable battery gives up to ten hours of heavy usage, or two days of lighter usage. According to Samsung, the Galaxy S II is capable of providing 9 hours of time on 3G and 18.3 hours on 2G. The Galaxy S II was succeeded by the Samsung Galaxy S III in May 2012, the Galaxy S II was given worldwide release dates starting from May 2011, by more than 140 vendors in some 120 countries. On May 9,2011, Samsung announced that they had received pre-orders for 3 million Galaxy S II units globally, some time after the devices release, Samsung also released a variation of the phone known as the Galaxy R, which uses a Nvidia Tegra 2 chipset. Samsung also reportedly shipped free Galaxy S IIs to several developers of the custom Android distribution CyanogenMod, MKV, FLV, for H.264 playback, the device natively supports 8-bit encodes along with up to 1080p HD video playback. The Galaxy S II has a 1.2 GHz dual core ARM Cortex-A9 processor that uses Samsungs own Exynos 4210 System on a chip that was previously code-named Orion. The Exynos branded SoC was the source of speculation concerning another branded successor to the previous Hummingbird single-core SoC of the Samsung Galaxy S. The Exynos 4 Dual 45 nm uses ARMs Mali-400 MP GPU and this graphics GPU, supplied by ARM, is a move away from the PowerVR GPU of the Samsung Galaxy S. The Exynos 4210 supports ARMs SIMD engine, and may give a significant performance advantage in performance situations such as accelerated decoding for many multimedia codecs. The Mali 400 GPU in the Exynos 4210 SOC is one of the only, if not the only GPU powering Android devices, the newer Galaxy S II, based on the PowerVR SGX540, does not exhibit the issue. At the 2011 Game Developers Conference ARMs representatives demonstrated 60 Hz framerate playback in stereoscopic 3D running on the same Mali-400 MP and they said that an increased framerate of 70 Hz would be possible through the use of an HDMI1.4 port. A newer Samsung Galaxy S II uses a 1.2 GHz dual core TI OMAP4430 processor with PowerVR SGX540 graphics, the Galaxy S II has 1 GB of dedicated RAM and 16 GB of internal mass storage. Within the battery compartment there is an external microSD card slot capable of recognizing and utilizing a 64 GB microSDXC card, the Samsung Galaxy S II uses a 108. 5-millimetre WVGA Super AMOLED Plus capacitive touchscreen that is covered by Gorilla Glass with an oleophobic fingerprint-resistant coating. This translates to grain reduction and sharper images and text, in addition, Samsung has claimed that Super AMOLED Plus displays are 18% more power efficient than the older Super AMOLED displays. Some phones have display issues, with a few users reporting a yellow tint on the bottom edge of the display when a neutral grey background is displayed
4. Shutter speed – The amount of light that reaches the film or image sensor is proportional to the exposure time. 1/500th of a second will let half as much light in as 1/250th, the cameras shutter speed, the lenss aperture, and the scenes luminance together determine the amount of light that reaches the film or sensor. Exposure value is a quantity that accounts for the shutter speed and this will achieve a good exposure when all the details of the scene are legible on the photograph. Too much light let into the results in an overly pale image while too little light will result in an overly dark image. Multiple combinations of speed and f-number can give the same exposure value. According to exposure value formula, doubling the exposure time doubles the amount of light, for example, f/8 lets 4 times more light into the camera as f/16 does. In addition to its effect on exposure, the speed changes the way movement appears in photographs. Very short shutter speeds can be used to freeze fast-moving subjects, very long shutter speeds are used to intentionally blur a moving subject for effect. Short exposure times are called fast, and long exposure times slow. Adjustments to the aperture need to be compensated by changes of the speed to keep the same exposure. The agreed standards for shutter speeds are, With this scale, camera shutters often include one or two other settings for making very long exposures, B keeps the shutter open as long as the shutter release is held. T keeps the open until the shutter release is pressed again. The ability of the photographer to take images without noticeable blurring by camera movement is an important parameter in the choice of the slowest possible speed for a handheld camera. Through practice and special techniques such as bracing the camera, arms, or body to minimize movement, using a monopod or a tripod. If a shutter speed is too slow for hand holding, a support, usually a tripod. Image stabilization on digital cameras or lenses can often permit the use of shutter speeds 3–4 stops slower, Shutter priority refers to a shooting mode used in cameras. It allows the photographer to choose a shutter speed setting and allow the camera to decide the correct aperture and this is sometimes referred to as Shutter Speed Priority Auto Exposure, or TV mode, S mode on Nikons and most other brands. Shutter speed is one of methods used to control the amount of light recorded by the cameras digital sensor or film
