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RELATED RESEARCH TOPICS

1.
Deflection (engineering)
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In engineering, deflection is the degree to which a structural element is displaced under a load. It may refer to an angle or a distance, Deflection can be calculated by standard formula, or by methods such as virtual work, direct integration, Castiglianos method, Macaulays method or the direct stiffness method, amongst others. The deflection of beam elements is calculated on the basis of the Euler–Bernoulli beam equation while that of a plate or shell element is calculated using plate or shell theory. An example of the use of deflection in this context is in building construction, architects and engineers select materials for various applications. The beams used for work are selected on the basis of deflection. Beams can vary greatly in their geometry and composition, for instance, a beam may be straight or curved. It may be of constant cross section, or it may taper and it may be made entirely of the same material, or it may be composed of different materials. Some of these things make analysis difficult, but many engineering applications involve cases that are not so complicated. Analysis is simplified if, -The beam is straight. A number of examples are shown below. The formulas expressed are approximations developed for long, slender, homogeneous, prismatic beams with small deflections, under these restrictions, the approximations should give results within 5% of the actual deflection. Cantilever beams have one end fixed, so that the slope, most calculations will be made in SI or US customary units, although there are many other systems of units. For example, sometimes the kilogram force unit is used to measure loads, in such a case, the modulus of elasticity must be converted to k g f m 2. Building codes determine the deflection, usually as a fraction of the span e. g. 1/400 or 1/600. Either the strength limit state or the serviceability limit state may govern the minimum dimensions of the member required, the deflection must be considered for the purpose of the structure. When designing a frame to hold a glazed panel, one allows only minimal deflection to prevent fracture of the glass. The deflected shape of a beam can be represented by the moment diagram, slope deflection method Deflection & stress of beams Calculators Deflection of beams Online Calculator for Deflection and slope of beams Beam Deflections

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