5. F-number – The f-number of an optical system such as a camera lens is the ratio of the systems focal length to the diameter of the entrance pupil. It is a number that is a quantitative measure of lens speed. It is also known as the ratio, f-ratio, f-stop. The f-number is commonly indicated using a hooked f with the format f/N, the f-number N or f# is given by, N = f D where f is the focal length, and D is the diameter of the entrance pupil. It is customary to write f-numbers preceded by f/, which forms a mathematical expression of the pupil diameter in terms of f and N. Ignoring differences in light transmission efficiency, a lens with a greater f-number projects darker images, the brightness of the projected image relative to the brightness of the scene in the lenss field of view decreases with the square of the f-number. Doubling the f-number decreases the brightness by a factor of four. To maintain the same photographic exposure when doubling the f-number, the time would need to be four times as long. Most lenses have a diaphragm, which changes the size of the aperture stop. The entrance pupil diameter is not necessarily equal to the aperture stop diameter, a 100 mm focal length f/4 lens has an entrance pupil diameter of 25 mm. A200 mm focal length f/4 lens has a pupil diameter of 50 mm. The 200 mm lenss entrance pupil has four times the area of the 100 mm lenss entrance pupil, a T-stop is an f-number adjusted to account for light transmission efficiency. The word stop is sometimes confusing due to its multiple meanings, a stop can be a physical object, an opaque part of an optical system that blocks certain rays. In photography, stops are also a used to quantify ratios of light or exposure. The one-stop unit is known as the EV unit. On a camera, the setting is traditionally adjusted in discrete steps. Each stop is marked with its corresponding f-number, and represents a halving of the light intensity from the previous stop. This corresponds to a decrease of the pupil and aperture diameters by a factor of 1/2 or about 0.7071, each element in the sequence is one stop lower than the element to its left, and one stop higher than the element to its right
6. Film speed – Film speed is the measure of a photographic films sensitivity to light, determined by sensitometry and measured on various numerical scales, the most recent being the ISO system. A closely related ISO system is used to measure the sensitivity of digital imaging systems, highly sensitive films are correspondingly termed fast films. In both digital and film photography, the reduction of exposure corresponding to use of higher sensitivities generally leads to reduced image quality, in short, the higher the sensitivity, the grainier the image will be. Ultimately sensitivity is limited by the efficiency of the film or sensor. The speed of the emulsion was then expressed in degrees Warnerke corresponding with the last number visible on the plate after development. Each number represented an increase of 1/3 in speed, typical speeds were between 10° and 25° Warnerke at the time. The concept, however, was built upon in 1900 by Henry Chapman Jones in the development of his plate tester. In their system, speed numbers were inversely proportional to the exposure required, for example, an emulsion rated at 250 H&D would require ten times the exposure of an emulsion rated at 2500 H&D. The methods to determine the sensitivity were later modified in 1925, the H&D system was officially accepted as a standard in the former Soviet Union from 1928 until September 1951, when it was superseded by GOST 2817-50. The Scheinergrade system was devised by the German astronomer Julius Scheiner in 1894 originally as a method of comparing the speeds of plates used for astronomical photography, Scheiners system rated the speed of a plate by the least exposure to produce a visible darkening upon development. ≈2 The system was extended to cover larger ranges and some of its practical shortcomings were addressed by the Austrian scientist Josef Maria Eder. Scheiners system was abandoned in Germany, when the standardized DIN system was introduced in 1934. In various forms, it continued to be in use in other countries for some time. The DIN system, officially DIN standard 4512 by Deutsches Institut für Normung, was published in January 1934, International Congress of Photography held in Dresden from August 3 to 8,1931. The DIN system was inspired by Scheiners system, but the sensitivities were represented as the base 10 logarithm of the sensitivity multiplied by 10, similar to decibels. Thus an increase of 20° represented an increase in sensitivity. ≈3 /10 As in the Scheiner system, speeds were expressed in degrees, originally the sensitivity was written as a fraction with tenths, where the resultant value 1.8 represented the relative base 10 logarithm of the speed. Tenths were later abandoned with DIN4512, 1957-11, and the example above would be written as 18° DIN, the degree symbol was finally dropped with DIN4512, 1961-10
7. Focal length – The focal length of an optical system is a measure of how strongly the system converges or diverges light. For an optical system in air, it is the distance over which initially collimated rays are brought to a focus. A system with a focal length has greater optical power than one with a long focal length. For a thin lens in air, the length is the distance from the center of the lens to the principal foci of the lens. For a converging lens, the length is positive, and is the distance at which a beam of collimated light will be focused to a single spot. For a diverging lens, the length is negative, and is the distance to the point from which a collimated beam appears to be diverging after passing through the lens. The focal length of a lens can be easily measured by using it to form an image of a distant light source on a screen. The lens is moved until an image is formed on the screen. In this case 1/u is negligible, and the length is then given by f ≈ v. Back focal length or back focal distance is the distance from the vertex of the last optical surface of the system to the focal point. For an optical system in air, the focal length gives the distance from the front. If the surrounding medium is not air, then the distance is multiplied by the index of the medium. Some authors call these distances the front/rear focal lengths, distinguishing them from the front/rear focal distances, defined above. In general, the length or EFL is the value that describes the ability of the optical system to focus light. The other parameters are used in determining where an image will be formed for an object position. The quantity 1/f is also known as the power of the lens. The corresponding front focal distance is, FFD = f, in the sign convention used here, the value of R1 will be positive if the first lens surface is convex, and negative if it is concave. The value of R2 is negative if the surface is convex
8. Windows Photo Viewer – Windows Photo Viewer is an image viewer included with Windows NT family of operating system. It was first included with Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 under its former name and it was temporarily replaced with Windows Photo Gallery in Windows Vista, but has been reinstated in Windows 7. This program succeeds Imaging for Windows, in Windows 10, it is deprecated in favor of a Windows Store app called Photos, although it can be brought back with a registry tweak. Windows Photo Viewer supports images in BMP, JPEG, JPEG XR, PNG, ICO, GIF, compared to Windows Picture and Fax Viewer, changes have been made to the graphical user interface in Windows Photo Viewer. Whereas Windows Picture and Fax Viewer uses GDI+, Windows Photo Viewer uses Windows Imaging Component, although GIF files are supported in Windows Photo Viewer, whereas Windows Picture and Fax Viewer displays animated GIFs, Windows Photo Viewer only displays the first frame. Windows Picture and Fax Viewer was also capable of viewing multi-page TIFF files, Windows Photo Viewer, on the other hand, has added support for JPEG XR file format and ICC profiles. Imaging for Windows Comparison of image viewers Official website Windows Picture and Fax Viewer overview Windows Picture and Fax Viewer Overview at the Wayback Machine
9. Exif – It is not used in JPEG2000, PNG, or GIF. This standard consists of the Exif image file specification and the Exif audio file specification, the Japan Electronic Industries Development Association produced the initial definition of Exif. Version 2.1 of the specification is dated 12 June 1998, JEITA established Exif version 2.2, dated 20 February 2002 and released in April 2002. Version 2.21 is dated 11 July 2003, but was released in September 2003 following the release of DCF2.0, the latest, version 2.3, released on 26 April 2010 and revised in May 2013, was jointly formulated by JEITA and CIPA. Exif is supported by almost all camera manufacturers, the metadata tags defined in the Exif standard cover a broad spectrum, Date and time information. Digital cameras will record the current date and time and save this in the metadata, a thumbnail for previewing the picture on the cameras LCD screen, in file managers, or in photo manipulation software. The Exif tag structure is borrowed from TIFF files, on several image specific properties, there is a large overlap between the tags defined in the TIFF, Exif, TIFF/EP, and DCF standards. For descriptive metadata, there is an overlap between Exif, IPTC Information Interchange Model and XMP info, which also can be embedded in a JPEG file, the Metadata Working Group has guidelines on mapping tags between these standards. When Exif is employed for JPEG files, the Exif data are stored in one of JPEGs defined utility Application Segments, the APP1, when Exif is employed in TIFF files, the TIFF Private Tag 0x8769 defines a sub-Image File Directory that holds the Exif specified TIFF Tags. Formats specified in Exif standard are defined as structures that are based on Exif-JPEG. When these formats are used as Exif/DCF files together with the DCF specification, their scope shall cover devices, recording media, the Exif format has standard tags for location information. As of 2014 many cameras and most mobile phones have a built-in GPS receiver that stores the information in the Exif header when a picture is taken. Some other cameras have a separate GPS receiver that fits into the connector or hot shoe. The process of adding information to a photograph is known as geotagging. Photo-sharing communities like Panoramio, locr or Flickr equally allow their users to upload geocoded pictures or to add geolocation information online, Exif data are embedded within the image file itself. While many recent image manipulation programs recognize and preserve Exif data when writing to a modified image, many image gallery programs also recognise Exif data and optionally display it alongside the images. The Exif format has a number of drawbacks, mostly relating to its use of file structures. For this reason most image editors damage or remove the Exif metadata to some extent upon saving, the standard defines a MakerNote tag, which allows camera manufacturers to place any custom format metadata in the file